[Manx Soc vol 22 Chronicle of Man and the Sudreys]
[note - the footnotes, textual queries and the latin are still to be added and/or corrected]
Incipiunt chronica regum Manniae et Insularum et episcoporum et quorundam regum Angliae, Scotiae, Norwegiae.
ANNO ab incarnatione1 Domini M. (1017)a Rex Cnutus filius Suani 1b totius Angiae suscepit imperium. Postea, occiso Edwino 2 clitone germano3c regis Edmundi,d filios regis ejus dem Edmundum et Edwardum ad Regem Suauorum 4 occidendos misit c. Qui nolens occidere pueros innocentes eos ad regem Hungariae Salomonem misit,e Edmundus 5 autem processu temporis ibidem vitam finivit: Edwardus vero Agatham, filiam germani imperatoris Henrici, in matrimonium accepit, ex qua Margaretam, postea Scotorum reginam, et Christinam, sanctimonialem virginem, et clitonem Edgarum suscepit. Cnutus Rex duxit uxorem Emmam, ex qua suscepit Hardecnutum postea Danorum et Anglorum regem, et Gunnildam filiam qute nupsit postea Henrico Romanorum Imperatori.
TRANSLATION OF THE CHRONICLE.
Here begin the Chronicles of the Kings and of the Bishops of Man and of the Isles, and of some of the Kings of England, of Scotland, and of Norway.
IN the year 1000 from the Incarnation of our Lord, King Canute, son of Sweyn, began to rule all England. After a while, having put to death Edwin the Etheling, brother of King Edmund, he sent Edmund and Edward, sons of the same king, to the King of the Swedes, to be put to death. The latter, unwilling to kill the innocent children, sent them to Solomon, King of Hungary, where Edmund, in course of time, ended his life; while Edward married Agatha, daughter of Henry, Emperor of Germany, by whom he had issue, Margaret, afterwards Queen of Scotland; Christina, a cloistered virgin; and Edgar the Etheling. King Canute married Emma, by whom he had issue Hardecanute, afterwards King of the Danes and of the English; and a daughter, Gunhilda, who was afterwards married to Henry, Emperor of the Romans.
MIL. (1019) Cnutus rex Anglorum et Danorum Danmarc adiens ibidem per totam hyemem mansit gloriosae.
In the year 1002, Canute, King of the English and of the Danes, went to Denmark, and there passed the whole winter in great splendour.
Anno MIII. (1020). Rex Cnutus Angliam rediens magnum concilium apud Cyrecestrem in pascha tenuit.
Anno MXI. (1028). Rex Cnutus, cum L. magnis navibus Norwegiam devectus Olavum regem de illa expulit,1 sibique eam subjugavit.a
Anno MXII. (1029). Cnutus rex Anglorum Danorum et Noreganorum rediit.
Anno MXIII. (1030). Sanctus Olavus rex, Haraldi regis filius, quem Cnutus expulerat, reversus est in Norwegiam, et injuste b peremtus a Noreganis,2 glorioso coronatus martyrio, migravit ad Dominum.c
Anno MXIV. (1031).d Rex Cuntus magno cum honore ingentia in b Romam profectus est, et munera auro et argento Sancto Petro obtulit, et ut schola Anglorum libera e esset a Johanne papa impetravit.
Anno MXV. (1032). Ecclesia sancti Edmundi regis et martyris dedicata est, in qua rex Cnutus communi consilio praesulum et optimatum suorum ejectis presbyteris 8 saecularibus monachos imposuit. Eodem anno ignis inexstinguibilis multa per Angliam loca cremavit.
Anno MXVII. (1034). Malcolm Rex Scotorum obiit, cui Duncan successit in regnum f
In the year 1003, King Canute, returning to England, held a great council in Cirencester at Easter.
In the year 1011, King Canute sailed to Norway with 50 large ships, drove out King Olave, and brought it under subjection to himself.
In the year 1012, Canute, King of the English, and of the Danes, and of the Norwegians, returned.
In the year 1013, St. Olave the king, son of King Harold, returned to Norway, whence he had been driven by Canute, and being unrighteously killed by the Norwegians, passed to the Lord with the glorious crown of martyrdom.
In the year 1014, King Canute proceeded to Rome in great splendour, made immense presents in gold and silver to St. Peter, and obtained from Pope John exemption for the English establishment in Rome.
In the year 1015 was celebrated the dedication of the Church of St. Edmund, king and martyr, in which, by the advice of his prelates and nobles, Canute established regulars, removing the secular priests. In the same year, fire which could not be quenched, consumed many places in England.
In the year 1017, Malcolm, King of the Scots, died, and was succeeded by Duncan.
Anno MXVIII. (1035). Cnutus rex Anglorum ante snum obitum super Noreganos Snuanum4 filium snum constituit, super Danos Hardecnutum filium et Emm~e regime filium regem locavit; super Anglos vero Haraldum filium snum ex ~ Elfiva procreatum. Postea vero Cnutus rex Idus Novembris apud Sceaftesburiam' pnesenti vita decessit. Wintoniae in veteri monasterio satis honorifice tumulatur.
Non multo post tamen regnum Anglite inter Haraldum et Hardecnutum dividitur. Eodem anno Robertus dux Norman ni~ obiit, cui succe ssit filius ejus Willelmus Bastard puer.
Anno MXXII. (1037). Haraldus, rex Merciorum et Nor humorum (!),2 eligitur ut per totam Angliam regnaret, spreto fratre sno Hardeenuto, quia nimium in Danmarc morabatur.
Anno MXXIII. (1040). Obiit Haraldus rex Lundonis, et in Uestmuster ~ sepelitur, cni Hardecuntus successit.
Anno MXXVII. (1046). Magnus rex Norwegi~e sancti4 Olani regis films, fugato rege Danorum Suano, Danmarc sibi subjugavit.
Anno MXXVIII. (1047). Magnus Rex cum Suano pnnlium commisit, illum de Dannemarc expulit, et in illa regnavit, ac non multo post obiit.
