[from History of IoM, 1900]
WITH the accession of the Stanleys to the throne there begins a better epoch in Manx history; than that which preceded it. This is due to the circumstance that, though the island's new ruler rarely visited its shores, they placed it under responsible governors, who, in the main, seem to hav treated the little kingdom with justice, since it soon began to recover from the state of poverty and neglect into which it had fallen after the cessation of Scandinavian rule.
Sir John Stanley, K.G. (b. 1350? d. 1414), 1 the first of the Stanley family who ruled in Man, does not seem to have visited the island. Sir John, who in his youth had served in Aquitaine, held important posts in Ireland between 1386 and 1391, and on the Welsh and Scottish borders. We have already seen 2 how his services to Henry IV. in 1405 were rewarded. In 1409, he was made Constable of Windsor, and Henry V. sent him, in 1413, to govern Ireland, where he died in the following year. His eldest son, John (d. 1432?),3 by Isabel, daughter of Sir Thomas Latham, visited Man in his father's lifetime, when the " Barrons of Man " and the " worthiest Men and Commons " did " faith and fealtie " to him as " Heyre Apparent."4
After his accession, he again visited the island in 1417, on account of a serious rising against his lieutenant-governor, John Letherland. This he promptly repressed, having received the Tynwald Court's decision that those who had risen against him were legally liable to be " drawne, and hanged, and quartered," 5 seeing that the lieutenant " represents the King's Person." 5 He then appointed Thurstan de Tyldesley and Roger Haysnap as his commissioners to settle the affairs of the isle, and departed.
It does not seem, however, that he succeeded in contenting the people, since, in the summer of 1422, they attempted to kill Governor John Walton while he was sitting in court at Kirk Michael. Hearing of this, Sir John again came to the island and summoned a special Tynwald Court of all the " Tennants and Commons of Man " 6 to meet him at the hill of Reneurling, close by the scene of the recent disturbance.
At this court, which was held on the 22nd of August, the culprits were sentenced to death " without quest," but such as submitted to the lord's grace were pardoned Fealty was then done by the bishop and other spiritual barons, and the laws were confirmed by " Sir John Stanley, by the Grace of God, King of Mann and the Isles, and by the rest of the Commons of the Isle of Mann." 7
On the 24th of March, 1423,8 he summoned his deemsters and the twenty-four keys to Castle Rushen for the purpose of obtaining from then information about the constitution and of consulting them on various important legal points which he laid before them.9
The next recorded event in Man was in 1429 when " a Court of all the Commons of Mann " wa held at Tynwald under the presidency of Henry Byron, lieutenant-governor. At this court trial by battle was abolished,10 it being arranged that such questions as were formerly settled in this way were to be "determined by God and the Countrey," or, in other words, by a jury. It was also decided that no man's goods were to be taken except by process of law and that a husband was liable for a wife's debts. At the same time, uniformity of weights and measures was established. Sir John Stanley 11 may be justly considered an enlightened and upright ruler.
He caused the ancient laws and constitutions to be reduced to writing, he humbled the overbearing ecclesiastical authorities, 12 and, after he had practically concentrated all power into his own hands, he seems to have conceded a representative form of government. "His laws," says Walpole, " afford evidence that he was both wise and bold, and that he left an enduring mark on the island of which he was the autocratic sovereign." 13
He was succeeded by his son, Thomas 14 (b. 1406 ? d . 1459), who, in the year in which his father died, was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland for six years. During the first year of his rule there, he called together a parliament for the redress of grievances; but, soon afterwards, he was summoned to England by the king. The state of disorder which arose during his absence led to his return to Ireland in 1435, when he successfully suppressed a serious revolt. In 1441, he was appointed one of the " Lieutenant Justices " of Chester. From 1446 to 1455, he represented Lancashire in Parliament, and by March, 1447, he became Comptroller of the royal household. In 1448, he was one of the commissioners for the negotiation of a truce with Scotland, and, when it was concluded, he became one of its conservators. He also served on a commission for the custody and defence of the town and castle of Calais from 1450 to 1455. During the year 1451 he held the office of sole judge of Chester, and, it 1452, he was commissioned to treat for a new truce with Scotland. In 1456, he was summoned to the House of Peers as Baron Stanley, and was made lord chamberlain and a privy councillor. In the following year he was appointed one of the Council of Edward, Prince of Wales, and was elected Knight of the Garter. According to the family; historian, "he was brave in the field, wise in the Senate, just to his Prince, an honour to his country and an ornament to his family." 15 There is no record of his having visited the island.
