(Chronicle of Man and the Isles) - 1164-1225
[please note Munch's footnotes, textual readings and the latin text are still to be added and/or corrected]
Anno MCLXIv. (1164). Sumerledus a collegit classem centum sexaginta navium, et applicuit apud Rinfrin, volens totam Scotiam sibi subjugare. Sed ultione divina a paucis superatus, cum filio suo et innumerabili populo ibidem occisus est.
Eodem anno bellum fuit apud Raniso inter Reginaldum fratrem Godredi et Mannenses; et, propter dolum cujusdam Vicecomitis, Mannenses in fugam conversi snut et Reginaldus coepit regnare. Quarto autem die supervenit Godredus de Norwegia cum magna multitudine armatorum, et fratrem suum Reginaldum comprehendit, et oculis et genitalihus privavit. Eodcm anno obiit Malcolmus Rex 7, Scotiae, et frater ejus Willelmus ci successit in regnum.
Anno McLxvi. (1166). Duo comct~e apparuerunt ante solis ortum mense Augusti, unus ad austrum, altera ad aquil onem.
Anno MCLXXI. (1171). Richardus comes de Penbinoc transfinetavit in Ybeinniam,3 et Dubliniam cum magna parte Ybernite subjugavit.
Anno MCLXXI. (1171)." Henricus rex Angliw fecit' coronani filium snum Hennicum pueinum in regem apud Lundoniam .xi. kal. Junii, et in die Dominica consecrani a Rogero usurpatore Eboracensi archiepiscopo; qui in alienam provinciam jus et officium alienum contra canones per regis et propriam tyrannidem, vivente vencrabili Thoma Anchi episcopo Cantuaria~ et in Galliis 2 exulante, sibi usurpavit. Eodem anno, in festivitate apostoloinum Petni et Pauli, subito terne motus ingens et hoinrendus factus est.
bAnno MCLXXI. (1171). Beat~e memorke Thomas Cantu arke Archiepiscopus et apostolic~e sedis legatus, Pnimas ~ totius Anglke, venus Chnisti martyr, pro justitia in ecelesia su~ sedis detinuncatus est.
Anno McLXXvI. (1176). Johannes de Cursi sibi subjugavit Ultoniam. Eodem anno Vivianus,0 apostolicte sedis legatus Cardinalis, venit in Manniam, et legationis sure ofticium coin plens Godredum regem legitime desponsani fecit cum uxore sua nomine Phingola,d fihia Mac Loden flu Murkartac4 regis YbeinniLe, matre scilicet Olavi qui tunc triennis erat. IDe spor~savit autem eos Silvanus Abbas de5 Ricualis. Ipsa die Godredus rex dedit in oblationem venerabili Abbati Silvano partem teinr~c apud Mirescog,e ubi mox monastenium con struxit; sed processu temponis terra tota cum monachis concessa est abbatke Sanette Marke de Russin.
Anno MCLXXXII. (1182)! Reginaldus films Eacmarcat in Manniam veniens, quidam scilicet vir de regali genere, cum magna turba hominum, absente rege, pnimo congressu quos dam qui litora custodiebant fugavit, et occidit cx us circiter .xxti homines. Postea vero cadem die congregati Mannenses in unum ci viniliter occurrerunt, ipsuinque cum omnibus pene suis occiderunt.
Anno MCLXXXIII. (1183). Obiit Fogolt Vicecomes de Mannia.'
Anno MCLXXXV. (1185). Sol passus est eclipsim in die apostolorum Phiippi et Jacobi ita ut steilte apparerent.
Anno MCLXXXVII. (1187). Capta est Icrusalem a paganis, et Sancta Crux sublata est Damascnm. Eodem anno obiit Godredus rex insularum iv. idus Novembris in insula Sancti Patnicii in Mannia. Prima vero restate translatum est corpus ejus ad insulam qu~e vocatur Hy. Reliquit sane tines filios, Reginaldum, Olavum et Yvarum. Reginaldus robustus tune juvenis fuit in insulanis partibus, Olavus vero tenellus adhuc puer morabatur in Mannia.
