= MANX =


Miss Dodd, Mr.P. G. Ralfe, and Mr. L. Quayle,

Articles Reprinted From the "Peel City Guardian."


Mr. Ralfe's and Miss Dodd's articles, and Mr. L. Quayle's letter, appeared in the " Peel City Guardian" in June, 1908.

Miss S. Morrison has very kindly added to their value by compiling a list of Manx Plant Names.


3. — MANX PLANTS, by Mr. P. G. Ralfe.
12. — LETTER by Mr. L. Quayle.
15. — WILD FLOWERS OF MONA, by Miss Dodd.
19. — MANX PLANT NAMES, by Miss S. Morrison.


By P. G. Ralfe.

Slightly altered from a paper read to Castletown Wesley Guild.


In the Isle of Man, as compared with the larger countries round us, we have a small number of flowering plants ; that is, a small number of species, or kinds. The number on the British list is about 1,800. In the county of Cumberland, which is the nearest part of Etwland, about 1,000 have been recorded ; in Galloway, the nearest part of Scotland, about 900 ; in Antrim and Down, the nearest parts of Ireland, between 700 and 800. Now, we do not perfectly know how many there are in this Island. Very likely some occur which have not yet been recorded, but we know of 450 or so, not including the numerous species of grasses and sedges which, from a botanical point of view, are flowering plants.


The Island is poor in kinds of plants for the reason, principally, that it is an Island, and the sea has proved an effectual barrier to the advance of plant-life. At a time which, as geologists reckon, is not so very far back, the Isle of Man (if it was then an Island) was like central Greenland at the present day, buried to its topmost hills under a sea of ice. Not the very smallest, nor the very hardiest plant could have survived that age-lone entombment, and the ancestors of all plants which we find in Man to-day must since have slowly found their way here.We are not sure whether there has ever been a land connection since the glacial age ; if not, all these plants, by natural or artificial means, have crossed a sea of more or less width, making the process of their distribution still more slow.

This subject, though very interesting, is very difficult and complicated, and I do not propose to go further into it in this short sketch, confining myself rather to some remarks on the more abundant and interesting plants which we may meet with here.


Though poor, as I have said, in species, the Island is rich in flowers. Everywhere about the land they abound; the meadows are thick with Buttercups and Spotted Orchis; the marshes in the season covered with sheets of cream-coloured Bogbean ; on the headlands Sea Campion, Scurvy Grass, Sea Pink ; on the mountain Heather; on the hedge-banks Gorse, Sheep's Bit, and Burnet Rose; in the plantations Hyacinths and Primroses ; over the cultivated land, wild Mustard in acres of canary yellow, Corn Marigold and Crimson Poppies, make a show of colour varying with the season. And with our mild, though variable and rainy climate, there is not a day in the year when some flower or other cannot be found, The autumn flowers linger into the winter until the first spring blooms open again.


There is, I think, no plant more closely associated with Manx scenery than Gorse. Rough and hardy-looking as it may be, it loves a mild western climate, and there is, perhaps, nowhere in the world where it is so luxuriant and beautiful as in Man. Our miles of great earthern fences furnish it with an ideal place to grow, and we have also many rough bits of "garey" suitable for it. There are two forms found in the Island, a larder which grows on the hedges and flowers practically all the year, and a smaller, growing lower and closer, which we sometimes call Manx gorse, and which flowers late in the summer, and, mixed with the heather, covers large extents of common so closely that they are very difficult to walk over.Apart from size the differences between the two sorts are not very striking.


Three kinds of Heath occur in the Island, often very profusely. The most common is the Ling, pale lilac, late flowering, with blooms which individually are inconspicuous, but so numerous that miles of mountain are often tinted with their colour. The Red Bell Heather, with its rich rose crimson, is higher and more showy. It is, I think, the principal kind on South Barrule, which is so largely covered with heather. The third is the beautiful waxy looking Rose Heather, or Cross-leaved Heath, usually found om boggy spots, for instance, in Glen Rushen. It is worth mentioning that heather does not like a limestone soil, and is hardly to be found in the immediate vicinity of Castletown. The want- of heather and gorse accounts for the peculiar smoothness of the brows along the coast along Scarlett and Poolvash, where close turf, unbroken by any large plants goes right down to the rocks.