Thomas II. (b. 1435? d. 1504), his son,16 who had been one of Henry VI.'s esquires in 1454, took, a first, an ambiguous attitude in regard to the rival parties of York and Lancaster. He was, nevertheless, made chief justice of Chester and :Fflint on the accession of Edward IV. in 1461.17 In 1471, we find him besieging Hornby Castle on behalf of the Lancastrians, and yet, after Warwick's defeat and death, Edward made him steward of his household and a privy councillor. He joined in the king's French expedition of 1475, and held a high command in Gloucester's invasion of Scotland seven years later. After Edward's death, Stanley remained loyal to his son, Edward V. When Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who was plotting to supplant his nephew (Edward V.) on the throne, saw that Lord Stanley would be one of the chief obstacles in his way, he caused him to be arrested on a charge of treason; but, as soon as he had succeeded in ascending the throne, he decided that his best policy would be, if possible, to purchase Lord Stanley's allegiance, which he endeavoured to accomplish by making him Constable of England for life and conferring upon him the Order of the Garter. It is well known that this scheme failed, and that Lord Stanley took no part in the battle of Bosworth, though he had 5,000 men under his command on the field. After it, he placed the dead Richard's crown on the victor's head,18 and proclaimed him king as Henry VII. The new king, who was Stanley's stepson, created him Earl of Derby, and constituted him one of the lords commissioners for executing the office of lord high steward at his coronation. In 1486, he was made Constable of England for life. and received a number of lucrative positions. In 1487, he was one of the godfathers of Prince Arthur, Henry VII.'s eldest son. He took a prominent part in arranging the treaty of Etaples, between England and France, in 1492. It is said that he used his wealth nobly, both in relieving the burdens of his people and in promoting public works, such as the bridges at Garstang and Warrington, for their welfare. He was the builder of Latham House, which became famous through its defence by the seventh earl's noble consort one hundred and fifty years later. There is no record of his having visited the island.
Thomas III.19 (d. 1521) succeeded his grandfather in 1504, his father having died in 1497. In 1505 he granted to Bishop Huan Hesketh " all churches lands, tithes, and possessions " 20 which had beer " given, conceded, and confirmed to the Bishopric and Church of Sodor" 20 by his ancestors. From the Traditionary Ballad, which was, partly at least written by a contemporary of the second earl's, we learn that he ravaged Kirkcudbrightshire,21 after which he landed at Ronaldsway in May, 1507 " and ended a public tumult." We are not, however, told what this " tumult " was, or how it originated. The ballad gives an enthusiastic description of the magnificence of his household and the number of his retinue, mentioning as a characteristic fact that "he wore the golden crupper." In 1508, he was one of the guarantors for the performance of a treaty of marriage between Princess Mary, daughter of King Henry VII., and Charles, Prince of Spain. He was a confidant of King Henry VIII., whom he attended in his expedition into France in 1513, being present at the battle of Spurs. When the Emperor Charles V. met Henry VIII. at Canterbury in 1520, he rode between the two monarchs holding the sword of state. He was one of the peers who presided at the trial of the Duke of Buckingham in 1521, and died just after its conclusion.
From a letter of James, the seventh earl, written just before his execution, to his son, Lord Strange, it would appear that Thomas had relinquished the title of " King of Mann," 22 and assumed that of " Lord of Mann," because he thought the title of a " great Lord " was more honourable than that of a " petty King," but it seems more probable that he simply resigned his higher title, either by order of the King of England, or from a politic desire not to give him any cause of offence.
