[From Feltham's Tour, 1798]
To Wm. Hs., Esq. M.D. Spital Square.
AT length I gratify my wishes, by sending you, in a collected form, the observations I made last summer during my tour through the Island of Man. Mr. Hks, who resided in Ramsay, induced me to accompany him thither; and joining him at Bristol, we proceeded on foot to Liverpool.
Moritz, a German, whose excursion in :England is translated, observes, "That a traveller on foot in England is considered as a sort of wild man, or an out-of-the-way being, who is stared at, pitied, suspected, and shunned, by everybody that meets him."
I have felt the truth of these remarks. On his asking why Englishmen, so fond of acting up to their own notions and ideas, did not now and then, merely to see life in every point of view, travel on foot ? the answer made was, " We are too rich, too lazy, and too proud."
Since this, we have done something to retrieve our characters. I have the happiness of knowing several gentlemen, who take considerable pleasure in walking; and others, whose excursions are before the public.
Mr. Hucks, in his Tour through Wales, 1794, says, "We are so completely metamorphosed, that I much doubt if you would recognise us through our disguise: we carry our clothes, &c in a wallet or knapsack, from which we have not hitherto experienced the slightest inconvenience: as for all ideas of appearance and gentility, they are entirely out of the question our object is to see, not to be seen; and if I thought I had one acquaintance, who would be ashamed of me and my knapsack, seated by the fire-side of an honest Welsh peasant in a country village, I should not only make myself easy on my own account, but should be induced to pity and to despise him for his weakness."
I shall now notice other modes adopted by pedestrians, in long excursions.-The Rev. Mr. Warner (" Walk through Wales," 1798, 8vo.) had a Spencer fitted up with a large sportsman's pocket to carry his linen, &c.; and Mr. C., who accompanied him, had sidepockets annexed to his coat; but neither answered perfectly their wishes.
A party whom they met had taken another way: a handsome leather bag covered with net-work was suspended from the shoulder, and hung under the left arm like a shooting bag, and proved no inelegant addition to the person.
Another party had their portmanteau on a little pony which they kept before them; but this was, it seems, "more plague than profit; " and they soon entered into a treaty for its sale.
It is requisite that a walker Should have about him all his real necessaries; these are but few, a single change of linen, a pocket map, compass, &c. which take but little space, and may be provided for thus:_A small neat bag made with oil-case and lined, about 15 inches every way, made to button deep to prevent rain penetrating, and four buttons to fasten two shoulder-belts, will form a knapsack of small weight and attended with no inconvenience, except the false shame which may arise from its pedlar-like appearance, but which good sense will soon overcome; but to secure you a polite reception and a better bed, you may carry it in your handkerchief through a town This size is large enough for two persons, although it must not be less for one; a light small umbrella would be a desirable addition.
The counties we passed through were, Wilts, Somerset, Gloucester,
Monmouth, :Hereford, Salop, Chester, Lancaster, and, on returning,
Worcestershire. The following were the stages at which only
refreshments were taken, going to and from Liverpool, from whence the
passage was by sea
|Route followed April 1797.|
|From Salisbury to Deptford-Inn||
|Bath (first day)||
|Aust-passage (second day)||
|Tintern (through Piercefield)||
|Pursue the Banks of the Wye to Monmouth (third day)||
|Hope, through Hereford (fourth day)||
|Church-Stretton (fifth day)||
|Cockshutt (sixth day)||
|Overton, on the Dee||
|Chester (seventh day)||
|By canal boat to the Mersey, thence to Liverpool, suppose about||
|From Liverpool, cross to Woodside-ferry, from thence to Eastham||
|Barnhill (first day)||
|Shrewsbury (second day)||
|Bridgnorth (third day)||
|Worcester (fourth day)||
|Gloucester (fifth day)||
|Painswick (sixth day)||
|* Chippenham (seventh day)||
|Druid's-Head, on Salisbury-plain||
|Salisbury (eighth day)||
|Expenses to Liverpool||
£2 8 10
|Expenses on return||
2 14 36
[* At Chippenham there was an intermission of a day, which was spent very agreeably, with an old friend, whose musical abilities do him the greatest credit]
The principal rivers crossed were, the Severn at the Old Passage,
where there is an excellent inn; the Wye at Chepstow, and the Mersey
at Liverpool, where we soon found a vessel ready to sail; the
accommodations were plain; yet agreeable company made the voyage, of
two days and two nights, pleasant.