A frequent associate of heath is the Bilberry' blaeberry, or windberry, whose little blue fruit most of us know, or at least knew when we were children. Another plant of the same localities is the Crowberry or lingberry, with a small black fruit useless for human food, and leaves very like those of heather. There is plenty of it on South Barrule.


Returning to the laig earthen fences of which we have so many, especially in the higher lands, we find them to have a rich plant life, amidst and at the foot of the gorse. Very common on dry banks as well as on commons and wastes, is the Burnet Rose, a small wild rose bush with very thorny branches and large cream coloured flowers. The large pink Doug-rose is not so common on the Island, and likes hedges in richer and shadier localities. Tormentil is very plentiful, a relation of the garden strawberry, with trailing leaves and small yellow flowers. Still more like a strawberry, for it has white flowers, is the so-called Barren strawberry, one of the earliest blossoming plants. The beautiful Harebell, the blue bell of Scotland, is another connnon hedge plant, and another and very beautiful species is the Small St. John's wort, whose small upright stems are set with abundance of golden-yellow flowers, the " luss-y-chiolg" of old Manx people, who thought it a good tonic Sheep's Bit is abundant, a small blue button, and a plant pretty nearly related. The lilac Field Scabious or " Gipsy Rose" as it is called, is very ornamental in late summer. Among the flowers of early summer everyone knows the white flowered Stellaria, pushing up among the bushes long shoots of grass like foliage, and almost equally well-known is the very bright olue of the Germander Speedwell " Bird's Eyes" or " Blue Eyebright." A geed example of the numerous pea flowered plants is the Tufted Vetch ; the Yellow Bedstraw, in dry sunny places, and the Ground Ivy, which likes more shade, are both familiar hedge plants. Many umbelliferous plants grow on hedge banks and along road sides. This order has large many-branched heads of minute flowers, usually white. The Hemlock, very common about Castletown, is a good example of an umbelliferous plant. Most of them bear minute white flowers in great numbers in a many rayed-head. Another very common specimen is the large coarse Hogweed, "Farrain" or "Fairainyn" of Manx speaking people, and another is the very glossy Alexanders, a curiously-named plant which has, however, yellowish flowers; it is mostly found about farms and villages, and is a relic of old cultivation. You may see it on the Douglas road, between Peel and the cemetery, and in the village at Glenmay. So is the "Myrrh," with beautiful fern like foliage. We all know the pretty legend about its flowering at Christmas. More common, perhaps, than any of these is the Wild Carrot, said to be the origin of the garden plant, though it is not strikingly like it. Another very abundant class of plants is that of yellow flowered "composites" of which the Dandelion may be taken as a type. These plants have heads composed of a number of closely packed flowerets, each a flower in itself. There are a number of roadside species allied to the dandelion, which most people hardly distinguish from each other, and some of which puzzle even experts. The familiar daisy is another composite, and so are the Thistles, of which one kind is too common in our fields, and another and handsomer kind grows about waste ground.Yet other com-posites are the familiar Hardheads or Knapweeds (in Manx "Luss-y-cramman dhoo") and the Soft Thistle, the favourite of rabbit-keeping boys. In this connection of roadside plants I can scarcely omit the Plantains,"Rib-grass"and "Rats-tail," the Chickweeds, and the pretty fern-like Silver-weed, which is a relation of the Rose and the strawberry.On stone walls the curious Wall Pennywort is very common in the Island, and is decidedly a character plant of the Isle of Man. Everyone knows the round thick fleshy dark green leaves of this plant.