Anno MXXIX. (1048). Snanus Danmarchiam iterum re cepit,5 et Haraldus Harphagrea regis Sywardi films Norwegiani recepit. Ipse vero ex parte matris frater sancti Olavi erat, patruns scilicet Magni regis. Hic cum Anglorum rege per nuncios suos pacem fecit. Eodem anno terne motus magnus6 exstitit.
Anno MXXXV. (1054). Dux Norhymbriorum Sywardus jussn regis Ednuini Scotiam cum multo exercitu intrans pnelium cum rege Scotiae Mactheath (!) ~' commisit, illumque fugavit, et Malcolmum, ut rex jusserat, regem constituit.
Anno MXXXVI. MXXXVII. MXXXVIII. MXXXIX. MXL. MXLI. MXLII. MXLIII. MXLIV. nihil memoriae7
In the year 1018, Canute, King of the English, before his death, appointed his son Sweyn over the Norwegians; over the Danes he placed, as King, Hardecanute, his son by Queen Emma; and over the English, Harold, his son by Algive of Hampton. Afterwards King Canute departed this life at Shaftesbury, on the 13th of November. He is buried with becoming distinction in the old monastery at Winchester.
Not long after, however, the kingdom of England was divided between Harold and Hardecanute. During the same year, Robert, Duke of Normandy died, and was succeeded by his son, William the Bastard, yet a boy.
In the year 1022, Harold King of the Mercians and Northumbrians is elected to reign over all England, his brother Hardecanute being set aside because he remained too long in Denmark.
In the year 1023, King Harold died in London, and is buried at Westminster; Hardecanute succeeded him.
In the year 1027, Magnus, King of Norway, son of King St. Olave, having expelled Sweyn, King of the Swedes, sub jugated Denmark.
In the year 1028, King Magnus gave battle to Sweyn, expelled him from Denmark, and reigned in it, and not long after died.
In the year 1029, Sweyn recovered possession of Denmark, and Harold Harfager, the son of King Siward, recovered Norway. The latter was, by his mother's side, brother of St. Olave, that is to say, uncle to King Magnus. He made peace, through his envoys, with the King of England. In the same year there was a great earthquake.
In the year 1035, Siward, Duke of the Northumbrians, by order of King Edwin entered Scotland with a large army, gave battle to Macbeth, put him to flight, and made Malcolm king, as Edwin had ordered.
1036, 1037, 1038, 1039, 1040, 1041, 1042, 1043, 1044,
Nothing to record.
Anno MXLV. (1064). Norualorum rex Grifinus a suis interficitur,1 caputque ejus cum ornatura comiti Haraldo mittitur, quod mox ille regi Edwardo detulit. Rex vero Edwardus terrain ipsius duobus fratribus a suis concessit.
Anno MXLVII. (1066).b Obiit phe memoriae Edwardus rex Angliae, de quo dicitur, quod erat honor et gloria Anglorum dum vixit, et eorundem ruina dum moritur. Cui successit in regnum Haraldus filius Goduini, contra quem Haraldus Harfarger c rex Norwegiae praelium commisit apud Stamford brige 2 et Angli victores existentes maximam cladem Norwegientium fecerunt, et omnes in fugam compulerunt. De qua fuga quidam Godredus d cognomento Crouan filius Haraldi nigri de Ysland e fugiens venit ad Godredum filium Sytric qui tune regnavit in Mannia, et honorifice susceptus est ab eo. Eodem anno Willelunus Bastard Angliam debel lavit, Haraldum regem occidit, et pro eo regnavit, et Anglos perpetua~ servituti subdidit. Prfefuit autem genti Anglorum annus .XXti, mensibus .xi, cui successit films ejus.
Anno MLI. (1070). Malcolinus rex Scotiae Angliam vastavit usque Clibland4 et Margaretam in matrimonium ac cepit. Eodem anno obiit Godredus films Sytric rex Manniae, eni successit filius ejus Fingal.
Anno autem MLVI. (1075). Godredus Crouan collegit multitudinem navium et venit ad Manniam, pnelium cum populo terrte commisit, sed superatus et fngatus est. Iterum exercitnun et naves coadunavit, venit ad Manniam, pugnavit cum Mannensibus, victus et fugatus est. Tertio congregavit multitudinem copiosaim et venit noctu ad portum, qui vocatus est Ramsa, 1 et trecentos viros occultavit in silva, quae erat in devexo montis supercilio, qui vocatur Scacafel. Orto lucis sidere, Mannenses construxerunt aciem suam, et magno impetu facto congressi sunt cum Godredo. Cumque pugna vehemeus esset, treceriti viri, surgentes de insidiarum loco a tergo, Mannenses debilitare coeperunt et in fugam compellere. Cum autem vidissent se superatos, nec aliquem diffugii sibi locum patere, - nam reuma maris Ramso amnis alveum mm pleverat - et hostes ex altera parte constantes se persequentes, qui tunc remanserant, clamore miserabili postulabant a Godredo vitam sibi donari. Ille autem flexus misericordia et miserans calamitatem eorum, quum 2 apud ipsos per aliquod tempus nutritus fuerat, revocavit exercitum, et prohibuit ne eos diutius persequerentur. Godredus sequenti die optionem exercitni suo dedit, vel 3 si mallent Manniam inter se dividere et in ea habitare, vel cunctam substantiam terrae accipere, et ad propria remeare. Illis autem magis placuit totam insulam vastare et de bonis illius ditari, et sic ad propria reverti. Godredus autem4 paucis qui secuni remanserant de insu]anis australeni partem insuhe, et reliquiis Mannensiuni aquilonarem tali pacto concessit, ut nemo eorum aliquando auderet jure htereditanio sibi aliquam partem terrte usunpare. Unde accidit ut usque in hodiernum diem tota insula solins regis sit, et ornues redditus ejus ad ipsum pertineant.
Igitur Godredus subjugavit sibi Dubliniam et magnam partem de Laynestir. Scotos vero ita perdomuit, ut nullus qui fabricaret navem vel scapham ausus esset plus quam tres clavo 5 a inserere. Regnavit autem sexdecem annos et mortuus est in insula quae vocatur Yle.a Reliquit sane tres filios, Lagmannum, Haraldum, et Olavum.b Lagmannus major natu, regnum arripiens, septem annos regnavit. Rebel lavit autem contra eum Haraldus frater ejus multo tempore. Sed tandem captus a Lagmanno, genitalibus et oculis privatus est. Post ha~c Lagmannus poenitens, quod fratris sui oculos eruisset, sponte regnum snumn dimnisit, et signo crucis domi nicre insignitus, iter Jerosolimitanum arripuit, quo et mortuus est.