Another vessel accompanied us, in which was the Lieutenant Governor's Lady; and on a signal being given, the Governor attended on Douglas Quay to conduct her to the castle.
The ruins, churches, houses, gardens, manufactories, and every attractive object in the immediate line of our route, were attentively inspected; but as they were not our principal objects, and are generally well known, I shall not describe them.* The country appeared everywhere rich and beautiful; the face of nature was in its most blooming state, and the golden harvest solicited a smile of gratitude towards the benevolent Author. But to proceed:
"Mona, I sing, the favourite of Heaven;
That happy spot that was of old ordain'd
To be the seat of modern bliss:_where peace
For ever dwells, and fair prosperity
Enthron'd sits smiling on her golden shores:"
A MANKS BARD.
[* These objects formed a few letters to some friends, particularly to John Payne Bovet, Esq. Taunton, and W. Buller, Esq. Wilton.]
THE ISLAND OF MAN
Is centrically situated between Great Britain and Ireland; the middle is 54 deg. 46 min. north latitude; it is about 30 miles long, and 10 broad in the widest part. Its extreme points running narrow, we may state it to be about 70 miles in circumference, and its contents 220 square miles. Five twelfths are heathy mountain and moorish ground; the remainder, arable, pasture, and meadow land.
It is divided into six manors; his Grace the Duke of Athol is lord of two of these.
Its bearing and distance from particular points is as follows: From the Calf to the hill of Howth, S.W. ½ W. 54 miles. To the Skerries light, S. by E 35 miles. To Carlingford, W. ½ S.45 miles. To Strangford, N.W. by W. ¼, 27 miles. From Peele to the Copeland lights, N.W. ¼ N. 35 miles. To the Mull *1 of Galloway, N. by W. ¼ W. 25 miles. From the point of Ayre to the Mull of Galloway, N.W. by W. 22 miles. From ditto to St. Bees' lighthouse, E. by N. 29 miles. From Maughold Head to St. Bees' light house, E.N.E. ½ N. 30 miles. From Douglas to the N.W. buoy at Liverpool S.E ¼ S. 60 miles. The courses taken by Mr. Fanning from the true meridian, and the distances nautical miles; the variation of the compass upon a mean 2¼ points.
The oldest map of the Island is by Thomas Durham, in 1590,from which Speed copied his; the map by Mr. Fanning is the last that has been made, and this is esteemed, particularly for its nautical correctness.
The name of Man is supposed to refer to its situation as to the surrounding kingdoms, from the Saxon wording, signifying among; others suppose the word to originate from Maune, the name of St. Patrick, the apostle of the island, before he assumed that of Patricius. By Caesar it is called Mona *2;by the inhabitants Manning; and by people in general Man.
Its ancient bearing was a ship; but the arms are now, and have been for centuries, Gules, three armed legs proper, or rather urgent, conjoined in fess, at the upper part of the thigh, fleshed in triangle, garnished and spurred topaz. So long as the King of Man wrote Rea Mannia' et Insulation, they bore the ship;but when the Scots had possession, with the Western islands, the legs were substituted. It is said of the three legs, that with the toe of the one they spurn at Ireland, with the spur of the other they kick at Scotland, and with the third they bow to England.
It is supposed that the first inhabitants were British; and that they were succeeded by the Druids until the fourth century, when (Christianity was introduced into this island.
In the tenth century, lying Orry subdued the Orcades and Hebrides, and seated himself on the throne. And he was succeeded in the following order:
Orry, tenth century: the first king.
Guttred, his son. He erected Castle-Rushen, and is buried
Reginald, a bad prince. He died by assassination.
Olave, executed as an usurper by the King of Denmark.
Olain, his brother, who died in Ireland.