Godredus, dum adhuc viveret, Olavum filium swum regni lueredem constituit, quia ad ipsum june spectabat htereditas, nam de legitimo matnimonio natus fuit, pr~ecepitque omni Manensi populo, ut eum post suum obitum, sicut decebat, regem constituerent2 atque irrefragabile conservarent ci sure fidei juramentum. Sed mortuo Godredo M~nnenses legatos suos ad insulas propter Reginaldum miserant, quia yin strennus et fortionis ~etatis fuerat, et eum sibi regem constituerunt.
Tin,cbant vero imbecillitatem3 a Olavi, utpote decennis pueni,
et arbitrabantur, quod is qui se propter ~etatis tenenitudinem regere nesciebat, subjectum sibi populum gubernare minime potuisset. Et htec fuit causa pro qua Mannensis populus Reginaldum sibi regem constituit.
Anno MCLXXXVIII. (1188). Reginaldus flljus Godredi coepit regnare super insulas. Eodem anno occisus est Murcardus vir potens et strennus in omni regno insul arum.
Anno MCLXXXIX. (1189). Obiit Henricus rex Anglke, cui successit Ricardus films ejus. Eodcm anno obiit Rodolfus,' Abbas de Fumes, in Mellefonte.
Anno MCXC. (1190). Philippus rex Franche et Ricardus rex Anglia3 profecti sunt Ierusalem2 cum magnis exerciti bus.
Anno MCXCII. (1192). Commissum est bellum inter filios Sumerledi Reginaldum et Engus, in quo hello multi vulnerati corrueinunt. Engns tamen victoniam obtinuit. Eodem anno Abbatia Sanct~n Mania3 de Russin translata est ad Dufglas, ibique per quatuor annos habitantes iterum ad Russin reversi sunt.
Anno MCXCIII. (1193). Ricardus rex Anglke reversus est ab Jerosolimis, et in Almannia3 captus est; pro cujus ic demptione Anglia persolvit centum millia marcharum.
Anno MCXCIII. (1193). Obiit Michael episcopus insularum apud Fontanas, cui successit Nicholaus in episcopatum.
Anno MCCIV. (1204). Hugo de Lacy venit cum exercitu Ultoniam et commisit bellum cum Johanne de Cursi, eunique comprehendit et vinculis mancipavit, et Ultoniam sibi subju gavit. Postca vero Johannem liberum ire permisit. Qui cum dimissus esset venit ad regem Reginaldum, a quo honori flee susceptus est, quia erat gener ejus. Johannes quidem de Cursi habuit filiam Godredi, nomine Affnicam,4 in matnimo nium, qu~ fundavit Abbatiam Sancta~ Marke a de Jugo Pci, qu~o ibidem sepulta est.
Anno MCCV. (1205). Johannes de Cursi iterum resumptis vinibus congregavit copiosam multitudinem, sed et Reginaldmu regem Insularum cum centum ferme navibus secum duxit ad Ultoniam. Cunique applicuissent in portum qui vocatur Stranfeord,' segniter obsederunt castelluni de Roth. Super venit autem Walterus de Lacy cum exercitu magno, et cos cum magna confusione fugavit, cx quo tempore Johannes do Cursi nunquam terrain suam recuperavit.
Anno MCCX. (1210). Engus films Sumerledi cum tnibus filiis suis occisus est. Eodem anno Johannes2 rex Auglite classeni quingentainum navium ad Yberniam duxit, cainque sibi subjugavit, et mittens ~ partem exercitus sui cum comite quodam nomine Fulco4 ad Manniam, cam in una quindena fere omnino devastaveinunt, et suscipientes obsides ex ea re versi siwit in patniam suam. Reginaldus autein rex et opti mates ejus non erant in Mannia.
In the year 1164, Somerled assembled a fleet of 160 ships and put in at Renfrew, with the intention of subduing the whole of Scotland. But through divine punishment he was overcome by a small number of foes, and there slain with his son and a vast number of his people.