Edward (b. 1508. d. 1572). his son. 23 succeeded him, but, as he was only thirteen years old, his affairs were managed by commissioners, of whom Cardinal Wolsey was one, the governor and other civil authorities in Man being continued in office until he attained his majority. In 1528, he attended the cardinal on an embassy to France; and, in 1530, he was one of the peers who subscribed the declaration to Pope Clement VII. that, if he refused to confirm the divorce of Queen Catherine, his supremacy in England would be endangered. In 1532, he issued a commission to inquire into the exactions which the people of Man alleged were practised by the clergy under the guise of mortuaries or corpse-presents.24 In the same year he was present with Henry VIII. at his interview with Francis I. at Boulogne, and, in 1533, he was made a Knight of the Bath. He took a prominent part in suppressing the northern rebellion in 1536 and 1537. In 1542, he accompanied Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, on his raid into Scotland. On the accession of Edward VI. in 1547, he received the Garter; and, in 1550, he was one of the peers who were parties to the articles of peace with the Scottish and French. In June, 1551, it was reported that he had been commanded to renounce his title to the Isle of Man and that he had refused,25 being prepared to resist by force. It is not known what truth there is in this, but, if any action was intended to have been taken against him, it was probably on account of his strong opposition to all religious changes. For the same reason, he would have been in high favour on the accession of Queen Mary. He was then appointed lord High Steward of England and a member of the Privy Council. He was a commissioner for the trial of Lady Jane Grey and others, and, during Mary's reign, he frequently took part in the proceedings against heretics. He contrived to secure the favourable opinion of Queen Elizabeth, being one of those summoned to meet her on her entry into London. She retained him as a privy councillor and, in 1559, she appointed him chamberlain of Chester, &c. In 1561, he appointed five commissioners to examine into and establish regulations for preventing the " great Waste that hathe been made in the Castle, and in the Peele, in bread, fuell, candles, and other things," 26 and to fix the fees of certain officers and the amount of fines and amercements due to the Lord of the Isle for infringement of the laws. He was one of the wealthiest noblemen of his day, and his household was kept up in the most princely style. His establishment consisted of 140 persons, and was but little inferior to that of the Court. The House of Stanley was, in fact, the head of a great feudal clan in Lancashire and Cheshire, and most of the families in those counties were either directly or indirectly dependent on it. The eldest sons of the highest of these families deemed it an honourable distinction to wait upon him at table and to wear his livery. The chronicler Stow, as quoted by the seventh earl, thus enumerates his virtues and accomplishments:
"His fidelity unto two kings and two queens in dangerous times and great rebellions; in which time (and always as cause served) he was lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire; and lately offered 10,000 men to the queen's majestic, of his own charge for the suppression of the last rebellion.
" His godly disposition to his tenants, never forceing anie service at their hands but due payment of their rent.
" His liberalitie to strangers, and such as showed themselves grateful to him.
"His famous house-keeping; 220 in check-roll; never discontinuing the space of forty-two years.
" His feeding especially of aged persons twice a day, sixty and odd; besides all commers thrice a week, appointed for his dealing-dayes; and everie Good-Fridaie these thirty-five years one with another, 2,700 with meat, drink, money, and moneyworth.
" There never was a gentleman or other who waited in his service but had allowance from him to have as well wages as otherwise for horse and man.
" His yearly portion for the dispence of his house, £4,000.
" His cunning in setting bones disjoynted or broke.
"His delivery of his George and seal to Lord Strange, with exhortation that he might keep it so unspotted in fidelitie to his prince as he had, and his joy that he died in the queen's favor. His joyful [de]parting this world; his taking leave of all his servants by shaking of hands; and his remembrance to the last." 27
His son, Henry 28 (b. 1531, d. 1593), who succeeded him, was also the recipient of high offices from the English Crown. Queen Elizabeth made him a Knight of the Garter in 1574, and, in 1580, he was appointed ambassador extraordinary to confer the insignia of the Order of the Garter on Henry III. of France. In 1577, he visited the island, and presided at a common-law court, and at a Tynwald Court at St. John's, when the bishop did homage for his barony.29 He was also present at a Tynwald Court in 1583, when regulations for salmon and trout fishing were passed. In 1585, he ordered the Deemsters and Keys to declare the law about " Treasure Trove," whereupon they stated that any such treasure was a " Prerogative due unto his Lordship by the Lawes of this Isle." 30 Bishop Meryck gives a pleasant idea of his rule in Man by his statement that the island " is very fortunate in its expenses, . . . for the Earl expends the greater part of his yearly rent in defraying them." 31 In the same year, he became a privy councillor; and, in 1586, he was appointed one of the commissioners to try Mary, Queen of Scots. In 1588, he was made chief commissioner to treat for peace with Spain; and, in 1589, he was appointed lord high steward.