Coming to cultivated lands, the fields of corn, turnips and potatoes, we find a great many plants adapted to this kind of soil. Many such are only found in connection with cultivation and were it to cease would die out of the land. Such are the brilliant Poppies, of which four species, very like each other to the casual eye, are found here, the Fumitory, the Hemp-Nettles and Dead Nettle, and a number of inconspicuous weeds, like the Spurrey (Manx "carran"); and some of the Chickweeds. The Field Convolvulus, common on the limestone about Castletown, is a pretty field plant with rose-coloured flowers. It is not so large as the fine white Trumpet Flower, so beautiful a hedge plant, but so terrible a plague to gardeners, when its white breakable roots spread all through the soil. A Speedwell from the East, with pretty light-blue flowers, has now become very abundant in our fields, though it came into Britain only during the present century,. I have already mentioned the Wild mustard or "Brashlagh," so "unprofitably gay," in the cornfields. in the meadows, the most abundant of all the flowers which vary the grass are usually the Buttercups, several kinds, but not differing much. Another buttercup, that early flowering, low growing species, the Lesser Celandine, with bright flowers looking as if varnished, we might have mentioned among hedge-row plants. Pignut, an umbelliferous plant with slight much-cut foliage, grows plentifully both in meadows and woods, and where the ground is pretty damp, Ragged Robin, a tall slender plant with frayed, pink flowers, and Spotted Orchis, lilac or cream-coloured. Though the latter is a beautiful flower, it has not the fantastic form that many of the orchises, both wild and cultivated, assume. In the family are some of the greatest curiosities of plant life. When the meadow changes into complete marsh we find some very beautiful plants. Such is the Bogbean, perhaps the very finest of our native wild flowers, and which has powerful medicinal qualities. In some places in the Island it is very luxuriant, and acres of land in the northern Curragh are covered with the flowers in May. There is plenty at the Ballalough ponds and in Greeba Curragh also. Another interesting plant of wet commons is the sweet-scented Bog Myrtle called "roddag" or "roddagagh,"and formerly used for dyeing, a shrub with small myrtle-like leaves, which grows very thickly in the Curraghs, in the wet lands at Greeba, and in similar places. In somewhat the same kind of situation as well as in boggy glens and on wet seaside rocks is found the Royal Fern. Two of the bog plants are of interest because of their very singular mode of life ; they are carnivorous, having the power of sucking out and digesting the juices of insects that stick to their leaves. One of these is the Butterwort, a plant formerly used to make "steep" here and in other countries. It may be found on wet places on the Patrick headlands and in Glen Rushen. It is a small plant with a close rosette of pale yellow green leaves, damp and clammy with a sticky juice which they produce when irritated. On slender stalks it raises a few delicateflowers somewhat resembling those of a violet. Small insects are held fast when they touch the leaves, and the plant then pours out an acid juice which dissolves the softer parts of the fly, and absorbs them into its own system. The other fly-catcher, the Sundew, is a little plant with round reddish leaves and spikes of white small flowers which never seem to open. The leaves are rough with what look like hairs, each of which has at its tip a drop of sticky juice. When an insect gets on to the leaf the hair-like tentacles are irritated, and curl over on the victim, which is soon enveloped and choked, and the plant then proceeds to devour it. Sundew is a frequent companion of the butterwort, and may, like it, be found in the wet heaths at Glen Rushen and in many similar localities, mostly on the highlands. By the side of streams we meet with a plentiful growth of such species as Water Cress, which everybody knows, Water Mint, a strong-scented relative of the garden mint, and the beautiful cream coloured Meadow-sweet. Another streamside plant is the Purple Loosestrife, plentiful, for instance, at Ballalough and along the Neb between Glanfaba and St. John's, with great spikes of bright purple flowers several feet long. In many ditches the Reed is also abundant, a gigantic grass often brought home for a parlour ornament.


Woods on the whole are not good places for botanists; a thick cover of foliage usually prevents the growth of plants beneath. But the borders of plantations are rich in flowers. Plants which love such situations are the Primrose, though it grows in many other places, the Wood Hyacinth, and the Wood Anemone, all early-flowering plants. The beautiful Anemone is common in the Northern glens, where in March it may be seen in thousands by the mountain brooks, and it abounds by the Rhenass stream. Herb Robert, a very common wild Geranium, likes shady places.


One of the most interesting assemblages of Manx plants is to be found on the coast. In rocky gullies of the west coast especially the vegetation is often very profuse, and the open sea-shore brooghs are also often very rich in flowers.