In the year 1045, Griffith, King of the North Welsh, was killed by his own followers, who sent his head and ornaments to Earl Harold, who immediately transmitted them to King Edward; but King Edward gave his territory to the two brothers of Griffith.
In the year 1046.
In the year 1047, died Edward, King of England, of pious memory, of whom it is said that he was the honour and glory of the English during his life, and their ruin at his death. He was succeeded by Harold the son of Godwin, whom Harold Harfager encountered at Stamford Bridge. The English prevailed, put all the Norwegians to flight, slaying many of them. From that defeat, a certain Godred, called Crouan, son of Harold the Black of Ysland, escaped to Godred, son of Sytric, then King of Man, by whom he was received with honour. In the same year William the Bastard conquered England, slew King Harold, and reigned in his stead, reducing the English to perpetual serfdom. He ruled over the English people twenty years and eleven months, and was succeeded by his son.
In the year 1051, Malcolm, King of Scotland, laid waste England as far as Cleveland, and married Margaret. In the same year died Godred, son of Sytric, King of Man, who was succeeded by his son Fingall.
In the year 1056, Godred Crouan collected a number of ships and came to Man; he gave battle to the natives but was defeated, and forced to fly. Again he assembled an army and a fleet, came to Man, encountered the Manxmen, was defeated and put to fight. A third time he collected a numerous body of followers, came by night to the port called Ramsey, and concealed 300 men in a wood, on the sloping brow of a hill called Scacafel. At daylight the men of Man drew up in order of battle, and, with a mighty rush, encountered Godred. During the heat of the contest the 300 men, rising from the ambuscade in the rear, threw the Manxmen into disorder, and compelled themn to fly. When the natives saw that they were overpowered, and had no means of escape (for the tide had filled the bed of the river Sulby, and on the other side the enemy was closely pursuing them), those who remained, with piteous cries, begged of Godred to spare their lives. Godred, yielding to feelings of mercy, and moved with compassion for their misfortune, for he had been brought up amongst them for some time, recalled his army, and forbade further pursuit. Next day Godred gave his army the option of having the country divided amongst them if they preferred to remain and inhabit it, or of taking everything it contained worth having, and returning to their homes. The soldiers preferred plundering the whole island, and returning home enriched by its wealth. Godred then granted to the few islanders who had remained with him, the southern part of the island, and to the surviving Manxmnen the northern portion, on condition that none of them should ever presume to claim any of the land by hereditary right. Hence it arises that up to the present day the whole island belongs to the king alone, and that all its revenues are his.
Godred then subdued Dublin, and a great part of Leinster, and held the Scots in such subjection that no one who built a vessel dared to insert more than three bolts. He reigned 16 years, and died in the island called Islay. He left three sons, Lagman, Harold, and Olave. Lagman, the oldest, seized the reins of government and reigned seven years. Harold, his brother, continued long in rebellion against him, till at length he was taken, mutilated, and deprived of his eyes. Afterwards, Lagman repenting that he had put out his brother's eyes, voluntarily resigned the kingdom, took the cross, and went to Jerusalem, where he died.
Anno MLXXIII. (1093). Occisus est Malcolmuns rex Scotite ab Anglis,c ciii successit Duncanusi Eodem anno obiit pite memorke Margareta regina Scothe.
Anno MLXXV. (1095). Omnes proceres insularum audi entes mortem Lagmanni, miserunt legatos ad Murecardum Obrien regem Yberni~ie, postulantes nt aliquem virum indus trium de regali stirpe in regem eis mitteret, donec Olavus films Godredi cresceret. Annuit eis rex libentissime, et quendam Dompualdum' filium Tadc C ad eos misit, monens et prrecipiens ci, quatinus2 cum omni benignitate et modestia regnum, quod sibi non debebatur, gubernaret. Sed ille postquam ad regnum pervenit, parvi pendens prtecepta domini sum, cum m agna tyrannide abusus est regno, et multis sceleri bus perpetratis, tribus annis enormuiter regnavit. Tune omnes principes insularum una conspiratione commoti, adversus eum congregati sunt, et expimlerunt a finibus suis. Ille autem fugiens ad Yberniam, non est ultra reversus ad easY
In the year 1073, Malcolm, King of Scotland, was slain by the English, and succeeded by Duncan. In the same year died Margaret, Queen of Scotland, of pious memory.
In the year 1075, all the chiefs of the Isles hearing of the death of Lagman, sent messengers to Murchadh O'Brien, King of Ireland, begging of him to send some competent person of the royal race to be their king, till Olave, son of Godred should have grown up. The king willingly assented, and semit them one Donald, son of Teige, admonishing him to govern with all mildness and moderation, a kingdom which was not his. Donald, however, after taking possession of the kingdom, made light of the directions of his lord, and abusing his power very tyrannically, and committing many enormities, reigned as a monster for three years, after which time all the chiefs of the Isles conspired, and, rising in a body, drove him from their territory. He fled to Ireland and never returned.
Anno MLXXVII. (1097). Quidam Ingemundus a missus est a rege Norwegiae, ut regnum insularum arriperet. Cumque ad insulam Leodus pervenisset, misit nuncios ad omnes principes insularum, praecipiens quatinus1 in unum convenirent et constituerent eum regem. Interim vero ipse cum sociis suis rapinis et comessationibus vacabat, mulienum et puellarum pudicitiam violabat, et ceteris voluptatibus et carnis illecebris operam dabat. Cumque haec nunciata fuissent principibus insularum, jam in unum ad constituen dum eum regem congregatis, nimio succensi furore propera 2 verunt ad eum, et supervenientes nocte, domum in qua erat combusserunt, et eum cum omnibus suis partim ferro, partim flammis exstinxerunt.