Allen, a bad character_poisoned by the governor.
Macon, a gallant prince, deprived, but restored again with honour by the British Monarch.
Godred, the reigning prince in the eleventh century.
Fingal, his son, slain in battle near Ramsay.
Godred Crovan, the Norwegian conqueror.
Lagman, 1082, his son; who, having murdered his brother,resigned the crown for a cross, and died in his pilgrimage at Jerusalem.
Mac Marus, or Mac Manis, 1089, during Olave's minority,third son of the conqueror: He founded Rushen Abbey.
Magnus, King of Norway, six years.
Wave, 1102, a good prince, slain with a battle-axe by Reginald his nephew, near Ramsay, previous to a general battle.
Godred, 1143, Olave's son, who revenged his father's fate by the death of Reginald. Elected King of Leinster also for his virtues.
Summerled, 1158, Thane of Argyle, and brother-in-law to Godred, conquered and usurped the crown. Reginald also after him; but Godred subdued, and died king in 1187.
Olave, son of Godred, dethroned and banished by Reginald his illegitimate elder brother; but after various hardships was restored. Reginald invaded the kingdom, and was slain in battle near the Tynwald. Olave died at Peele Castle in 1237. Henry III. of England granted him, in 1236, 40 marks, 100 quarters of corn, and five tons of wine, annually, to defend the sea-coast.
Harold, who perished by sea, on the coast of Redland, in returning from Norway.
Reginald, 1249, his brother, assassinated; like John of England, he submitted to the Pope. This surrender was done at London, at the house of the Knights Templars. John and Henry III. both espoused Reginald.
Magnus, his brother, last of the Norwegian line, who died 1265, and was buried in the Abbey-church of Rushen.
N.B. The monks of Rushen Abbey wrote the history of Man as far as the Scottish conquest. (See Gough's new edit. of Camden.)
Alexander III. conquered the island, and governed it by his Thanes. Then Maurice Okerfair, and others.
Sir William Montacute, crowned 1344 by order of Edward III. who
had entailed him to conquer it. His pretensions were having married a
descendant of Godred Crovan._"This Earl William was descended from
Drogo, a branch of the royal house of Man, and his father marrying
the widow of Olanus, King of Man, the royalty devolved to him, but it
was then in the hands of the Scots; however, the earl bravely drove
them out, and recovered the seigniory and crown of it from Edward
III. and by his approbation was called King of Man." Antiq.
Sarisburiensis, 8vo. Easton, 1771.
Antony Beck, Bishop of Durham; a short time, when it returned to Montacute, now Earl of Salisbury, who sold it to
Sir William Scroope, who was beheaded.
Percy, Earl of Northumberland; granted by Henry IV., who deprived him again.
Sir John Stanley; 6th Henry IV.; and his heirs and successors.
Sir John Stanley, his son, in 1414.
1441. Thomas, his son, created Baron Stanley by Henry VI.
1460. Thomas, Earl of Derby, (created by Henry VII.) his son.
1504. Thomas, his grandson, second Earl of Derby; who resigned the regal title
From hence then we must denominate them princes, as the regal title was never resumed by any of his successors, though their power and dignity remained undiminished.
1521. Edward, son of Thomas, second Earl of Derby; in whose time
the bishopric was, by In act of the British Parliament, rendered
subject to the see of York, though formerly united to Canterbury.
1592. Henry, his son.
Ferdinand, his son; poisoned by a servant in 1594.
William, a younger brother, who being abroad,
Sir Thomas Gerrard was appointed governor by Queen Elizabeth.- James I. gave William a new grant of the island,equally liberal with that of Henry IV.; which was confirmed by an Act of Parliament.
1642. James, seventh Earl of Derby, his son. Be lost his head by supporting Charles I.; for which Charles IL proved afterwards highly ungrateful The island was besieged by the parliamentary forces, under Colonels Birch and Duckenfield, and surrendered.
Lord Fairfax, in 1652, to whom it was granted by Parliament;but on the Restoration, the Derby family were reinstated in all their rights.
