[From Surnames & Place-names of Isle of Man, A.W.Moore, 1890]



Part I


(a) Bills, Highlands, Rocks.

Baie, in GOB-NAY, pronounced GOB-YN-AA, ' Point of the Bay,' and in CARRICKNAY (yn-aie), ' Rock of the Bay.

Baare, in CREG-Y-VAARE, ' Crag of the Summit.'

Beinn, in LHIATTEE-NY-BEINNEE, ' Side of the Summits,' and GOB-NY-VEINNY, ' Point of the Summits.'

Sliean, in KIONESLIEAU, ' Mountain End '; COOILSLIEAU, ' Mountain Nook '; FOLIEU (Fo-yn-hlieau), ' Under the Mountain '; GOB-NY-DAA-SLIEAU, ' Point of the Two Mountains '; BALLA-KILLEY-CLIEU, ' Farm of the Church Mountain,' where there is a Treen chapel.

Mullagh, in LAGAVOLLOUGH, ' Hollow (of the) Top '; in MAGHER-Y-MULLY, ' Field of the Summit '; THALLOOVOLLAGH, ' Top-land,' i.e., land which is, or was, at the highest limit of cultivation.

Aeree, or Eary, in ARDARRY, ARDAIRY, or ARDERY, ' High Hill-Pasture '; CRONKAIREY and CRONKAIRIDH, ' Hill Shealing '; BALLIREY, formerly BALLEARY, ' Hill-Pasture Farm '; BALLANEARY, ' Farm of the Hill-Pasture '; and BLOCKEARY, ? ' Black's Hill—Pasture.'

Knock, in ATNAUGH (Ard-knock), ' High Hill.'

Ard in BALLANARD (yn-ard) and BALLANAHARD, ' Farm of the Height '; KERROO-NA-ARD, ' Quarter of the Height'; and CASHTAL-YN-ARD, ' Castle of the Height.'

Rheynn, in MULLEN-RENEASH, ' Waterfall-Ridge Mill,' and GOB-Y-RHEYNN, ' Point of the Ridge or Division.'

Cronk, in KERROO-NY-GRONK, ' Quarter of the Hill '; KEEILL CRONK, ' Church Hill '; CREG-NY-CROCK, ' Crag of the Hill '; in MOLLAGH-Y-CHRINK, ' Top of the Hill '; and -probably in BALLACROAK, ' Hill Farm.' This farm is on a hill where there are two fine specimens of chambered barrows .

Cruink, the plural, is found in BALLACRUINK and BALLACRINK, ' Hills' Farm '; probably in GLENDRINK and GLENTRUNK, ' Hills' Glen '; and possibly in ARDRANK, ' High Hills.' On BALLACRINK, in Conchan, there are the remains of a stone circle and of a turnulus.

Cronkan, in MAGHER-NY-GRONGAN, ' Field of the Hillock.' Crai~ and Creg, in BALNYCRAIG (Balla-ny), ' Farm of the Crag '; GEAYLLIN-NY-CREGGYN, ' Shoulder of the Crags'; GOB-NY-CREG, ' Point of the Crag '; STROOAN-NY-GRAGEE, ' Stream of the Crag,' which pours over the cliff at Skinscoe, and in many other names.

Creggyn, the plural, in ALT-NY-CREGGAN (creggyn), ' Mountain Stream of the Crags.' Boulders abound in and about the course of the stream ; in ARROGAN, a Treen in Santon, which in the Rent Roll of i 5 i i is ARDROGAN, ' Crag's Height,' which accurately describes the locality ; and in TRAIE-NY-CREGGYN, ' Shore of the Crags.'

Creggan, in BALLACREGGAN, ' Rocky Hillock Farm.' On the farm of this name in Rushen are the ' Giant's quoiting stones,' probably the remains of a megalithic monument.

Carrick, carrag, probably in BALLAKARKEY, or BALLAKERKA ( Baila-carrickey), ' Farm of the Rocks,' in Lezayre, which is identifiable with KARRACHETH (ob.), mentioned in the list of the ancient abbey boundaries. There are fine crags overhanging this farm.

Liargagh, in BALLERGHY, or BALLARGHEY, ' Slope Farm'; CRONK-NY-LHERGHY, ' Hill of the Slope '; DREEM-NY LHERGHY, ' Back of the Slope '; BALNALHERGY (Baliany), ' Farm of the Slope.'

Broogh, in MAGHER-Y-BROOGH, ' Field of the Brow.'

Eanin, in KIONE-NY-HENIN, or KIONEHENIN, ' End of the Precipice.' There are the remains of a stone circle, and also of hut dwellings, near this farm, which is on the edge of a precipitous cliff at the Dhoon.