In dry coast localities Stonecrop is common — what is called the English Stonecrop ; the brilliant and sharp-tasted yellow Stonecrop is not abundant in Man. A very plentiful and pretty sea-coast plant is the Sea Campion, with white flowers arising from a curious bladder-like calyx. Another white seaside flower is Scurvy grass, with very glossy green leaves, and a faint sickly scent ; it often forms masses of white on damp places on the cliffs. The Vernal Squill, like a little garden hyacinth, is abundant on the grassy edges of the rocks in May and June. All these three are very abundant on Peel Hill. Sea Pink everybody knows ; it makes a lovely show in places, on the Calf for instance. The little clover-like Bird-foot Trefoil is very common on the seaside grass, it is a low golden yellow pea flower growing something after the fashion of a clover, with a great profusion of blossom. Manx speaking people know it as "Crouw-Kayt," Cat's Bunch, likening the crooked seed pods to cats claws. Centaury (Manx "Keim Chreest)," a low growing more or less upright plant, with small bright flower heads of a lovely rose-pink, is plentiful in dry pastures, both on the coast and inland. Samphire is a curious species not infrequent on the rocks. It is found above the north end of Cain's Strand, at the Ladder on Peel Hill, and at the Niarbyl. The fleshy and very aromatic foliage is distinctive of the samphire ; it bears heads of greenish flowers.

In damp ravines and among boulders on the west coast the bushy Hemp Agrimony, a large plant with heads of dull pinkish flowers, often grows profusely, as at Glenmay where the ravine opens out to the shore. A very beautiful and somewhat rare plant, plentiful in the same rocky ground, is the so-called Wood Vetch, a very large cream-coloured pea-flower spreading in cluster over the stony rubbish and the briars.


I have not said much of ferns, though they constitute one of the principal botanical features of our scenery (we have about 25 species in the Island). But I may conclude by naming two sea-coast ferns, one. the Sea Spleenwort, of which splendid specimens are found in our damp Sheltered sea-caves, because it is so common, and one, the Maidenhair, because it is found in so few places in Britain, but is a witness here to our mild winter climate. It is met with only in a few nooks on the west coast.

To these few notes on Manx plants I would like to add that our flora is far from perfectly known, though it is of peculiar interest. Any, one of us who has a taste in that direction can. add to our present knowledge. Almost yearly plants which had not previously been known in the Island are being recorded here, and failing such discoveries there is much interest in the accurate definition of the range of even our commoner plants, in knowing whether they are found all over the Island or otherwise, what kind of localities they inhabit here, and so on. Of one important class of plants, in especial, the grasses, and their connections, we know very little indeed, and a full list of them is much needed.

An interesting by-path of botany is also the study of Manx plant names. The old dialect was rich in names for plants, though it is now often difficult to find out to what plants the names refer. For help in this direction the author of this little paper would be very grateful.


Dear Sir,-I read with much interest Mr Ralfe's paper on Manx plants which appeared in your issue of June 13th. To a lover of nature one of the compensations of life in the quiet oountryside is the constant source of pleasure available in the study of the variety, habits and characteristics of plants and flowers. I would like to state that most of the wild flowers and plants named in Mr Ralfe's paper are to be found in the neighbourhood of sweet Glenmay. I thank Mr Ralfe for giving me the name of that large plant with great bushy heads of dull pink flowerets, growing abundantly in the ravine leading to Glenmay shore. He calls it the Hemp Agrimony. I would like to ask in what botanical work does he find a description of this flower. It is so very different in appearance from the common Agrimony, a small plant of the Rosacea order with pretty yellow flowers and belonging to the same class as the Tormentil, Silverweed and others. As Mr Ralfe says, the Sundew (a rather inconspicuous plant) is very common in Glenrushen, and so is the delicate and fragile flowered Butterwort with its violet petals. The latter plant is exceedingly voracious of insect life. Another plant very common on South Barrule is the King's Spear or Bog Asphodel with its sword-like leaves and spikes of yellow flowers. There are many varieties of the Veronica, the most common being the Germander Speedwell with its eye of heavenly blue. The hedges in Autumn are covered with the beautiful and sweet-scented Yellow Bedstraw, and the pink flowers of the Wild Thyme. Another very interesting and common plant is the Woodsage, with its pyramids of greenish-white flowers, which in some seasons yield a considerable quantity of honey. Common also is the vetch-like Rest Harrow, the Red and Yellow Rattle, Scarlet and Bog Pimpernel. Another striking plant usually found growing in damp places is the Valerian, with its busby head of pinkish flowers and its graceful stature. I have also found the Alkanet, a plant with a roughish leaf and very intense blue flowers. It belongs, I think to the Borage family. Chicory or Succory,with its pale blue flowere, and the somewhat dis-appointing Golden Rod are also found. I remember with what pleasure I discovered last year a group of the stately and beautiful purple Loose-Strife. It is very uncommon in this part of the Island, though I understand it is plentiful in the curragh district of Ballaugh. The Common Avens, with its tall erect stem and graceful foliage, lends enchantment to many a hedgerow. The Red Campion or Fairy Flower is very common, as also is the Ragged Robin — very much like the last in appearance. The Sea, Bladder, and White Camprons are all common and interesting. A sweet little flower is `he Milkwort, found on dry commons, usually of a deep blue colour, but it may be found in all shades from white to red, purple and blue. Space forbids me in these columns to write of the multitude of lovely flowers that bloom here, or to tell of the exquisite pleasure to be found in studying the variety of them, their habits and characteristics, their efforts and schemes to ensure fertilization and the propagation of their species, of the constant struggle for life going on in the plant world, with the adapting of themselves to conditions and environment — but for a healthy, innocent and infinitely interesting pastime open to all in the Isle of Man, and peculiarly to those living in the country, allow me to commend the study of wild flowers. An excellent little book enti,led " The Story of the Plants" is written by Grant Allen and published by George Newnes. To those interested, a capital work in seven volumes is published by Cassells, entitled "Familiar Wild Flowers," with hundreds of perfectly colouted illustrations, and a fairly full description of all these and many kindred varieties. Cove per says —