In the same year there was a battle at Ramsey between
Reginald, brother of Godred, and the Manxmen, and throngh
the treachery of a certain Viscount the Manxmen were put to
flight and Reginald began to reign. On the fourth, day,
however, Godred returned from Norway with a large body of
troops, and seizing his brother, mutilated, and deprived him
of his sight.
In the year 1166, two comets appeared before sunrise in the month of August, one to the south and the other to the north.
In the year 1171, Richard, Earl of Pembroke, sailed to
Ireland, and subdued Dublin, with a great part of
In the year 1171, Thomas of holy memory, Archbishop of Canterbury, and legate of the Holy See, Primate of all England, true martyr of Christ, was assassinated in the church of his See.
In the year 1176, John de Courcy subdued Ulster. In the same year Vivian, Cardinal legate of the apostolic See, came to Man, and in the discharge of his office caused Godred to be united in lawful marriage with his wife, the daughter of MacLoughlin, son of Muinrough, King of Ireland, who was mother of Olave then three years old. They were married by Silvanus, Abbot of Rivaulx.
On the same day Godred gave to the Abbot Silvanus a piece of land at Mirescoge, where he soon built a monastery; but in process of time the land and the monks were made over to the abbey of St. Mary of Rushen.
In the year 1182, Reginald, son of Eacmarchat, a man of the royal race, came to Man with a large number of followers, during the absence of the king; and in the first combat put to flight a party of those who guarded the coast, killing about twenty of them. Later on, however, in the same day, the Manxmen, assembling in a body, manfully encountered and slew him with nearly all his followers.
In the 1183, died Foceolt Viscount of Man.
In the year 1185, on the day of the apostles Philip and James, the sun was eclipsed, so that the stars appeared.
In the year 1187, Jerusalem was captured by the pagans (infidels), and the holy cross was carried away to Damascus.
In the same year, on the 10th of November, Godred, King of the Isles, died in the Island of St. Patrick, in Man. In the beginning of the following summer his body was removed to the Island called lona. He left three sons, Reginald, Olave, and Ivan. Reginald, then a full grown young man, was absent in the Isles. Olave, yet a very young boy, resided in Man.
Godred during his life had appointed Olave to succeed to the kingdom, for the inheritance belonged to him by right, because he was born of lawful wedlock; and had commanded all the people of Man to appoint Olave king after his own death, and preserve inviolate their oath of allegiance. How ever, after the death of Godred, the Manxmen sent their messengers to the Isles for Reginald, and made him king, be cause he was a man of energy and of riper age. For they dreaded the weakness of Olave, for he was but a boy ten years old, and they considered that a person, who on account of his tender age, knew not how to direct himself, would be wholly incapable of governing his subjects. This was the reason why the people of Man appointed Reginald king.
In the year 1188, Reginald, son of Godred, began to reign over the Isles. In the same year was killed Murrough, a chief whose power and energy were felt throughout the whole kingdom of the Isles.
ln the year 1189, died Henry King of England. He was succeeded by his son Richard. In the same year Rodoiph, Abbot of Fuinness, died at Mellifont.
In the year 1190, Philip, King of France, and Richard, King of England, set out for Jerusalem with large armies.
In the year 1192, there was a contest between the sons of Somerled, Reginald, and Angus, in which many were wounded and fell, but Angus gained the victory. In the same year, the abbey of St. Many of Rushen was removed to Pouglas. After remaining there four years the monks returned to Rushen.
In the year 1193, Richard, King of England, returned from Jerusalem and was made prisoner in Germany; for his ransom England paid 100,000 marcs.
In the year 1193, died Michael, Bishop of the Isles, at Fountains. He was succeeded in the episcopacy by Nicholas.
In the year 1204, Hugh de Lacy entered Ulster with an army, gave battle to John de Councy, took him prisoner, and put him in chains, and subdued Ulster. Afterwards he gave John his liberty. John, on his delivery from prison, went to King Reginald, by whom he was received with distinction, because he was his brother-in-law. John de Courcy married a daughter of Godred, called Affrica, who founded the monastery of St. Mary, of the Yoke of God, where she was interred.