Anno MXCVIII. (1098). Fundata est Abbatia Sanctae Mariae Cystercii.3 Antiochia a Christianis capta est et cometa apparuit. Cometa est stella, quae non omni tempore, sed maxime autem in obitu regis aut in excidio religionis apparet. Eodem anno commissum est praelium inter Mannenses apud Santwatc et aquilonares victoriamn obtinuenunt. In quo bello occisi sunt Other comes, et Macmaras, principes ambarum partinum.
Eodem anno Magnusd rex Norwegiae filius Olavi filii Haraldi Harfagrec, volens explorare incorruptionem sancti Olavi regis et martyris, praecepit ut ejus mausolium (!)a aperiretur. Episcopo autem et Clero resistente, ipse rex audacter accessit, et vi regia aperiri sibi scrinium fecit. Cumque et oculis vidisset, et manibus attrectasset incorruptum corpus, subito timor magnus irruit in eum, et cum magna festinatione discessit. Sequenti nocte Olavus rex et martyr ei per visum apparuit, dicens "Elige tibi,1 inquam unum ex duobus, vel vitam cum regno infra triginta dies amittere, vel a Norvegia decedere, et eam amplius nunquam videre." Expergefactus rex a somno, vocavit ad se principes et majores natu, et exposuit eis visionem. Illi autem2 conterriti, hoc consilium dederunt ei, ut cum omni festinatione de Norvegia exiret. Ille sine mora coadunari fecit classem centum sexaginta navium, et ad Orcades3 insulas transfretavit,4 quas sibi statim subjugavit et transitum faciens per universas insulas easque sibi subjiciens pervenit usque ad Manniam. Cumque applicuisset5 ad insulam sancti Patricii,a venit videre locum pugute, quam Mannenses paulo ante inter se commiserant, quia adhuc multa corpora occisorum inhumata erant. Videns autem insulam pulcherrimam, placuit in oculis ejus, eamque sibi in habitationem elegit,6 munitiones in ea construxit, quae usque7 hodie ex ejus nomine nuncupantur. Galwedienses ita con striuxit, nt cogeret cos materias lignorum caedere et ad litus portare ad munitiones construendas. Ad Moiniam (!) insulam Walliaeb navigavit, et duos Hugones comites invenit in ea; unum occidit, altenum fugavit, et insulam sibi subjugavit. Wallenses vero multa munera ei pnebuerunt, et valedicens eis ad Manniam remeavit. Murecardo regi Yberniae misit calceamenta sua, praecipiens ei ut ea super humeros suos in die natalis Domini per medium domus sine portaret in conspectu nunciorum ejus, quatinus intelligeret se subjectumn esse Magno regi. Quod audientes Ybernenses, aegre ferebant, et indignati sit nimis. Sed rex saniori consilio usus, non solum, inquit, calceamenta ejus portare, verum etiam manducare mallem, quam Magnus rex unam provinciam in Ybernia destrueret.c Itaque complevit praeceptum et nuncios honoravit. Multa quoque munera per eos Magno regi transmisit, et foedus composuit. Nuncii vero redeuntes ad8 domninum snum narraverunt ci de situ Yberniae et amoenitate, de frugum fertilitate et aeris salubritate. Magnus vero haec audiens, nihil cogitabat quani totam Yberniam sibi subjugare. Itaque praecepit classem congregare, ipse vero cum sexdecim navibus procedens, explorare volens terram, cum incaute a navibus discessisset, subito ab Ybernensibus circumvallatus, interiit cum omnibus fere qui secum erant. Sepultus est autem juxta ecclesiam Sancti Patricii in Dun.1 Regnavit autem in regno insularum sex annis. Quo Inortuo, misenunt principes insularum propter Olavum filium Godredi Crouan, de quo superius mnentionem fecimus, qui tunc telnporis degebat in curia Henrici regis Anglae, fllii Willelmi, et adduxerunt eum.
Anno MCII. (1102). Olavus films Godredi Crouana coepit regnare super omnes insulas, regnavitque XL.ta annis. Erat autem vir pacificus, habuitque omnes reges Yberniae et Scotiae ita sibi confoederatos, nt nullus auderet perturbare regnum insularum omnibus diebus ejus. Accepit autem uxorem Affricamb nomine filiam Fergus2 de Galwedia, de qua genuit Godredum. Habuit et concubinas plures, c de quibus fihios tres, scilicet Reignaldum, Lagmannum, et Haraldum, et filias multas generavit, quarum una nupsit Sumerledo regulod Herergaidel,3 quae fuit causa ruinae totius regni insularum. Genuit namque ex ea filios IV., Dubgallum, Raignaldum, Engus, et Olavum, do quibus latius in sequentibus dicemus.
In the year 1077, one Ingemund was sent by the King of Norway to take possession of the kingdom of the Isles. When he arrived at the island of Lewis, he sent messengers to all the chiefs of the Isles to summon them to assemble and declare him king. In the meantime he and his followers spent the time in plundering and revelling. They violated girls and matrons, and gave themselves up to every species of pleasure amid sensual gratification. When the news reached the chiefs of the Isles, who had already assembled to appoint him king, they were inflamed with great rage, hastened against him, and coming upon him in the night, set fire to the house in which he was, and destroyed, partly by the sword and partly by the flames, Ingemund and all his followers.
In the year 1098, the abbey of St Mary of Citeaux was founded. Antioch was taken by the Christians, and a comet appeared. A comet is a star which is not always to be seen, but appears most usually on occasion of the death of a kmng, or the downfall of religion. In the same year there was a battle between the Manxmen at Santwat, and those of the North obtained the victory. In this contest were slain the Earl Other, and Macmaras, leaders of the respective parties.