Ughtagh, probably in BALLANAHOUGHTY, ' Farm of the Acclivity.'

Dreeym, in LAGGAN-V-DROMMA, ' Little hollow of the Hill-back '; BALDROMMA, ' Hill-back Farm '; BALDROMMA HEOSE, ' Upper Hill-back Farm '; BALDROMMA HEIS, ' Lower Hill-back Farm '; KEILL.PHERICADRUMMA (y Dromney), ' Patrick's Church of the Hill-back.'

Kione, in EARY-NY-KIONE, ' Hill-Pasture (or Shealing) of the End (of the Hill) '; and in GOB-NY-KIONE, ' Point of the Head,' where kione is a promontory.

King, the plural, in PORT-NY-DING, ' Port of the Heads.' This is under the high ground north of Bradda Head.

Cromoge (I.), in GLIONE CRAMMAG, ' Little Cliff Glen.'

Reeast, in AwIN-NY-REEAST, ' River of the Waste '; LHOOB-Y-REEAST, ' Gulley of the Waste.'

Garee, in BALLAGAREE, ' Stony Land Farm '; KIONE-NY-LHERGHY, ' Back of the Slope '; BALNALHERGY (Baliany), ' Farm of the Slope.'

...p113 missing

Barney, in BALLABERNA and BALLABENNA, ' Gap Farm '; and possibly in CHIBBYR-Y-VAINNAGH, ' Well of the Gap.'

Coan, in BALLAGAWNE, formerly BALLACOAN, ' Ravine Farm,' in Lonan ; BELEGAWN (Beal-y-coan), ' Mouth of the Ravine '; PURT-NY-cOAN, ' Port of the Ravine '; and possibly in BALLACOINE and BALLACOYNE, ' Ravine Farm.'

Cooil, in BALLACOOILEY, ' Nook Farm '; and CROIT-NY-COOILLEY, ' Croft of the Nook.'

Awin, in CASSNAHOWIN (ny-awin), ' Foot of the River '; BALNAHOWIN, ' Farm of the River '; BALLAHOWIN, ' River Farm '; MULLENLAWNE (in 1602 MULLIN-NY-HAWIN), ' Mill of the River '; LAG-NY-AWIN, ' Hollow of the River '; BILLOWNE, formerly BELOWNE (Beeal), ' River Mouth '; and LIARGEY-NY-HOUNE, ' Slope of the River.' There is a stone circle at BILLOWNE.

Aa, a, ah, in BALLANEA (yn-aa), ' Farm of the Ford '; and in MULLEN DOWAY (ob.) (Doo-aa), 'Black Ford,' now Union Mills on the river Dhoo.

Lhing, in BALLALING, ' Pool Farm '; and AAH-NY-LINGEY, ' Ford of the Pool.' [(I.) DUBLIN.]

Strooan, in BALLASTROOAN, ' Stream Farm '; CASS-NY-STROOAN, C Foot of the Stream '; CASS-STROAN, ' Stream Foot'; BULTROAN (Bwoaillee), ' Stream Fold,' where the stream flows past a cattle-fold ; GOB-NY-STRONNA, ' Point of the Current,' at the end of Maughold Head, where the tides meet ; and in BAIE CASS STROAN, ' Stream Foot Bay.'

Eas, in RHENEAS or RHENAS, ' Waterfall Ridge '; and MULLEN RHENEASH, ' Waterfall Ridge Mill.'

Alt (plural allyn), in GLIONE AULDYN and GLEN ALTYN, ' Mountain Streams' Glen.' (But see Alt, p. 88.)

Logh, in CASHTAL-LOUGH, ' Lake Castle '; BALLALOUGH, ' Lake Farm '; DOLLOUGH MOAR (Doo), ' Big Black Lake '; and DOLLOUGH BEG, ' Little Black Lake '; in GLENLOUGH, ' Lake Glen '; KIONELOUGH, ' Lough End '; and DREEMLOUGH, ' Hill-back Lake.' All these loghs are either drained or have become very diminutive.

Loughan, in KNOCK-A-LOUGHAN (y), ' Hill of the Pond.'

Currach, in GLENCORRAGH, ' Bog Glen '; and STROOAN CUR-RAGH, ' Curragh Stream.'

Moainee, in BALLAMONA, ' Turbary Farm '—part of the farm of this name in Lezayre was formerly one of the islands in Mirescogh Lake ; CROIT-NYMONA ' Croft of the Turbary'; CLY-NA-MONA, ' Hedge of the Turbary '; Gullet CREEAGH MOAINEE, ' Turbary Stack Gullet '; CRONK-NEMONA, ' Hill of the Turbary.'