Nature is but a name for an effect,
Whose cause is God. Not a flower
But shows some touch in freckle, streak, or stain
Of His unrivalled pencil. He inspires
Their balmy odours, and imparts their hues,
And bathes their eyes with nectar, and includes
In grains as countless as the seaside sands,
The forms with which he sprinkles all the earth.'



The subjoined sketch on Manx wild flowers will be appreciated at this season of the year, and especially as nature-study is now taken up so largely in our schools. It was written some years ago by Miss Dodd, and published in the Manx Antiquarian Society's magazine, " Yn Lioar Manninagh." We have permission from the hon. Secretary, Mr P. M. C. Kermode, to reproduce :-

" Botany is dreary enough when it consists of long catalogues of Latin words; but the " floral wiltllings" of fair Mona call up other recollections than long classifications pertaining to botanical science. The reputation of the little Island for its varied forms of beauty, would tend to recom-mend it greatly to the botanical student. Its many advantages of climate, surface, and soil, would incline him to expect a rich re ward in the investigation of its flora. But the native flora of Mona offers no remarkable attractions to the botanical scientist ; no peculiar, rich, or varied developments of plant life would reward the efforts of the patient investigator. Therefore it is not to be marvelled at that the flora of the Isle of Man has never received any special attention from those learned in botanical lore.

Probably the whole of the Manx Flora does not exceed 450 species ; and to make a comparison between this and the flora of the Channel Isles, is not very favourable to Mona. Professor Babington has numbered 690 species of plants native to Jersey, and 553 to Guernsey ; and as both these islands are smaller than the Isle of Man, we may conclude that Manx vegetation is neither rich nor varied. Apart from its botanical interest, the flora of Mona has a history of peculiar interest to the geologist, after a brief study of which we are in a position to account for its somewhat scanty flora. We know that our British flora is derived from Central Europe, and we account for its migration thither by the upheaval of the bed of the Pleistocene sea. Certain species of plant life common to Central Europe diffused themselves into Britain. Naturally under such conditions, the rarer species being less capable of diffusion, would inhabit only the eastern counties. Those of a commoner nature being capable of a wider diffusion, penetrated into Ireland, and even located themselves in the Isle of Man. This diffusion of plant life took place prior to the breaking-up of that portion of the Pleistocene sea bed now occupied by the Irish Sea. Before many of our common British plants had made their way to Mona, the Irish Sea was formed, thus isolating the Isle of Man, and excluding further additions to its flora. This fragment of geological history enlightens us concerning the comparative poverty in plant life in Mona.

Another interesting fact affording keen delight to the geologist may be culled from the flora of the Island.

During that wonderful ice age, long before the upheaval of the Pleistocene sea bed, we are aware that Britain had a very fragmentary existence, consisting, as it did, of a number of islands formed of the summits of the mountains of Scotland, Cumberland, and North Wales. The vegetation of these ice-clad islands during this glacial epoch was of an arctic character, and traces of such a vegetation at present exist in our Highland and Welsh mountains. Not the slightest trace of this flora exists in the mountains of the Isle of Man, hence we infer that at this period they were wholly submerged. In the South of the British Isles we find a flora similar to that which is common in the West of France. No indication of this flora is to be found in Mona. A peculiar Spanish flora characterises the plant life in the West of the Island [sic West of Ireland ?]; but no trace of it has extended to the Isle of Man.