He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,32 Ferdinando (b. 1559, d. 1594), who was ruler of Man for less than seven months. 33 He was a patron and friend of many of the poets of the time, and was himself a writer of verses. By Alice, daughter of Sir John Spencer, of Althorp, Northamptonshire, he had three daughters, between whom, as heirs general, and William, the sixth Earl of Derby and second son of Henry, as heir male, a question arose about the right to the island.
Pending the settlement of this, Queen Ellizabeth, " well knowing that the English and Spanish refugees cast a longing eye on that island,34 took possession of it,35 and, in August, 1595, appointed Sir Thomas Gerard, or Garrett, governor, or captain, as the old title was. In the following year Peter Legh was appointed as substitute for Gerard, who was " nowe otherwise imployed in her Highnes service." 36 This, however, appears to have been a temporary arrangement for Gerard's 37 name occurs in the insular Records till 1606, when John Ireland became Lieutenant. In the meantime, the case between Earl William and his nieces was still undecided, and, in 1607, the island, at the instance of the disputants,38 was, with the exception of certain religious houses and churches, granted by James I. to the Earls of Northampton and Salisbury, who administered it for their benefit 39
Ultimately, in 1609,40 the suit was decided adversely to Earl William, on the ground that, as the grant to Sir John Stanley in 1406 was by letters patent under the (treat Seal of England, the right would descend according to the Common Law of England.41 Accordingly, in the same year, the three daughters of Earl Ferdinando and their husbands, in consideration of money paid to them by him, agreed to an Act of Parliament being passed to extinguish their right, title, and interest. Shortly afterwards the Earls of Northampton and Salisbury surrendered their grant to the King, who made a new lease in favour of the Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, which seems to have expired in 1612.42
In the meantime, by grant of July 7, 1609,43 the island was settled upon Earl William and his countess, Elizabeth de la Vere (I. 1515, d. 1627), conjointly, and their descendants, 44 though their actual rule could not commence till 1612. There is no trace in the insular Records of Earl William having done any act as Lord of the Isle, which, from 1612 to 1627 seems to have been ruled by his countess alone. 45 It is supposed that she died in this year, because James, lord Strange, her son, who is known to have then assumed the government, though his father survived till 1642,46 states that he did so on his mother's death.47
Little is known of the life of the sixth earl. He was governor of the island from 1592 to 1594.48 He was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen :Ellizabeth in 1601; and, in 1603, by patent, Chamberlain of Chester for life, though, by a new patent in 1640, this office was conferred on him and Lord Strange conjointly, and on the survivor of them. In 1607, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire. It does not appear that either he or his countess visited the island during the time that they were Lord and Lady of the Isle. Seacome refers to his " travels, martial exploits and bravery abroad," and to " his great worth and merits . . . as a faithful subject, a wise counsellor, and a brave captain."49
It was during this period that the formation of the surnames peculiar to the Isle of Man, such as Callister, Clucas. Killip, Quilliam, Qualtrough, &c., proceeded. At the accession of the Stanleys nearly all the Manx surnames, whatever their origin, whether purely native, Irish, Scotch-Gaelic, Scandinavian, or Anglo-Norman, had the Celtic prefix Mac, and this was still the case, as regards a large majority of the names, up to 1511, when the earliest manorial roll still in existence was written. But, by 1659, the prefix had, for the most part, either disappeared altogether, or was represented by its final consonant only. Thus, for instance, McKewn had become Kewn, and later Kewin; McQuyn, Quine; MacCorleod, Corlett MacCosten, Costen, and later Costain; MacKillip Killip; MacLucas, Clucas; MacIssack, Kissack MacAlister, Callister; MacAskell, Caskell, and later, Castell; MacRenylt, Crenilt, and, later Crennell; MacWalter, Qualtrough; and MacWilliam Quilliam. There were, however, a few names such as McYlrea, McYlchreest, McYlcarrane, &c., which did not assume their modern forms of Mylrea Mylchreest, and Mylchraine, till about the middle of the eighteenth century. These names and many others,50 usually beginning with the letters C, A, or Q. form a personal nomenclature which is unique and of the greatest interest to the philologist.