Charles, son of the nobleman who suffered at Bolton, was the first lord after the Restoration; he died in 1672.
William, his eldest son; died in 1702.
James, the younger son, now succeeded the tenth Earl of Derby. He ascertained, and confirmed to the Manks, their tenures, which were before very injurious to themselves and involved in intricacy; this was termed the Act of Settlement, passed in 1703, and considerably augmented the happiness and prosperity of the island. He died without issue in 1735.
The last lord having no issue, the Kingdom of Man devolved on
James, second Duke of Athol who was descended from Lady Mary Sophia,
youngest daughter of the seventh Earl of Derby, and wife of his
grandfather John Marquis of Athol During his reign illicit commerce
gained a great footing in his dominions. Government, alarmed at the
diminution of its revenue, made attempts to purchase the island, but
they were evaded. James died in 1764.
John his nephew, third Duke of Athol, succeeded; he married in 1753 Lady Charlotte, second daughter of James second Duke of Athol, the present Duchess Dowager. His grace died in 1774. Government still renewing overtures of purchase, he agreed to resign his kingdom in 1765 for seventy thousand pounds, which has been thought a sum by no means adequate for the advantages gained by the British Government, or for the injury done to his posterity by its alienation from the family. The act annexing it to the British crown is termed the "Re-vesting Act." Since which Parliament has granted an annuity of 2,000l. per annum on the lives of the duke and duchess, by way of additional compensation.
The Kings of England always claimed sovereignty as lords paramount, but they interfered not with its government. The prince's power was ample; he coined money, punished or pardoned delinquents, &c. &c.
John, the present Duke of Athol his eldest son, was born in 1755; and in 1774 married Jane, daughter of Charles SchawCathcart, Lord Cathcart; by whom he has four sons1. John Marquis of Tullibardin, born June 1778; 2. Lord James; 3.Lord Edward; 4. Lord Robert. Daughters1. Lady Charlotte; Lady Mary Louisa, who died an infant; 3. Lady Mary Sophia*3 In 1785 his grace was created an English Peer, by the title of Baron Murray, of Stanley in Gloucestershire, and Earl Strange to his heirs male.* 4 He is one of His Majesty's Privy Council, and governor of the island.
By an Act of 33rd Henry VIII. the bishopric is declared in the province of York; during the Norwegian conquest it was under the metropolitan of Drontheim. The bishoprics of Sodor and Man were united, and continued until conquered by the English, since which the Bishop of Man keeps his title, and the Scotch bishop styles himself, "Bishop of the Isles," anciently Episcopus Insularum Sodorensium.
The bishopric, formerly annexed to the see of the Isles, has been separated about 400 years. The prelates of the Western Isles had three places of residence; Icolumkill, Man, and Bute;and in ancient writs are promiscuously styled Episcopi Manniae et Insularum, Episcopi Abudarum, and Episcopi Soderensis. Which last title the bishops of the Isles retain, as well as the present bishops of Man. The cathedral of Iona, or Icolumkill,was dedicated to our Saviour, in Greek Soter hence Soterensis,a name frequently given by Danish writers to the Western Isles,and now corrupted to Soderensis. The civil wars in Scotland enabled the Danes and Norwegians to seize the Isle of Man and the Western islands in 1097; and it is probable they transplanted the seat of the see to Man. When annexed by Edward III. to England, the Lords of Man set up bishops of their own,:and the Scottish monarchs continued their bishops of the Isles, of which the records are but imperfect.- Beatson's Poll Index.
Buchanan says, that the word Sodor was before his time the name of a town in the Isle of Man. In Gough's edit. of Camden,it is said, this title was given to-the small island of Peel, which the Norwegians call Holm, within musket-shot of Man, and on which the ruins of Peel castle, cathedral, &c, now stand.