The few native plants which may claim any distinction on account of variety are probably western in character ; but their history as yet, has not been carefully considered. Among the plants native to Mona which may be considered rare, we may mention the small graceful, ivy-leaved CAMPANULA HEDERACEA, and the PINGUICULA LUSITANICA, or pale butter-wort, which is peculiar to wet places northo f Douglas. The RADIOLAor thyme-leaved Flax plant,is found in sandy damp places-Douglas Head and Sulby Glen. The CENTUNCULUS, or bastard pimpernel, with its numerous flowers, white and pink. It is common to wet, turfy, and sandy places. The Linum, or flax plant. A rare species of this pretty, slender plant is common to Mona. The CARUM, or caraway.

I will endeavour to give a brief sketch of a few of the plants common to Mona, eschewing as far as possible their botanical names.

VIOLA. In Britain. we have eight species of this pretty plant, and only one — the VIOLA ORDOEATA, or sweet-scented violet, has an odour. Three species are common to Mona. VIOLA LACTEA, petals of a greyish-cream tint ; found in Jurby and Bride. VIOLA CURTISH, petals blue, purple or yellow; sandy soil; Malew, Creggans. VIOLA LUTEA,petals blue and yellow ; short stems, slender branches. Hilly districts. This is essentially the mountain violet. N. Barrule. The cornfield pansy may be considered to belong to this class ; it is very abundant.

Opium. Poppy flowers, white and blue purple. Cornfields and waste places.

CORYDALIS CLAVICULATA. Branched, climbing by tendrils, pale straw flowers. Copses and thatched roofs. and banks.

SEA KALE. Sandy and shingly shores. Kirk Michael. Fleshy leaves. Flowers white.

WILD MIGNONETTE. Waste places near the sea. Near Castletown, Ballaugh, and Andreas. WILD GERANIUM, or flowered cranes bill. Flowers, pale rose colour. Hedges and waste places. Scarlett.

GORSE or FURZE. Heaths or commons, flowers small, spiked.

TRIFOLIUAT. Strawberry-headed trefoil, creep. in, stems. Flowers, rose purple. In hedges and ditches.

BIRD'S FOOT. Sandy, gravelly soil. °° The Brows.

VETCH or TARE. Flowers, blue, purple and yellow. Sandy fields.

HORN-BEAN BRAMBLE. Abundant in hedges.

WILD RASPBERRY. Mountain districts. Ballure Glen.

GLANDULAR BRAMBLE. Clayey soil. Dhoon Glen.


DEW BERRY. Glens and mountains.

ROSA. Among this class may be distinguished the downy-leaded rose.


BUR MARIGOLD. Watery places, dit ches.

PRIMULA VULGARIS. Common primrose. The birds-eye primrose is to be found near Ramsey.

MARSH ST. JOHN'S WORT. Bogs, Glen Shone.

TREE MALLOW. Spanish Head and Calf.

MUSK MALLOW. Common near the sea.

MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED. "The Brows" North of Ramsey.


HENBANE. Poolvash.

MARSH SPEEDWELL. Ditches, common.


FOXGLOVE. In great profusion.


YELLOW HEMP NETTLE. Potato fields. Maughold ; rare.


Compiled by MISS S. MORRISON, Peel.

Alexanders, Smyrnium olusatrum ... Ollyssyn,

Lus yn-ollee

Anemome (wood), Anemone nemorosa


Apple, Pyrus malus


Ash, Fraxinus excelsior


Ash (mountain), Pyrus aucuparia


Aspen, Populus tremula

Cron-craee, Chengey-ny-mraane

Barley, Hordeum


Bean, Faba vulgaris


Bird's foot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus


Bitter-sweet, Solarium dulcamara


Bitter vetch, Orobus tuberosus

Crammeltyn (plural)

Blackberry (bramble)


Blaeberry (whortleberry), Vaccinum myrtillus

Farrane, Freoagbane gorrym

Bog-bean, Menyanthes trifoliata ..