It is probable that Queen Elizabeth took the charge of the island at the instance of Earl William, and of Alice, the widow of the late Earl Ferdinand, on behalf of her three infant daughters, seeing that on the same day and from the same place, they issued to the officers in the island the following letters. (Lib. Cancell. 1595).
" After our very harty commendacons: Forasmuch as by the death of Ferdynando the late Erle of Derby, the beloved brother of me the present Erle, and dearest husband of me the Countesse there is some questyon risen to whom the possessor of that Island of Mann in right is descended, whether to me his brother, or to the heires genrall of my husband so deceased, by reason of wch incerteinty the Island hath remayned for a longe tyme unprovyded of a Captained And seeing it hath pleased Her Most Excellent Matie our gracious Sovereigne, to vouchsafe in the meane tyme in regard of hir pryncely care of that Island and people, to spare a servant of her own, St Thomas Garrett, Knight, a gent of good reputacon and experience, and borne neere those partes, to repair thither for the better safetie and government of that place, and hath for that purpose written her owne pryncely letter unto you that have the charge of the Isle: Althoughe we are not so ill advised, is to doubt of your ready and obedient conformitie to Her Maties pleasure, whose authoritie is absolute over us all, yet could we nott forbeare for further demonstracon of our duties and thankefulnes to Her Matie for this great favour, to requyre and charge you by all the interest that any of us or oures either have or can have in yor loves and duties, that you do so conforme yorselves to this gent during his residence amongst you, as that he may neither fynd you backeward or froward in anything wherein he shall advise or direct you for the good of the Isle, nor yet her Matie have cause to repent her of this Her gracious proceeding wth you, for which both we and you are infynitely bounder unto her. And thus referring the rest to her Mattes letters by which you are to be wholly directed, we commit you to God's proteccon. From the Court att Greenwiche the first of August, 1595.
" Yo, very loving and assured friends,
" WILL: DERBY. AL: DERBY.
" To our very loving friendes the Receyvers, Comptroller, Deemsters, and other the Officers in the Island of Mann."
" Elizabeth R: By the Queene.
" Trusty and wellbeloved we greete you well. Forasmuch as synce the death of Randulph Stanley, appoynted Captaine of the Isle of Man by our Cosen Fferdinando, the late Earle of Derby deceassed, the said Isle hath remained without a Captaine, whereby the place is unprovyded of some superior person above the rest, to command such forces as are appointed for the resysting of any sodanne attempt by the enemies, the same place having bone longe shots att, (as by dyvers advrtisements is dayly confirmed): And where in regard of the questyon yet undetermyned betweene the Earle that now is, and the heires generall of his brother yt is uncertaine by wch of them the Capten should be appoynted, We have thought fitt for avoyding any prejudice to that place by such default, to take the care and proteccon of the same untill the matter may be decyded to web of them the right doth appertaine, wch will easylie appear after some convenyent tyme, that an exact perusall may be made of the evidences. We therefore having good experience of the valour and fidelity of this gent our servant Sr Thoms Garrett Knight, and knowing that he is fittest in regard of his habitacon in those partes, upon all occasions to comand any forces or succours, wch might be sent by us at any tyme, in case of extremytie to defend the same; Wee have comanded him to make his speedy repairs to that Island, and there upon conference had with you to consider and putt in execution what is fitt to be done for the better seeuritie of the place, the rather for that Wee are informed that the forces are but meanely provyded, either of necessaries or souldiers of any experyence to defend it with; being fitt in all places of such consequence, specially at these