In the same year Magnus, King of Norway, son of Olave, the son of Harald Harfager, wishing to ascertain if the body of St. Olave remained free from corruption, ordered his tomb to be opened. The bishop and clergy resisted the attempt, but the king audaciously came forward, and by royal order had the shrine opened for his inspection. When he had seen with his eyes and touched with his hands the incorrupt body, a great fear suddenly took possession of him, and he departed in great haste. The following night Olave the martyr king appeared to him in a vision, and said, "Choose, I tell you, one of two things, either to lose your kingdom and life within thirty days, or to retire from Norway and never again to see it." The king, awakening from sleep, summoned his princes and elders, and related to them the vision. But they, in great alarm, advised him to quit Norway as soon as possible. He im mediately collected a fleet of 160 ships, and sailed to the Orkney islands, which he subdued, and, passing through all the islands, brought them under his dominion, and arrived at Man. Putting in at the island of St. Patrick, he went to visit the site of the battle which the Manxmen had fought between themselves a short time before, for many bodies of the slain still lay there unburied. When he had observed the beauty of the island, he was much pleased; and chose it for his abode, erecting forts which to this day bear his name. He compelled the men of Galloway to cut timber and bring it to the shore for the construction of the forts. He sailed to Anglesey, an island of Wales, where he found two earls Hugh, one of whom he slew, the other he put to flight, and brought the island under subjection to himself. The Welsh brought him great presents, and taking his leave of them, he returned to Man. He sent his shoes to Murrough, king of Ireland, commanding him to carry them on his shoulders through the house on Christmas day, in the presence of the envoys, in token of his subjection to King Magnus. When the Irish heard this they were highly incensed and indignant, but their king, following the dictates of wiser counsel, said that lie would not only carry the shoes, but eat them, rather than that Magnus should ruin a single province in Ireland. He therefore complied with the injunction, treated the envoys with honour, sent many presents also by them to King Magnus, and arranged a treaty. On their return the envoys reported to their master the situation and delightfulness of Ireland, the abundance of its produce,and the salubrity of its climate. Magnus, hearing this, could think of nothing but the conquest of all Ireland. He there fore ordered a fleet to be assembled, and going on himself before, with sixteen ships, to explore the country, landed mean tiously, was suddenly surrounded by the Irish, and perished with almost all who were with him. He was buried near the church of St. Patrick, in Down. He reigned over the Isles six years. After his death the chiefs of the Isles sent for and brought over Olave, son of Godred Cronan, of whom we have already spoken, who was at that time residing at the court of Henry, King of England, son of William.
In the year 1102, Olave, son of Godred Crouan, began to reign over all the Isles, and he reigned forty years. He was a man of peace, and was in such close alliance with all the kings of Ireland and Scotland, that no one ventured to disturb the kingdom of the Isles during his time. He took a wife named Affrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway, by whom he had issue Godred. He had also many concubines, by whom he had issue three sons; Reginald, Lagman, and Harold, and many daughters, one of whom was married to Sumerled, Lord of Argyll; and this was the cause of the ruin of the whole king dom of the Isles; for he had issue by her four sons, Dugald, Reginald, Angus, and Olave, of whom we shall speak more fully hereafter.
Anno MCXII. (1112). Fundata est Abbatia Sanctae Mariae Sauiniensis.c
Anno MCXXVL. (1126). Obiit Alexanderf Rex Scotiae, cui successit David frater ejus. Eodem anno fundata est Abbatia Sanctae Mariae de Furnesg
Anno MCXXXIII. (1133). Fundata est Abbatia Sanctae Mariae Riuallis.4h Eodem anno eclipsis solis facta est quarto nonas Augusti, feria quarta, ita nt dies in noctem verteretur aliquamdiu.
Anno MCXXXIV. (1134). Fundata est Abbatia Sanct~ie Marlin de Caldra. Eodem annoe Olavus rex dedit Yvonib abbati de Fumes partem terne sine in Mannia ad Abbatiam constituendam, in loco qui vocatur Russin; deditque eceleslis insularum terras et libertates; et erat circa cultum divinum devotus et fervidus, tam deo quam hominihus acceptabilis, pneter' quod plus isti domestico vitio regum indulgebat.2
Anno MCXXXVI. (1135). Obiit Henricus rex Anglke,e et Stephanus comes Bolonke nepos ejus successit in regnum, et in die coronationis sine ad missam oblita est pax dan populo.
Anno MCXXXIX. (1139). Fundata est Abbatia Sanchie Marlin de Malros.d Eodem anno commissum est bellum de Standarath inter Anglos et Scotos, et Scoti victi fugerunt.
Anno MCXL. (1140). Obiit sanctus Malachias episcopus et legatus Ybernite apud Claram Vallem, sepultusque est in oratorio beatfe virginis Marlin, in quo sibi bene complacuit.e
Anno MCXLI. (1141). Fundata est abbatia Sancti Marite de Holm Coltran!
Anno MCXLII. (1142). Godredus films Olavi
transfretavit3 ad regem Norvegke,~cui nomen erat
Hinge,4 et hominium snum ei fecit, et moratus est
apud eum, honorifice susceptus ab co. Eodenm anno tres fllii
Haraldi fratris Olavi, qui nutriti fuerant apud Dubliniam,
congregantes magnam turbam hominum et omnes profugas1
regis, venerunt ad Manniam postulantes ab codem rege
medietatem totius regni insularuni sibi dan. Rex autem cum
audisset, placare eos volens, respondit super hoc consilium
se habituruni; cunique diem et locuni constituissent, ubi
concilium haberi debuisset, interim illi necjuissimi de
morte regis inter se tractabant. Constituta antern die conve
nerunt utueque partes in portu, qui vocatur ]Ramsa,
Anno McXLIJI. (1153). Obiit beat~e memorke Bernardus primus Abbas Clarevallis.4 Eodem anno obiit David rex Scotke, a cui successit Malcolm nepos ejus, more regio in regem sullimatus. Ipso5 anno occisus est Olavus rex, sicut supra diximus, in die sanctorum apostoloruni Petri et Pauli. In proxinlo autumno venit Godredus ~ films ejus de Norvegia cum quinque navibus, et applicuit apud OrcadasP Omnes autem principes insularum, audientes eum venisse, gavisi sunt, et convenientes in unum, ipsuni unaniniiter elegerunt sibi regem. Godredus igitur ad Manniam veniens tres filios Haraldi comprehendit, et in ultionem patris sni digna morte multavit. Fertur etiam,~ quod duorum oculos emit, et. unum occidit.