Admitting the truth of these statements, it does not account for the word always preceding that of Man: as, if it were only a small island adjoining it would be putting the inferior before the superior. But the following is the most rational account of it:The Western islands were divided into two clusters, in the Norwegian language termed Suder and Norder,signifying southern and northern, and ey or ay, an island; divided by Ardenamurchan, a point or promontory in Argyleshire. Man was included in the Sudereys, or Suder, which anglicised became Soder; and all the isles being included in one diocese, under the Norwegian princes, the bishop was termed the Bishop of Man and the Isles, or the Bishop of Sodor and Man. Since Man was annexed by Edward III. to England, and separated from the isles, the bishop has exercised no jurisdiction over them. But the title is retained, in the same way as the King of England assumes the title of King of France. He was formerly reckoned a baron, but never sat in the House of Peers, because he held of a subject, and not a king; yet hath the highest seat in the Lower House of Convocation, and is equally a bishop as to jurisdiction and ordination.
Speaking on this subject to a person of rank in the island, in conversation, 1797; he expressed himself, as well as can be recollected, as follows:- The bishops, said he, though they have nothing to do with the British House of Peers, have in the Manks house, and with your bishops are members of the convocation, as the see:,is in the province of York. The bishop here ranks next after; the governor. He is the first person of his Majesty privy council in the island, is a judge in its courts of chancery, and a temporal peer and baron in the island. His see is totally distinct from the other lands of the Lord, and he has power over all those lands which compose his see; they, unconnected with other dues, amount to a little more than 1,200l. per annum, altogether the bishopric being estunated at 1,500l. per annum.
After St. Patrick left the island, followed St.
Germanus,Conindrius, Romulus, St. Maughold, and Conatus ;* then soon
we come to
Wymundus, Reymundus, or Hamundus, first bishop of Sodor and Man, consecrated by Turston, archbishop of York; died about 1151.
John, a monk of Sais in Normandy.
Gamaliel, an Englishman, consecrated by Roger, archbishop of York, 1154,; buried at Peterborough.
Reginald, a Norwegian, to whom the thirds of the livings were first granted by the clergy.
Christian, buried in the monastery of Bangor, Ireland.
Michael, a Manksman, who died about 1203.
Nicholas de Melsa, abbot of Furness, resigned.
Reginald, consecrated 1216; and John, succeeded by
Simon, a man of great piety and learning; he held a synod of the clergy in 1239, in which thirteen canons were enacted. He died in a good old age, at the palace of Kirk-Michael,in 1249.
Ranundua is said to have had. his eyes put out for his cruelty
Lawrence, the archdeacon, 1249, who was unfortunately drowned with Harold, king of Man, his queen, and numbers of the nobility.
See vacant six years.
Richard, an Englishman, who died in 1274. He dedicated St. Mary's church of Rushen or Castletown, in 1260. In his time the Scots conquered the island.
Marcus Galvadiensis, 1270, banished, but recalled. He held a synod, in which thirty-five canons were enacted.
Mauritius, imprisoned in London by Edward I., superseded by Allen or Onachus.
Gilbert, a Scot, two years and a half.
Bernard, a Scot, three years.
Thomas, a Scot, fourteen years, died 1348.
William Russel, abbot of Rushen, elected by the whole clergy of Man in St. German's. He added five more canons; was bishop twenty-six years; died 1374.
John Duncan, installed 1376. A Manksman.
Robert Waldby, 1381, twenty-two years. Translated to Dublin.
See vacant many years.
Richard Fully, 1429.
John Brevet or Sprotton, vicar of Dunchurch in Warwickshire, 1448.
Thomas Burton, died 1458.
Thomas, abbot of Vale-Royal, Cheshire, 1480.
Richard Oldham, abbot of Chester.
Evan, or Hu - , elected by Sir Thomas Stanley, 1487.
Thomas Stanley, 1510, rector of Wigan, deprived.
Hugh Hesketh, if not Huan above mentioned.
Robert Ferrier [Sodorensis], 1545, translated to St. David's.
Henry Man, 1546, dean of Chester, after whom Stanley was restored, end died in 1558.
John Salisbury, dean of Norwich, 1559.
James Stanley, 1573, illegitimate son of Sir Edward Stanley, first Lord Monteagle.
John Merrick,1577, vicar of Hornchurch, Essex; he wrote the account of the island, published by Camden.