tymes, to be duely reformed, and being that web cloth concerns us in honor and you in yor safeties of lyves and fortunes, We have thought yt our parts to comand you and every of you to be assistants to our said servant, and both to advise with him and to followe his dyreccon, whose experience and discreccon we knowe to be such as he will no way move you to any thinge unnecessarie or inconvenient, neither will in any sort offer to disturbe or inovate the civil government of the contry and people, nor any way seek to wrest their usuall constytucons propper and belonging to the same: but with all love and kyndness there remaine under us as other Captens have done under the former Earles, until the tytle be so determyned, as by the parties to whom the right apperteyneth, some other course may be taken: In consideration whereof, we do assure our. selves of that obedience and conformytie in you and every of you, towards this gent now appoynted Capten, web agreeth wth yor prsent duties, and may confirms yor former love and loyalty to us, for web We ever have esteemed you, and win take no lease regard of your weldoing than those that lyve daylie nearer us, wherein you may approve and comfort yorselves at allt ymes in spyte of any proude or v&in boastes of our enemies, for whose malicious and vaine attempts we have bene ever to their own shame and confusion sufficiently provyded. Given under our Signet at our Manor of Greenwiche the first day of August in the xxxvijth year of our reigne, 1595.
" To our trustie and welbeloved the Receyvers, Comptroller,Demsters, and other the Officers in the Island of Mann."
1 The information about the Stanleys is taken, for the most part, from Seacome, the family historian, and the Dictionary of National Biography.
2 P. 197.
3 This is the date given by Seacome (edition of 1821, p. 41), but the Dict. of Nat. Biog. (quoting Ormerod, ii. 412; and Collins, Ed. Brydges, iii. 54) gives it as 1437.
4 Statutes, vol. i. p. 4
In 1408, some question seems to have arisen with regard to a claim made on behalf of Stephen, " heir of William Lestroppe his brother, formerly Lord of Man," against which the bishop, abbot, and clergy protested, but nothing is known of the result (Add. Chart. Manx Soc., vol. vii. pp. 247-50).
5 Statutes, vol. i. p. 6.
6 Statutes, vol. i. p. 20.
8 " The Vigil of our Lady St. Mary, A D. 1422 " (Ibid., p. 8), i e., the last day of 1422 according to the old reckoning. For the sake of simplicity we have invariably adopted the new reckoning; thus, for instance, calling February, 1421-2, February, 1422.
9 Ibid., pp. 8-20
10 Ibid., p. 22.
11 See constitution, pp. 763-4.
12 See pp. 343-5.
13 The Land of Home Rule, p. 108.
14 By Isabel, daughter of Sir T. Warrington.
15 Seacome, p. 43.
16 By Joan, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Robert Goushill.
17 Edward the IV.'s accession was the signal for the reassertion of the Scroop claim to the Lordship of Man and its arms, and it was not disposed of till 1476, when the King ordered that the " Lord Scrop shall absteyne and forbore the use and weryng of the said armes of th' Erle of Man." (" Foedera," Manx Soc., vol. ix. p. 24).
18 It is not certain whether the crown was placed on Henry's head by Lord Stanley or by his brother, Sir William Stanley.
19 Son of George, the third son of Thomas II., by John, only daughter and heiress of John, Baron Strange of Knocking, in right of whom he had a summons to Parliament as Baron Strange George's mother was Eleanor, daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury.
20 Manx Soc., vol. ix. pp. 27-31 (for whole document).
21 Manx Ballads, pp. 16-19. This expedition is said to have been to retaliate for the incursions of Cutlar MacCulloch, a Galloway rover.
22 Manx Soc., vol. iii. p. 6.
23 By Anne, daughter of Thomas, Lord Hungerford
24 See p. 350.
25 Cal. State Papers, fol. i. pp. 119-20.
26 Statutes, vol. i. pp. 31-7.
27 Manx Soc., vol. iii. p. 21.
28 By Katherine, daughter of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.
29 Lib. Plit.
30 Statutes, vol. i. p. 60
31 " Cott. MS." (Manx Soc., vol. iv. p. 95).