Lubber lub, Lus-y-three duillag

Bog-myrtle, Myrica gale

Lus roddagagh

Bramble, Rubus fruticosus


Brook-lime, Veronica beccabunga


Broom, Cytisus scoparius


Buckshorn plantain, Plantago coronopus ...

Bollan Vreeshey

Burdock, Arctium lappa


Burnet rose, Rosa spinossima

Drine drughaigh

Bur-reed (branched), Sparganium ramosum...

Curtlagh muck

Butterwort, Pinguicula vulgaris


Campion (red), Lychnis diurna


Carrot (wild), Daucus carota


Celandine (greater), Chelidonium majus

Lus-y-gollan geayee

Celandine (lesser), Ranunculus ficara


Centaury, Erythraea centaurium


Chickweed, Stellaria media


Chive, Allium shoenoprasum


Cleavers, Galium aparine

... Lus-y-chollane

Clover (white), Trifolimn repens

Samark bane

Colt's-foot, Tussilago farfara

... Cabbag-ny-havvin

Comfrey, Symphytum officinale

... Cumfurt

Common and Corti Sow thistles, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus arvensis.

Bee-muck, Bainey-muck, Onnane-meein

Corn Marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum

.Bastag vuigh

Cotton thistle, Onopordon acanthum

Onnane frangagh

Couch grass, Triticum repens


Cow-parsnip, Heracleum spondylium


Cress (water), Nasturium officinale


Crosswort, Galium cruciatum

Bossan tessen

Crowfoot, Ranunculus acris


Cudweed, Filago germanica ..


Daisy, Bellis perennis

... Neaynin

Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale

... Lus-ny-minnag

Darnel, Lolium perenne and tremulentutn

... Jerlyn

Devil's bit, Scabiosa succisa

... Lus-yn-aacheoid

Dock, Ptutnex obtusifolius


Dog-rose, Rosa caning

...Drine bogogue

Dog-violet, Viola caning

Bossan feeackle

Duckweed, Lemna minor

Clooie fannag

Dulse, Rhodymenia paltnata


Earth nut, Conopodium denudatum


Elder, Satnbucus nigra

(Cleaysh-hramman-fungi growing on elder trees)

Elm, Ulmus campestris

... Lhieuan

Eyebright, Euphrasia oflicinalis


Fairy flax, Linutu catharticum


Fern family, Filices


Fir (Scotch), Pious sylvestris


Fig wort, Scropltularia nodosa


Flag (yellow), Iris pseud-acorns


Flax, Linum .


Flixweed, Sisymbrium sophia


Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea

(Fraps) Slegeeau-sleeu

Fumitory, Fumaria otficinalis


Furze, Ulex minus

... Conney-aadjin or tnanninagh

Furze, Ulex europaeus

Conney frangagh

Garlic, Alliutn ursinum


Golden rod, Solidago iirgaurea


Goosefoot (white), Chenopodium viride


Goutweed, Aeogopodium podagraria


Grass family, Gramineae

Faiyr (hay-traagh)

Ground Ivy, Nepeta glechoma


Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris


Harebell, Campanula rotundifolia

Mairanyu ferisk

Hawkweed (mouse-ear),Hieracutn pilosella,

Lus-y-chengey veg

Hawthorn, Crataegus oxyancantha

Drine skeau

Hazel, Corylu s avellana


Heath bedstraw, Galium saxatile


Hemlock, Conium maculatum


Hemp, Cannabis sativa


Hemp agrintony, Eupatorium cannibinum


Henbane, Hyoscyamus niger


Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum

Lus-ny-freenaghyn mooarey

Holly, Ilex aquifolium


Honeysuckle, Lonicera periclymenum


Hops, Humulus lupulus


Horehound, Marrubitna vulgare


House leek, Sempervivum tectorum

Lus y thie

Hyacinth (wild), Scilla nutans

Gleik-muck, Blaa muck

Ivy, Hedera helix


Knapweed, Centaurea nigra

Lus-y-cramman doo

Leek Allium porrum


Lichen family


Ling, Calluna vulgaris


Ling berry (Crowberry), Empetrum n% grum


Liverwort, Marchantia pclymorpha


Maiden-hair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris

 Lus y-voidyn

Male fern, Lastrea filix mas

. Rhennagh-woirrey

Mare's tail, Hippuris vulgaris

Jeetdrym jeeas

Marsh mallow, Malva sylvestris

Lus ny-moal Moirrey

Marsh marigolds, Caltha palustris


Marsh pennywort, Hydrocotyle vulgaris


Marsh thistle, Cnicus palustris

Onnane lheannagh

Meadow sweet, Spiraea ulmaria

 Lus millish ny lheannagh

Mint (water), Mentha aquatics


Moonwort, Botrychium lunaria

Lus luna

Mouse ear chickweed, Cerastium

Cleaysh lugh

Moss family


Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris...