George Lloyd, 1599, translated to Chester 1604,
Dr. John Philips, 1605, archdeacon of Cleveland and Man; translated the Common-prayer into Manks, died in 1633; a pious, hospitable man.
William Foster, 1631, prebend of Chester.
Dr. Richard Parr, 1635, rector of Eccleston, Lancashire; the last before the civil war; died 1643.
[The see void seventeen years.]
Samuel Rutter, 1661; he had been archdeacon; was the friend and companion of the great Earl of Derby when in prison; he wrote some poetry for his amusement, which in Bishop Wilson's time, was esteemed in the island.
Dr. Isaac Barrow, fellow of Eton college, to whom the clergy are obliged for the royal bounty, for the impropriations and various charities, which rendered his translation, after two years' enjoyment of this see, to St. Asaph, a great loss.
Dr. Henry Bridgeman, dean of Chester, 1671.
Dr. John Lake, 1682, archdeacon of Cleveland; translated to Bristol in 1684; the next year to Chichester. He was one of the seven bishops committed to the Tower for a libel against James II., or rather for subscribing a petition to his Majesty, wherein he, and they, express great averseness to the distributing and publishing in all their churches, the King's declaration for liberty of conscience, &c. After William came to the crown, he refused taking the oaths of allegiance, &c. and was therefore deprived.
Dr. Baptist Levinz, 1684, prebend of Winchester, who died 1693.
See vacant five years.
Dr. Thomas Wilson, of Trinity College, Dublin, 1697-8; died in 1755.
Dr. Mark Hildesley, vicar of Hitching, Herts; died 1772,
Dr. Richmond, vicar of Walton, Lancashire; died 1780
Dr. G. Mason, who died in 1784, and. to whom has succeeded the present bishop
DR. CLAUDIUS CRIGAN.
The Governor, the Council, the Deemsters, the Keys, form the legislature of the island; they are four separate estates, and the concurrence of the whole is necessary to make a law. The Ecclesiastical establishment consists of the Lord Bishop, the Archdeacon, his Official, two Vicars-General, and the Parochial Clergy. The Civil establishment is as follows :*-The Governor, - 4001. per annum. Lieut.-Governor, 2001. Attorney-General, 2001. Two Deemsters, besides fees, 2001. each. Clerk of the Rolls, 501. Clerk of the Council, 50l Water-Bailiff, 801. Surgeon, 501. Governor's Chaplain, 25l. High-Bailiffs at Castletown, Douglas, Ramsay, and Peel, 251. each; these were formerly captains of towns, at 151. per ann. but were altered by an act of Tynwald in 1777. They have power to hear and determine causes under 40s. Four constables were then abolished, whose salaries were 51. each. Chief Constable and Gaoler, 121. per. ann. Fifteen constables at 5l. Turn-key, Servant, and Messenger 3l. each. Coroners six, at 3l. per ann. A regulator of weights and measures at Castletown.
* The revenue officers are noticed in their respective districts.
This consists of two regiments of Royal Manx Fencibles. The first, raised Feb. 20, 1793, consisting of 300 rank and file. The second, of ten companies, raised in 1796: uniforms, red with blue facings. This regiment is considered as liable to duty in any part of the three kingdoms. Besides these there are volunteer corps, and militia, commanded, under the Governor, by three Majors, and seventeen captains of parishes. These are not embodied but in case of common danger.
. In the Island. Lieut-Col. Commander, John Duke of Athol, Feb. 20, 1793. Major, Lieut. Governor Shaw Second Major, William Cunningham, May17, 1796. Capt. C. Heywood. Capt.-Lieut. and Captain, Thomas Christian, Esq. Lieutenants, Mark Quayle, Thomas Moore, A. Murray, James Wilkes, A. Sutherland. Ensigns, Harman,John Quirk, Rich. Gelling. Adjutant, Thomas Moore. Surgeon,Patrick Scott, Esq.
Colonel, Lord Henry Murray, April 7, 1795.
Lieut.-Colonel, Charles Smelt
Major, Wm. Peachey.