32 By Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry de Clifford Duke of Northumberland.
33 From 25th of September, 1593, to the 16th of April, 1594 It is curious that in the Manx Statute Book he is called the " late earle " in February, 1594; but this may be an error.
34 Camden (Manx Soc., vol. iv. p. 104).
36 Lab. Scacc.
37 There had been some complaint against Gerard's conduct as, in 1605, the Lord Keeper asked the officers and Keys if he had done any unconstitutional act or anything that would not " tende to the good of the Isle, and to the better mainteynance of his Highnesses Royalties," but they answered in the negative (Lib. Scacc.)
38 " S. P. O. Scot." (Manx Soc., vol. ix. pp. 89-90).
39 This appears from a warrant of the grantees in 1608, as to the collection of the revenues of the Isle (Lib. CancelI.). See also Patent Rolls (Ibid,. p. 88).
40 Sir James Gell thinks the case was purposely protracted till 1609, when the youngest of Ferdinando's daughters came of age (Manx Soc., vol. xii. p. 40).
41 It was decided by the Chief Justices and Barons that the above mentioned grant was not legal, because it had been made before the actual attainder of the Earl of Northumberland. But this defect, which was a purely technical one, was not taken advantage of by the Crown (" S. P. O. Scot," Manx Soc., vol. ix. pp. 94-5. For full particulars see Manx Soc., vol xii. pp. 37-53). It would appear, however, from the following letter written by the Earl of Salisbury to one of Ferdinando's daughters, his niece, that the Crown received some compensation for its complaisance: " The king is brought to depart with his title to the Isle of Man, but the judges would have determined for him if we had not compounded for the title for £2,000, the Lord Treasurer being indeed apt to second the king for money in his hands " (Knowsley Muniments, 1716/15).
42 See Lib. Scacc., 1610, and Lab. Cancell., 1611, where their names are mentioned as being interested " in the States of the Isle of Man."
43 " Rot. Litt. Pat." (Manx Soc., vol. ix. pp. 99-113). For confirmation by Act of Parliament, see Ibid., pp. 114-120.
44 It was settled, after the death of the survivor of them, upon Earl William's eldest son, James, Lord Strange and the heirs male of his body; remainder to the second son, Robert Stanley and the heirs male of his body; remainder to the right heirs of James, Lord Strange. It was under this last provision that the Atholls succeeded.
45 With reference to this, Earl James writes, "By certain agreements between her and my father, and, as I take it, ordered by King James . . . that her ladyship should have the full dispose thereof for certain years; " and he speaks of her as appointing a governor (Manx Soc., vol. iii. p. 38). Petitions, &c, were invariably addressed to her during this period, e.g., Lib. Cancell., 1612, "Petition of Roger Marshall"; do. 1616, " Petition of Hugh Cannell "; and Lib. Scacc., 1626, " Petitions of Nichs Thompson."
46 Seacome (p. 99), gives the following extract from a deed by which Earl William assigned his property to his son Lord Strange. It may be looked upon as an act of abdication as to the sovereignty of the island. " Know ye that I, William, Earl of Derby, Lord of Man and the Isles, &c., being lawfully seized of and in my demesnes as of freehold of sundry houses, castles, lands, tenements, and honours, as well in England and Wales as in the Isle of Man, do by this my sufficient deed under my hand and seal, bearing date this eleventh day of August, 1637, grant and surrender to my son James, Lord Stanley and Strange, and his heirs, all my term for life, interest and estate whatsoever, of, in, and unto the same lands, tenements, and hereditaments whereof I was so seized," &c. The date of this instrument, as given by Seacome, 1637, appears to be an error for 1627, since we have proofs that Lord Strange ruled Man in and after that year. See Statutes, vol. i. pp. 83-5; also Lib. Scacc. and Lib. Cancell., 1627.
47 Manx Soc., vol. iii. p. 38.
48 Lib. Scacc., 1593.
49 Seacombe pp 92 and 95
50 For full particulars see Manx Names, pp. 1-116.