In the year 1205, John de Courcy, recovering his strength, collected a large force, and was accompanied by Reginald, King of the Isles, with nearly one hundred ships, to Ulster. Putting into the port called Strangford, they laid siege, but carelessly, to the fort of Rath. Walter do Lacy came upon them with a large army, and totally routed them; aiid after that time John do Courcy never recovered his pos sessions.
In the year 1210, Angus, son of Somerled, was killed, with his three sons. In the same year, John, King of Eng land, with a fleet of 50 ships, went to Ireland and subdued it. He sent a part of the army, with an earl of the name of Fulke, to Man. This force in fifteen days devastated nearly the whole island, and receiving hostages returned home. King Reginald, however, and his nobles were absent from Man at the time.
Anno MCCXvII. (1217).a Obiit Nicholaus episcopus insu larum, et sepultus est in Ultonia in domo de Benchor, eni successit Reginaldus in episcopatu.
Libet" adhuc, ad ~edificationem legentium, de gestis Reginaldi et Olavi fratrum aliquid compendiosius 6 retexere.
Reginaldus dedit fratni suo Olavo insulam quandam7 qute vocatur Lodhus, qu~ cetenis insulis latior esse dicitur, sed ranis colitur incolis,8 quod montuosa et saxosa sit, et tota fere inarabilis. Incolce vero illius plerunique de venatione et piscatura vivunt. Ad hauc ergo insulain possideudam Olavus profectus est, et habitavit in ea, pauperem ducens vitam. Cumque vidisset cam ad sustentationem suam et sui exercitus minime sufficere, accessit fiducialiter9 ad Reginaldum fratrem snum, qui tune morabatur in insulis, et sic allocutus est eum:
"Frater" inquit, "et domine mi rex, tu nosti quod regnum in sularum ad me june htereditaniole pertinuit, sed quia Dominus ad hoc gubeinnandum te elegerat, non invideo tibi, nec moleste fero, te esse in regali culmine sullimatum," Nunc ergo te deprecor, ut provideas mihi' ahiquam portionem terne in insulis, in qua honeste cum meis possim vivere; nam insula Lodhus,2 quam mihi dedisti, me sustentare non valet." Quod cuni audiisset ~ frater ejus Reginaldus, habituruni se cum suis super hoc promittebat commsihium; et crastina die ci super hac petitione sua responsurum. Cum crastina dies illuxisset, et Olavus vocatus venisset ad colloquium Reginaldi," iussit eum Reginaldus comprehendi et catenis vincini, vinctumque duci ad Willelmum regem Scotite, ut penes ipsum in carcere ser varetur; quod ita factum est, fuitque Ohavus catenatus ~ in carcere regis Scotite fere septem annisi~ Septimo an tem anno obiit Willelmuns rex Scotke, cui successit Alexander7, fihimms ems, qui antequam moreretur, jussit ut omnes vincti, qui apud eum carceribus tenebantur, hiberarentur. Ohavus igitur hiberatus a vinculis et sure redditus hibertati venit ad Manniam ad Reginaldum fratrem suum, moxqne cum non modico comi tatu viroinum nobihium ad Sanctum Jacobum' profectus est; rediensque de peregninatione venit iteinum ad Reginandum1 Q) fratremn snum, et pacifice susceptus est ab eo. Ipso8 tempore fecit Reginaldus Olavum fratrem suum desponsare uxorem fihiam cujusdam nobihis de Kentyre, germanam uxonis snt~, nomine Lauon,9 deditque ci Lodhus puedictam insulam in possessionem, profectusque est Olavus cum uxore sna, vale dicens fratni suo, et habitavit in Lodhus.