Anno Mcxliv. (1154~. Coepit regnare Godredus0 et .xxx tribus annis regnavit. De quo multa memorlin digna nar ran potuissent, qine nos brevitatis causa omisimus. Tertio anno regni sui misemunt propter illum Dublinienses, ut reg naret super se. Qui, collecta navium multitudine et copioso exercitu, Dubliniam venit, et gratanter a civibus cum magno tripudio susceptus est. Paucis vero diebus interjectis, com muni consilio et consensu eum in regem sullimamunt.2 Quod cum audisset Murcardus rex Ybemni , collecta innumerabili multitudine Hyberniensium, properavit versus iDubliniam, ut Godredum expelleret et eani sibi subj ugaret. Gum venisset prope civitatem qute vocatur Cortcelis~' ibidem fixis tentoriis permansit. Crastino die elegit tria millia equitum,3 quibus praefecit fratrein suum couterinum4 nomine Osiblen, et misit eum cum pr~dictis equitibus ad civitatem ut colloquium curn civibus haberet, simul etiam ut virtutem eorum exploraret. Gum autem appropinquarent civitati, Godredus cum suis et omnes cives Dubliniie grandi cum strepitu exeuntes et magno impetu facto irruerunt in cos, et tanto irnbre telorum eos debilitare coeperunt, ut continuo eos terga vein tere coegissent. Osiblen autem frater Regis, cum audaciter resistere conaretur, circuinseptus ab hostibus cum multis aliis interiit. Ceteri beneficio cornipedum evaserunt. Gum ad dominum5 suum revertissent, totum6 ordine ei retulerunt. Rex autem cum audisset fratrem snum esse occisum, incon solabili dolore luxit eum, et pr~e nimia tristitia pra~cepit cx ercitibus suis ut redirent unusquisque ad loca sua. Godredus vero post paucos dies reversus est in Manniam, dimisitque omnes principes insularum redire ad propria. Cumque vidisset regnum confirmatum esse sibi, nullumque ci posse resistere, coepit tyrannidem exercere contra principes suos; nain quosdam comm exkereditavit, alios de dignitatibus ejecit, quorum unus nomine Thorfinus filius Otere ceterisque poten tior, accessit ad Sumerledum,' et postulavit ab eo Dubgallum filium snum ut constitueret eum regem super insulas. Audiens htec Sumerledus gavisus est valde, et tradidit ei Dubgallum filium snum, qui assumens cum circumduxit per omnes insulas, et subjugavit ci universas, accipiens obsides de singulis.
Unus princeps Paulus ~ clam fuceicus venit ad vero nomine
Godredum, et narravit ci omnia qu~c gesta fucrant. Audiens htec Godredus consternatus est mente, et continuo prtccepit suis naves pr~nparare, et festinanter ire cis obviam. Sumer ledus vero cum suis collegit classem octoginta navium, et pro peravit obviam Godredo.
Anno MCLVI. (1156). Commissum est navale pnclium2 inter Godredum et Sumerledum in nocte epiphanite Pomini, et magna strages hominum cx utraquc parte facta est.c Gum autem dies illucesceret, pacificati sunt; et diviserunt inter se regnum insularum, factumque est regnum bipartitum a die illa usque in pr~cscns tempus; et h~ec fuit causa ruina2 regni insularum, cx quo filii Sumerledi occupavcrunt4 illud.
Anno MCLVIII. (1158). Venit Sumerledus in Manniam cum quinquaginta tribus navibus, et commisit pr~elium cum Godredo, et fugavit cum, et totam insulam vastavit, et abut. Godredus vero transfinetavit ad Norwegiam quturere5 auxilium contra Sumerledum.
In the year 1112, the abbey of St. Mary of Savigny was founded.
In the year 1126, Alexander, King of Scotland, died, and was succeeded by his brother David. In the same year the abbey of St. Mary of Furness was founded.
In the year 1133, the abbey of St. Mary of Rivaulx was founded. In the same year there was an eclipse of the sun,on Wednesday the 2d of August, 50 that for some time day was converted into night.
In the year 1134, the abbey of St. Mary of Calder was founded. In the same year King Olave gave to Ivo, Abbot of Furness, a piece of his land in Man, to establish a monastery at a place called Rushen, and he gave to the churches of the Isles lands and privileges. He was devout; and zealous in promoting the divine service; and acceptable to God and man, except in as much as he indulged too much in the domestic vice of kings.
In the year 1135, Henry, King of England, died, and was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen, Count of Boulogne, on the day of whose coronation, the paxlu was not communicated at mass to the people, through forgetfulness.
In the year 1139, the abbey of St. Mary of Melrose was founded. In the same year was fought the battle of the Standard between the English and the Scots, in which the Scots were defeated, and put to flight.
In the year 1140, the Bishop St. Malachy, legate of Ire land, died at Clairvaux, and was buried in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which he well loved.
In the year 1141, the abbey of St. Mary of Holme, Cultram, was founded.
In the year 1142, Godred, son of Olave, crossed over the sea to the King of Norway, whose name was Hinge, and did homage to him. He was well received, and remained some time. In the same year three sons of Harold, the brother of Olave, who had been brought up in Dublin, assembling a large body of men, and among them all the refugees from the dominions of Godred, came to Man, and demanded from the king one half of the whole kingdom of the Isles for themselves. The king having heard their application, and being desirous to pacify them, answered that he would take advice on the subject. When the day and place for holding a meeting had been agreed upon, these most wicked men spent the interval in planning the death of the king. On the appointed day both parties met at the port called Ramsey, and sat down in order, the king and his followers on one side, and they with theirs on the other. Reginald, the second brother, who was to give the fatal blow, stood apart, speaking to one of the chiefs of the country. On being summoned to approach the king, turning to him as if in the act of saluting, he raised his gleaming battleaxe on high, and at a blow cut off the king's head. As soon as this atrocious act was perpetrated they divided the country between them. After the lapse of a few days they collected their fleet, and sailed to Galloway with the purpose of conquering it. But the men of Galloway, forming a compact body, rushed upon them with great impetuosity; whereupon the invaders turned and fled in great confusion to Man, and massacring some, expelled the rest of the Galloway residents in the island.