Bollan-feal-Eoin,   Bollan-bane

Mushroom, Agaricus


Mustard (wild), Brassica sinapis


Nettle, Urtica divica

. Undaagagh

Nipplewort, Lapsana communis~


Oak, Quercus robur


Oats, Avena

Plaggad (Oat-grain-Corkey)

Onion, Allium ceps


Oxe-eye daisy, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Bastag bane

Pæony, Pæonia officinalis


Pansy (field), Viola tricolor

Blaa villish

Parsnip, Pastinaca sativa




Pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium


Pennyworts (wall), Cotyledon umbilicus


Pepperwort, Lepidium campestra

Pibbyr-keoie, Pibbyr-yn-dooinney boght

Plantain (greater), Plantago major


Pond weed, Potamogeton natans

Dullish far ushtey

Poppy family, Papaveracese


Potato, Solanum tuberosum

Prxase, Puddase

Primrose, Primula vulgaris

Sumark, Sumark-souree

Radish (wild), Raphanus maritimus


Ragwort, Senecio jacobaea


Reed, Sparganium simplex


Ribwort plantain, Plantago lanceolate


Royal fern, Osmunda regalia


Rue fern, A. ruta-muraria

Rhennagh veg

Rush family, Junceae

Shuin, Leaghyr

Rye, Secale cereale


Sage (wild), Teucrium scorodonia


St. John's wort, Hypericum pulchrum


Sallow, Salix


Samphire, Crithmum maritimum


Sea holly, Eryngium maritimum


Sea kale, Crambe maritima


Sea matweed, Psamme arenaria


Sea spleenwort, Asplenium marmum

Rhennagh marrey

Sea-weeds, Algae


Self heal, Prunella vulgaris


Scurvy-grass, Cochlearia-officinalis


Shamrock family, Trifolium


Sheep's bit, Jasione morstana


Silverweed, Potentilla anserina


Sloe, Prunis communis

Drine doo, Drine arn

Sneezewort, Achillea ptarmica


Sorrel, Rurnex acetosa


Spear thistle, Cnicus lanceolatus

Onnane sleigh

Spearwort (lesser), Ranunculus flammula

Lus y-binjey

Spurge, Euphorbia helioscopia


Spurrey, Spergula arvensis


Stone bramble, Rubus saxatilis


Strawberry (wild), Fragaria vesta

Soo crou

Sundew, Drosera rotundifolia

Lus-y-druight, Lus-y-ghraih

Sweet meadow grass, Anthoxanthunr odoratum.

 Faiyr sonnys

Teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris


Thistle, Cnicus arvensis, etc


Thrift, Armeria vulgaris

Keirn jiarg

Thyme (wild), Thymus serpyllum

Thyme thallooin

Tormentil, Potentilla tormentilla

Lus-y-vuinney, Crammelt-y-muck

Turnip, Brassica rapa


Valerian, Valeriana officinalis

Kere hallooin

Vervain, Verbena officinalis

Vervine, Yn luss

Vernal grass, Erophila vulgaris

Bossan ingey

Vetch, Vicia ap-

Pishyr cabbal, Pishyr lughag

Violet (common dog violet) V. sylvatica

Sumark gorrym

Walnut, Juglans regia


Water hemlock, Circuta virosa


Water parsnip, Sium angustifolium


Water pepper, Polygonum hydropiper.




Willow (creeping), Salix repens

Tuig-y yeeighey

Willow herb, Epilobium montanum

Lus-ny shellee

Wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella


Wormwood, Artemisia absinthium


Yarrow, Achillea millefolium


Yellow bedstraw, Galium verum


Yellow weed, Reseda luteola

Wullee wus, Lus-y-wee

 Manx Note Book  [Full Text Index]  

see YLM 3 pp314/7

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