Post ahiquantos autem dies Reginandus (!) episcopus insula rum, qni successit Nicholao Episcopo, venit ad insulanas partes ut visitaret ecclesias.cl Cui occuinrens Ohavus cum gaudio, et hetus de adventu ejus, utpote fihii soronis sine, jussit magnum convivium pr~panari. Reginandus vero dixit ad Olavum: "non communicabo tecuin, frater, donec ab ilhiciti inatnimonii vinculo canonice cathohica te solvat ecelesia ;" et addidit: "an ignoras quia consobninam inuhienis, quam nunc habes uxorein, ante habuisti ?" Nec abnuit Olavus, quod verum fuerat, et consobninam ejus se multo teinpore conen binam habuisse testatus est. Congregata igitur synodo, Reginaldus episcopus Olavuin Godredi fihium et Lauon uxorem suam canonice separavit. Post haec Olavus Scnistinain(!)' fihiam Ferkkar2 Coinitis de Pos duxit in matrmmonium. a
IDolens autem uxor Reginaldi regis, regina Insularuin, tunc teinponis super disjunctione soronis sute et Olavi,3 et mota fe]he amanitudinis, totius quoque4 discordite seininatrix inter Reginaldum et Olavum, inisit literas latenter sub nomine Reginaldi regis ad Godredum fihium snum ad insulam Ski, ut Olavum comprehenderet et occideret. Godredus inox, auditis littenis, collegit exercitum, et revera perversam5 matnis peractuinus6 voluntatem, si posset, venit ad Lodhus. Olavus vero cum paucis vinis ascendens scapham inodicam, et vix fugiens a facie Godredi, venit ad socerum suum Comitem de Ros. Godredus antem, tota fere destructa insula et occisis quibusdam hominibus, redit7 ad propnia.
Eo tempore Vice-Comes de Ski yin strenuns et potens in oinni regno insulainum Pol films Boke7, fugit a facie Godredi, co quod neci Olavi consentire noluit, et habitavit cum comite de Ros una cum Olavo. Paucis transactis diebus Olavus et pintedictus Vicecoines amicitite foedus inieinunt, inediante utniusque jurainento, et veneinunt pariter cum una navi ad Ski et occultaverunt se in abditis locis ahiquantis diebus. Denique missis exploratonibus didicenunt, quod Godredus in quadaminsula, quae vocabatur insula sancti Colurnbae, secure cum paucis hominibus moraretur. Et coadunantes sibi omnes amicos et notos suos, et cos qui se sponte sibi jungere vo1ue~ runt, intempeste noctis silentio tractis quinque navibus de proxilno mans litore, quod ad duorum stadiorum spatiuin dis tabat a prc ~dicta insula, insulain circumdedernnt. Godredus autem et qui curn ipso fuerant surgentes primo diluculo et videntes se undique circumeeptos (1)1 ab bostibus obstupue runt. Seci armis induti bellicis viriter2 resistere conati sunt, sed frustra, nam circa horam diei nonani Olavus et Pol pr - dictus vicecomes cum omm suo exercita, insulam ingressi sunt ; et occisis omnibus, quos extra cepta ()~ ecclesL repere runt, Godredum coinprehens urn oculis et genital ibus privave runt. Quo () tamen facto Olavus non concessit,4 nec resistere potuit propter fihium Boke praedictum Vicecomitem. Factum est hoc anno gratire ~iccxxui.
In the year 1217, Nicholas, Bishop of the Isles died, and was buried in Ulster, in the monastery of Bangor, and was succeeded in the episcopacy by Reginald.
Here we think it well, for the benefit of our readers, to rehearse briefly something of the history of Reginald and Olave.