Ros (see Doubtful Names), in PULROSE, formerly POOYLROISH, 'Wood Pool.'

Dubóyr, in LHING Dun, ' Pool Pool,' under Glenfaba Bridge.

Ellan, in CLOSE-ANELLAN or CLOSE-AN~ALLAN, ' Close of the Island '—the central part of the farm of CLOSE-ANALLAN in Lezayre was formerly one of the islands in Mirescogh Lake ; BALLELLIN, formerly BALLELLAN, ' Island Farm'; and BARNA~ELLANRENNY, ' Ferny Island Gap.' Ellan in these names does not refer to an island in the sea, but to patches of cultivated land which were formerly surrounded by swamps, hut are now for the most part drained.

(d) Position.

C'ass, in BAIE-CASS-STROAN ' Stream Foot Bay. ' It may be mentioned here that the farm name BALLACOSNAHAN is from the Surname COSNAHAN, which seems to have been derived originally from Cass-ny-Awin (see pp. 97, 114).

(e) human habitation.

Balla, in SHENVALLA, ' Old Farm '; and CORVALLEY, possibly 'Con's Farm '; and CROSS-VALLA, ' Cross Farm.' This farm, which is in West Baldwin, contains the remains of a large Stone circle, and there was once perhaps a cross there.

Lieh, in BALLIE, ' Half Farm.'

Magher, in BALLAVAGHER, ' Field Farm.'

Bwoaillee, in ARDUAILEY, ' High Fold '; and its plural ' Bwoailtyn, in BRAJD-NYBOSHEN, ' Hill-back Paddock.'

Faaie, in DREEMFAAIE, ' Shoulder of the Flat.' Dhoon, in BALDOON, ' Close Farm.'

Close, in BASTIN'S CLOSE, and Island CLOSE.

Cleiy or cleigh, in MWYLLIN-NY-CLEIY, ' Mill of the Hedge,' which may possibly have been so called from being on the boundary between Patrick and German. It is the mill called BALLYHIGG in the manorial roll of 1511 ; in BALNYCLYBANE, ' Farm of the White Hedge '; and in BALLACLYBANE, ' White Hedge Farm.'

Croa, in BALLAGROA, ' Pen (or Fold) Farm.'

Injeig, in BALLINJAGUE, ' Unploughed Corner Farm.'

Croit in Cooll CROFT, ' Croft Nook.'

Keeill, in numerous farms called BALLAKILLY, ' Church Farm,' or ' Cell Farm.' These are invariably found near the sites of ancient keeills, or of modern churches, which were usually built on old sacred sites. In BALLAKILLEYCLIEU, ' Church Hill Farm '; BALLACURNKEIL, formerly BALLACARN-Y-KEIL, ' Cairn of the Church Farm '; GLION-YKILLEY, ' Glen of the Church '; LAG-NY-KEILLEY, ' Hollow of the Church '; also probably in BALLAGILLEY in several parishes (but see p. 147). At LAG-NY-KEILLEY, a little glen dividing Rushen and Patrick, at the foot of the precipitous west side of Cronk-ny-iree-lhaa, there are the remains of an old chapel, called St. Lex's (see p. 141), with a burial-ground surrounded by a wall about two feet high. Within this enclosure, according to tradition, are the graves of the early Manx kings ; also possibly in RHENCELL, ' Church Ridge,' which is on the west side of Laxey Glen, but the soft ' c ' of RENCELL renders the den-vation doubtful. There is a KEEILL VINE, ' Matthew's Cell,' close by.

Cabbal in CREGACABLE (y-cabbal), ' Crag of the Chapel'; MAGHER CABBAL, ' Chapel Field,' near KILLABRAGGA; BAIY-Y-CHABBAL, ' Chapel Bay,' now usually known by its English name, at Port St. Mary. The site of St. Mary's Chapel, after which the port was named, is there.

Ruillic, in MAGHER-Y-RUILLIC, ' Field of the Graveyard,' where there are the remains of a keeill, of a well, and near the well a large flat block of granite, having in its centre a cavity, which may have formed the socket of a cross ; in CABBAL RULLICKY, ' Graveyard Chapel '; and SHEN ROLLICK, ' Old Graveyard.'

Oaie, in CRONK-NY-HEY, ' Hill of the Grave.'

Lheim, in CREG-YN-LHEIM, ' Crag of the Leap.'

Cashtal in BALLEY-CASHTAL, which is now translated 'into English, and called ' Castletown.' It was so named from its famous castle, RUSHEN ; in GOB-YN-CASHTAL, ' Point of the Castle,' and in the curious combination Fort CAISHTAL. This is an ancient fortified earthwork near the Cloven Stones. All the Manx cashtals, with the exception of those of RUSHEN and PEEL, are ancient earthworks.