Captains, Robert Stewart, Caesar Tobin, Hon. Andrew Forbes,
William Bacon, Richard Harrison, R. W. F. Lathropp, J. Dunn,
J. Christian. Capt.-Lieutenant and Captain, John Homer.
Lieutenants, M. Summers, P. T. Moore, guineas Anderson, J. N.
Scott, J. Rugglis, R. Clague, W. Kewley, J. Dunn, W. M'Intoch,
Col. Campbell, R. M. Carlie. Ensigns, Messrs. Carlos, J. Lamothe, Blosset, G. Montgomery, J. Caldwell, M. Moreton,
A. Fullarton. Chaplain, Evan Christian. Adjutant, John
Homer. Quarter-Master, John Christian. Surgeon, J. N. Scott.
1417 John Letherland, lieutenant.
1418 John Fasakerley, lieutenant.
1422 John Walton, lieutenant.
1428 Henry Byron, lieutenant. - .
No record until 1492.
1496 Peter Dutton, lieutenant.
1497 Henry Radcliffe, Abbot of Rushen, deputy
1505 Randolph Rushton, captain.
1508 Sir John Ireland, knight, lieutenant.-
1516 John Ireland, lieutenant.
1517 Randolph Rushton, captain.
1519 Thomas Danisport, captain.
1526 Richard Holt, lieutenant.
1529 John Fleming, captain.
1530 Thomas Sherburn, lieutenant.
1532 Henry Bradley, deputy lieutenant.
1533 Henry Stanley, captain.
1535 George Stanley, captain.
1537 Thomas Stanley, knight, lieutenant.
1539 George Stanley, captain.
1540 Thomas Tyldsley, deputy.
1544 William Stanley, deputy
1552 Henry Stanley, captain.
1561 Sir Richard Sherburne.
1562 Thomas Stanley, knight, lieutenant.
1566 Richard Aston, captain.
1567 Thomas Stanley, knight, lieutenant.
1569 Edward Tarbock, captain.
1575 John Hanmer, captain.1580 Richard Sherburn, captain.
1591 Bichard Aderton was admitted and sworn lieutenant under the captain, by my Lord's directions, for all martial affairs.
1592 Cuth. Gerrard, captain Thomas Martinier, deputy
1593 Hon. William Stanley, captain, afterwards Earl of Derby.
1594 Randolph Stanley, captain.
1596 Sir Thomas Gerrard, knight, captain. Cuth. Gerrard, deputy
1597 Thomas Gerrard, knight, captain. Robert Molyneux, deputy
1599 Cuth Gerrard, captain Robert Molyneux, deputy.c 2
1600 Robert Molyneux, captain.
1609 John Ireland and John Birchall, governors jointly, by patent from the King., Thomas Gerrard.
1610 John Ireland, lieutenant and captain.
1612 Robert Molyneux, captain.
1621 Edward Fletcher, deputy.
1622 Edward Fletcher, governor.
1623 Sir Ferdinand Leige, knight, captain.
1625 Edward Fletcher, deputy.
1626 Edward Holmewood, captain.
1627 Edward Fletcher, deputy.
1628 Edward Christian, lieutenant and captain.
1629 John Ireland.
1634 Evan Christian, deputy.
1635 Sir Charles Gerrard, knight, captain.
1636 John Sharpeless, deputy.
1639 :Radcliffe Gerrard, captain.
1640 John Greenhalgh, governor.
1651 Sir Phil. Musgrave, knight and bars., governor.
1652 Samuel Smith, deputy governor.
Lord Fairfax made commissioners for governing this year, viz., James Chaloner, Robt. Finely, Esq.; and Jonathan Witton, clerk.