Reginald gave his brother Olave a certain island called Lewis, which is said to be more extensive than the other islands, but thinly peopled, because it is mountainous and rocky, and almost totally unfit for cultivation. The inhabitants live mostly by hunting and fishing. Olave took possession of this island and dwelt there; living, how ever, very scantily. Finding that the island could not support himself and his followers, he went frankly to his brother Reginald, who was then residing in the Isles, and spoke to him as follows: "You know, my brother and king, that the kingdom of the Isles was mine by hereditary right, but as the Lord chose you for its governor, I do not grudge it you, nor am I discontented because you have been raised to the supreme dignity of king. I now there-fore beg that you will allot me hand somewhere in the Isles sufficient for my own decent maintenance and that of my followers, for the island of Lewis which you gave me is unequal to my support." When Reginald had heard this, he promised to take advice on the subject, and return an answer to the petition next day. When next day had dawned, and Olave had conic by summons, to speak with the king, Reginald ordered him to be seized, bound, and carried in chains to William, King of Scotland, to be kept prisoner by that Sov ereign. This order was executed, and Olave remained pri soner with the King of Scotlamid nearly seven years. In the seventh year, William, king of Scotland, died, and was suc ceeded by his son Alexander. Before his death, however, William gave directions for the liberation of all who were confined in his prisons. Olave then, having his chains removed, and being restored to liberty, went to Man to his brother Reginald, and shortly afterwards set out with a considerable attendance of men of rank for the shrine of St. James. Returning from the pilgrimage, he again visited his brother Reginald, by whom he was received in a friendly manner. At that timne Reginald caused his brother Olave to marry Lanon' the daughter of a certain man of rank of Kintyre, sister to his own wife, and gave hium the aforesaid island of Lewis, whither Olave, taking leave of his brother, went with his wife, amid dwelt there.
After some days, Reginald bishop of the Isles, successor to bishop Nicholas, came to the Isles to visit the churches. Olave went to meet him with great alacrity, and was glad of his arrival, for the bishop was son of Olave's sister, and ordered a great banquet to be prepared. Reginald, however, said to Olave "I will not hold communication with you, brother, till the Catholic Church has canonically released you from the bonds of an unlawful marriage." The bishop added:
"Know you not that you lived long with the cousin of her whom you now have as your wife?" Olave did not deny the truth of what had been said, and acknowledged that he had long kept her cousin as a concubine. A synod therefore was assembled, and in it bishop Reginald canonically separated Olave the son of Godred and Lauon his wife. Afterwards, Olave married Christina, daughter of Fenquhard, Earl of Ross.
But the wife of King Reginald, Queen of the Isles, pained by the separation of her sister from Olave, and moved by the gall of bitterness, and sower of all the discord between Reginald and Olave, wrote secretly in the name of King Reginald, to her son Godred, who was in the isle of Sky, to seize and kill Olave. Godred, on receipt of the letter, collected a force and went to Lewis for the purpose of carrying out, if he could, his mother's truly wicked desires. Olave, however, entering a small boat, with a few men, with difficulty avoided Godred, and fled to his father-in-law, the Earl of Ross, whilst Godred laid waste nearly the whole island, killed a few of the inhabitants, and returned home.
At that time the Viscount of Sky, whose power and energy were felt throughout the whole kingdom of the Isles, Pdll the son of Bdhki, having refused to consent to the murder of Olave, fled from Godred, and resided as well as Olave with the Earl of Ross. After a few days Olave, and the aforesaid Viscount of Sky, entered into a covenant of friendship, confirmed on either side by oath, and went together with a single vessel to Skye, where they concealed themselves for some days in secret places; they then learned from the spies they had sent out that Godred was residing in a certain island, called the island of St. Coim, without apprehension, with very few attendants, Upon this, assembling all their friends and acquaintances, and all who were willing to join them, they surrounded the island during the silence of deep night, bringing over five ships from the nearest point of the shore, which was two furlongs from the above mentioned island. Godred and his companions were thrown into consternation when, rising early in the morning, they saw themselves surrounded. Being armed, however, they undertook to resist manfully, but in vain ; for about nine o'clock in the morning Olave, and Pdll~ the aforesaid Viscount, entered the island with all their force, and putting all to death who were found outside the precincts of the church, they seized Godred, mutilated and deprived him of his eyes. Olave, however, did not give his consent to this deed, but was unable to prevent it on account of Bdlki the aforesaid Viscount. This happened in the year of grace 1223.