In the year 1143 died Bernard, of blessed memory, first abbot of Clairvaux. In the same year died David, King of Scotland. He was succeeded by his grandson Malcolm, who was raised to the throne according to royal usage. In the same year King Olave was slain, as we have already stated, on the feast of the holy apostles Peter and Paul. In the following autumn Godred, his son, came from Norway with five ships, and put in at the Orkneys. All the chiefs of the Isles were rejoiced when they heard of his arrival, and assembling together, unanimously elected him for their king. Godred then came to Man, seized the three sons of Harold,and, to avenge his father's murder, awarded them the death they deserved. Another story is that he put out the eyes of two of them, and put the third to death.
In the year 1144, Godred began his reign, and reigned thirty- nine years. Many things worthy of note might be related of him which we have omitted for the sake of brevity. In the third year of his reign the people of Dublin sent to request him to reign over them. Whereupon, assembling a great number of ships, and a large army, he went to Dublin, where he was re ceived by the citizens with great satisfaction and demonstra tions of joy. A few days later they deliberated, and unanimously appointed him king. When Murrough, King of Ireland, heard of this, he collected an immense body of Irishmen, and hastened to Dublin to drive out Godred, and bring the city under subjection to himself. Arriving near the town called Cortcellis, he halted and pitched his camp. On the following day he selected three thousand horsemen, over whom he placed his uterine brother Osiblen,d and sent him with the above-mentioned cavalry to the city, to enter into parley with the inhabitants, and try their courage. On the approach of this detachment to the city, Godred and his followers, with all the citizens of Dublin, issued forth with great clamour, rushed impetuously upon the enemy, and assailed them with such a shower of arrows that they were at once compelled to fly. Osiblen, the king's brother, boldly continuing the struggle, was surrounded and slain with many others. The rest owed their safety to their chargers, and, returning to their lord, related in detail what had happened. When the king heard of the death of his brother he mourned for him with inconsolable sorrow, and was so oppressed with grief that he ordered his soldiers to return to their homes. Godred after a few days went back to Man, and dismissed the chiefs of the Isles to their respectives abodes. When he now found himself secure on his throne, and that no one could oppose him, he began to act tyrannically towards his chiefs, depriving some of their inheritances, and others of their dignities. Of these, one named Thorfinn, son of Oter, more powerful than the rest, went to Somerled, and begged for his son Dugald, that he might make him king over the Isles. Somerled, highly gratified by the application, put Dugald under the direction of Thorfinn, who received and led him through all the islands, subjecting them all to him, and taking hostages from each. One of the chiefs, however, called Paul, secretly fled to Godred, and informed him of what had occurred. Godred was greatly alarmed by the intelligence, and ordered his followers to get ships in readiness and start immediately to encounter the enemy. On the other hand, Somerled and his party assembled a fleet of eighty ships, and hastened to meet Godred.
In the year 1156, a naval battle was fought between Godred and Somerled, during the night of the Epiphany of our Lord, with great slaughter on both sides. But when day light came they made peace, and shared between them the kingdom of the Isles, and from that day to this the kingdom has remained divided. Thus was the kingdom of the Isles ruined from the time the sons of Somerled got possession of it.
In the year 1158, Somerled came to Man with fifty-three ships, gave battle to Godred, put him to flight, plundered the whole island, and retired. But Godred crossed over to Norway, for the purpose of asking assistance against Somerled.
Licet hic introserere quoddam miraculum de sancto Machuto confesEodem tempore, cum adhuc Sumerledus esset in Mannia in portu qutn vocatur Ramso, nuntiatum cst exercitni ems ecelesiam Sancti Machutie multis pecuniis esse refertam ; hic enim locus omnibus ad se confugientibus propter reverentiam sanctissimi confessoris sui Machuti cunctis periculis tutum refugium existebat.
Unus autcm ex principibus ceteris potentior, Gillocolmus1 nomine, suggessit Sumerledo de prtedictis pecnniis, nihilquc pertinere asserebat ad sancti Machuti pacem, si ca animaJia, qu~e extra ambitum coemiterii2 pascebantur, ad victnm cxercitus ducerentur. At Sumerledus negare coepit, dicens sc nub modo posse permittere sancti Machuti pacem violari. E contra Gillocolmus instabat magnis precibus, postulans ut sibi cum suis daretur licentia eundi illuc, et reatum sibi imputari concessit. Quo audito Sumerledus, licet invitus, perinisit ci et dixit: "Inter te et sanctum Machutum sit, ego et exercitus incus3 innocentes crimus, nec4 pra~da~ vestrte participationem curamus." Tune Gillocolmus ltetus effectus venit ad suos, convocatisque tribus filiis suis ct universis suis5 clientibus, pr~ecepit ut ca nocte omnes essent parati, quatinus primo diluculo, facto impetu, irruerent cx improviso super ecclcsiam sancti Machuti, qu~ mdc ad duo milliaria distabat. Rumor interim pervenit ad ccclcsiam de advcntu hostium; qui omnes tanto terrore perculit, ut multi cx populo qui ibi crant fugerent de ecclesia, et in abditis rupium et specubus se occultarent. Cetera multitudo, infinitis clamoribus, tota nocte misericordiam dci per merita sancti Machuti implorabant. Sexus vero infirmior, dissolutis crinibus, ejulantes, discurrebant circa parietes eceleske, magnis vocibus clamantes: "Ubi es modo Machute, ubi sunt miracula tua qu~e usque nunc operabaris in loco isto? numquid propter peccata nostra nune discedes, et derelinques populum tunin in tali angustia? Et, si non propter nos, saltem propter honorem nominis tui hac vice nos adjuva !" His, et hujuscemodi vocibus, motus, ut credi inns, sanctus Machutus, comm miseriis misertus,' cos de instanti periculo liberavit, et hostem comm atroci genere mortis damnavit. Nam pr~edictns Gillo-Colmus cum se sopori dedisset in tentorio sno, apparuit ci sanctus Machutus toga candida pr~cinctus, baculumque pastoralem manu tenens. Cumquc ante lectum ejus astaret, his cum verbis aggreditur:
"Quid," inquit, "mihi et tibi est Gillo-Colme ? 2 Quid tibi aut tuis nocui quia nunc disponis locum meum pnedari ?" Ad h~c Gillo-Colmus respondit "Quis," inquit, "es tn ?" At ille ait : "Ego sum servus Christi Machutus, cujus tu ecelesiam contamninari conaris, sed non proficics." Quo dicto, baculum, quem mann tenuerat, in sublime crexit, et punctum ei per coin illius transfixit. At ille miser diro clamore emisso omnes qui circumquaquc in papilionibustm erant somno excus sit. Iterum Sanctus eum transfixit, iterum ipse clamavit. Tertio ~ Sanctus idem fecit, tertio ille clamavit. Filii5 vero ejus et omnes sui his clamoribus turbati accurinunt ad eum, sciscitantes quidnam ci acciderat. At ille vix linguam movere valens, cum gemitn dixit: "Sanctus Machutus hic affuit, mequc tribus ictibus baculo suo transfigens occidit. Sed ite citius ad ceclesiam ejus, et adducite baculum et presbyteros et clericos, ut intercedant pro me ad sanctum Machutum, si forsitan indulgeat mihi qua~ adversus eum facere diposui."6 Qui celeriter jussa complentes rogave runt clericos ut sumpto baculo sancti Machuti secum visi tarent dominum snum qui jam in extremis esse videbatur. Karraverunt autem cis omnia qu~o ci contigerant. Audien tes htec presbyteri et clerici et cetera multitudo, gavisi sunt gaudio magno, miseruntque cum eis quosdam cx clericis cum baculo. Qui cum coram co stetissent, videntes ciim jam pene exanimem, nam paulo ante loquelam amiserat, unus den comm imprecatus est dicens: "Sanctus Machaldus,"' inquit, "quite coepit punire, non desistat donec te ad intenitum ducat, ut ceteri videntes et audientes discant locis sanctis majorem reverentiam pr~ebere." Quibus dictis clerici ad sua sunt reversi, post quorum discessum coepit tanta multitudo muscarum grandium et tetrarum circa faciem ejus et ora volitare, ut non poterant nec ipse nec qui ci assisterant (!) eas abigere. Sic cum magnis tormentis et cinuciatibus circa sextam diei horam expiravit. Quo defuncto tantus terror invasit Sumerledum et exercitum ejus, ut statim, accedente mans reumate,2 et navibus fluitantihus, amoverent classem de portu illo, sicque cuin summa festinatione ad proprias terras sunt reversi.
We may here insert the account of a certain miracle of St. Maughold, a confessor of the Lord.At the same time, whilst Somerled yet lay in the port of Man called Ramsey, it was reported to the army that the church of St. Maughold was full of riches ; for this place was a safe refuge against all dangers, for all who fled to it, on account of the reverence paid to its most holy confessor St. Maughold.
One of the principal chiefs called Gilcolum, drew the attention of Somerled to these treasures, and maintained that it would be no violation of the asylum of St. Maughold to drive off, for the supply of the army, the cattle that were grazing outside the precincts of the cemetery. But Somerled demurred, affirming that he could in nowise allow the asylum to be violated. Gilcolum continued to urge with great earnestness his proposal, begging that he and his followers might be allowed to go there, and offering to take the responsibility on himself. Upon this Somerled reluctantly gave his consent, saying: "Let the affair be between yourself and St. Maug hold; I and my army will be guiltless, nor do we wish to have any share in your spoil." Gilcolum overjoyed returned to his followers, and calling together his three sons and all his dependents, ordered all to prepare during the night, so as to be ready to rush suddenly at break of day upon the church of St. Maughold, which was distant two miles. A rumour, in the meantime, reached the church that the enemy was coming, and so alarmed by it were all, that many fled from the church, and concealed themselves in the recesses of the rocks, and in the caverns, whilst the remaining crowd, with loud and continued cries, implored the mercy of God, through the intercession of St. Maughold. The weaker sex, with dishevelled hair and mournful accents, wandered around the walls of the church, loudly crying: "Where art thou now, oh Maughold! where are thy miracles which till now thou hast worked in this place? Willst thou now quit it on account of our sins, and abandon thy people in this their distress? Ifnot for our sake, at least for the honour of thy name, help us now." Moved, as we believe, by these and similar supplications, and compassionating their affliction, St. Maughold delivered them from the imminent danger, and condemned their enemy to a terrible death. For when the aforesaid Gilcolum had fallen asleep in his tent, St. Maughold appeared to him clothed in a white garment, and carrying the pastoral staff in his hand; and standing before his bed, addressed him in the following words: "What is there between thee and me, Gilcolum? In what have I injured thee or thine, that thou art now about to plunder my place ?" To this appeal Gilcolum replied: "Who art thou ?" The saint answered: "I am the servant of Christ, Maughold, whose church thou seekest to profane, but thou shalt not succeed." Having spoken thus, he raised on high the staff that was in his hand, and drove the point through Gilcolum's heart. The unfortunate man uttered a fearful shriek, which awoke all who were sleeping in the surrounding tents. Again the saint transfixed him, again he shrieked. A third time the saint repeated the blow; a third tune the man shrieked. His sons and followers, alarmed by the screams, hastened to him, inquiring what had happened. Scarcely able to move his tongue, he answered with a groan: "St. Maughold has been here, and, thrice transfixing me with his staff, has killed me. But go quickly to his church, and bring the staff with the priests and clerks, that they may intercede for me with St. Maughold, that he may perchance forgive what I was preparing to do against him." Quickly, in execution of his orders, they begged the clerks to bring the staff of St. Maughold, and come to their lord, who appeared to be lying in the last extremity. They narrated, also, all that had happened to him. The priests, clerks, and people, hearing this account, rejoiced with a great joy, and sent back with the messengers some of the clerks, who bore the staff. When they stood in his presence and saw him almost expiring, for he had just before lost the use of his voice, one of the clerks pronounced the following imprecation : - " May St. Maughold, who has begun thy punishment, cease not till he has brought thee to death, that others, seeing and hearing, may learn to show greater reverence to holy places." Having thus spoken, the clerks returned home; and after their departure such a number of large black flies swarmed about his face and mouth, that neither he nor his attendants could keep them away. Thus did he expire in great torture and agony about the sixth hour of the day. Upon his death, such a great fear seized upon Somerled and his army, that, as soon as the ships were floated by the rising tide, the fleet left the port, and returned home as quickly as possible.