1653 Matthew Cadwell, governor.
1656 William Christian, governor.
1658 James Challoner, governor.
1660 Roger Nowell, governor.Richard Stephenson, deputy.
1663 Henry Nowell for one part of the year, and Tho. Stanley for the other part, deputies.
1664 Bishop Barrow, governor. H. Nowell, deputy
1669 Henry Nowell.
1677 Henry Stanley.
1678 Robert Heywood.
1691 Roger Kenyon.William Sacheverell.
1696 Colonel Sankey. Hon. Capt. Cranston.
1703 Robert Maudesley.
1713 John Parr, C. Stanley. Alexander Home. Major Floyde.
1726 Thomas Horton.
1734 James Horton.
1739 Hon. James Murray.
1747 P. Lindesay.
1757 Basil Cochrane, John Taubman
1763 John Wood. J. Hope.
1776 Edward Smith, Richard Dawson
1798 Duke of Athol, and Alexander Shaw, Esq.
1: The Mull of Galloway is a promontory, well known to mariners who navigate the Irish Channel. It is the most southern point of Scotland on the west side,and lies in lat. 54- 44W
Mull, or as it is called by the Highlanders Moll, seems to be the Gaelic term for cape, and hath been adopted by the Lowland's in two instances only, the Mull of Cantire and of Galloway. Perhaps the word might come from Stole' a mound or heap.]
2: All late writers agree that Mona, Manaan is Man; but Mona Tactici belongs to Anglesey. Early authors call it Monada, Moravia Secunda (to distinguish it from Anglesey), Eubonia, &c. The Manks derive it traditionally from Manna ManMaclea, an early king, who first conquered the island.
In the Frith of Forth there is an island called Amona or Ymona; that is, the island of Mona. For among the ancient Scots Y. or I, signified an island, in the same way as ai, among the Hebrews. Introd. to the Hist. and Antiq. of Scotland, London, 8vo. Noteman, 1769. [The word, perhaps, is more properly spelt with a double nn, but this I shall only adopt in the title - page
3: His reasons are explained in the following extract of a letter from Lord Derby to his son:
"The isle was sometime governed by kings, natives of its own, who were converted to Christianity by St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland; and Sir John Stanley, the firs~possessor of it of that family, was by his patent styled King of Man; as were his successors after him, to the time of Thomas second Earl of Derby; who for great and wise reasons thought fit to forbear that title. Some might think it a mark of grandeur, that the lords of this isle have been called kings; and I might be of that opinion, if I knew how this country could maintain itself independent of other nations; and that I had no interest in another place: but herein I agree with your great and wise ancestor, Thomas second Earl of Derby, and with him conceive, that to be a Great lord is more honourable than a petty king.
" Besides, it is not fit for a king to be subject to any other king, but the KING of Kings; nor does it hardly please a king, that any of his subjects should affect that title, were it but to act it in a play; witness the scruples raised, and objections made by my enemies in his majesties council, of my being too nearly allied to the royalty to be trusted with too great power (as before herein mentioned); whose jealousies and vile suggestions have proved of very ill consequence to his Majesties Interest, and my service of him. Take it for granted, that it is your honour to give honour to your sovereign, it is safe and comfortable; therefore in all your actions, let it visible appear in this isle."
*4 His grace married secondly in 1794, Lady Macleod, widow of the late Lord Macleod, by whom he had a daughter, who died in June 1796.
*5 His titles are, The most noble John Duke of Athol, Marquis and Earl of Athol, Marquis of Tullibardin, Earl of Strathsay and Strathardel, Viscount Glenalmond and Glenlyon, Lord Murray, Balveny, and Gask, Lord of the Isle of Man, Constable of the Castle of Kincleven, and hereditary keeper of the palace of Falkland. His English titles are, Earl Strange and Baron Murray. His chief seats are at Blair in Athol, Dunkeld, Tullibardin, and Huntingtower, all in Perthshire and at Port-a-shee in the Isle of Man.
*6 St. Patrick, in 444, with thirty learned and religious persons, landed in the island, where he found the people given to magic, the greater part of whom he converted, but such as refused, he banished the island; after three years he went for Ireland, and left Germanus, who settled the Christian religion in the Island, from which it never after relapsed: he died before St. Patrick, who then sent Conmdrius and Romulus. Maughold was chosen by universal suffrage. Conatua was tutor to the King of Scotland's (Eugenius') sons. ;
*7 Report speaks very highly of the conduct of this corps, now serving in Ireland, during its present unhappy state. Soldiers should never forget that they are men,