Soalt, in KNOCK-E-THOLT (y), ' Hill of the Barn.'

Mwyllin is very common in BALLAWYLLIN, in one case con-rupted into BALLAWOOLIN, ' Mill Farm.' It is found also in RHENWILLEN, ' Mill Ridge,' where there is a windmill; in CRONK-NY-MWYLLIN, ' Hill of the Mill '; GLEN WILLAN, ' Glen of the Mill '; PORT-Y-VULLIN, formerly PORT MOLLIN, and PUIRT-NY-MWYLLIN, ' Port of the Mill '; BOLEE WILLIN (Bwoaillee), ' Mill Fold.' Wind-mills are now very uncommon.

Brebag, in BALLABREBBAG, ' Kiln Farm '; and PORT BRAVAG, ' Kiln Port.'

Droghad, in KIONEDROGHAD, ' Bridge End.'

Lane (see p. 103), in BALLALHANE, ' Lhen-trench Farm '; and KIAN-NY-LHANE, ' End of the Lhen-trench '; also possibly in KIARLANE, CARLANE, or KILLANE (see p. 118).

Keim, ' a stile,' in MAGHER-Y-KEIM, ' Field of the Stile.'

Cassan, ' a path,' in GOB-NY-CASSAN, ' Point of the Path.' [ (I.) ARDNAGASSAN, (G.) AIRIEHASSAN.]

Crosh, in BALLACROSHA and BALLACROSS, ' Cross Farm.' BALLACROSHA is the name of the farm upon which the village of Ballaugh stands, where, till recently, there was a cross inscribed with runes. Urns have been found at BALLACROSS in Arbory. By the well on this farm it is said that there stood a cross, where all chnistenings used to be made. Until very recently water was brought from it for every christening at the parish church. There was formerly a stone circle on BALLACROSS in Marown.

Cam, in BALLACURNKEIL, formerly BALLACARN - Y - KEIL (keeilley), ' Cairn Farm of the Church '; and in the adjoining farms BALLACURNKEIL-MOAR, ' Big Cairn Farm of the Church '; and BALLACURNKEIL-BEG, ' Little Cairn Farm of the Church.' There was formerly a keeill on BALLACURNKEIL, but now all that is left of it is a cairn of stones. The name of the mountain on which these farms lie is spelled SLIEAU CURN or SLIEAU CAIRN, formerly SLIEAU CARN, ' Cairn Mountain '; probably also in Mount KARRIN, ' Cairn Mount '; on the summit of this mountain there is a natural mound, which, at a distance, exactly resembles an artificial cairn.

Carnyn (plural), in MARA-NY-GRANANE, ' Field of the Cairns.'

Carnane, originally a diminutive of cam, is now used with precisely the same meaning. It is found in BALLACARNANE-MOOAR, ' Big Cairn Farm,' and BALLACARNANE-BEG, ' Little Cairn Farm.' There are the remains of a keeill, with its burying-ground, on BALLACARNANE BEG, and on BALLACARNANE MOOAR there is a large upright stone with five ' cup ' marks.

Baare or Bayr, in BALLAVARVANE, BALLAVARANE, and BALLAVARRAN, ' White Road Farm '; also in CASHTALL-Y-VAREVANE, ' Castle of the White Road,' where there are the remains of an earthwork. All these are corruptions of bayr-vane ,~ in BALLAVARE, BALLAVAIR, and BALLAVEAR, ' Road Farm '; BEALEVAYR (y) or BEALEVEAR, ' Entrance of the Road '; and CROT-Y-VEAR, ' Croft of the Road.'

Lan, ' an enclosure ' (a fold), possibly in The CARLANE, The KIarLAINE, or The KILLANE, which may mean ' The Brushwood Fold '; and in STROOAN-NY-CarLANE, now usually called The KILANE River, ' Stream of the Brush-wood Fold ' (see post).

Chibbyr or tiobyr, in LAG-NY-CHIBBER, ' Hollow of the Well'; and possibly in GARA-NA-CHIBBERAUGH, ' Garden of the Wells,' chibberaugh being perhaps intended for chibbyra,ghyn, the plural of chibbyr.

Garey, in BALLAGAREY, ' Garden Farm.'

The following are doubtful:

A, ah, in KENNA or KINNA (Kione-a), 'Ford End.'

Rhaa, in LHERGY RHAA, ' Fort Slope ' (see p. 91).

Braid, in EARY BRAID, ' Braid's Shealing,' where Braid is probably a man's name.

Aeree, in DREEM-BEARY, ' Hill-back Shealing.'

Part II


( a) Sea-coast.

Keayn, ' the sea,' in MAGHER-Y-CHEAYN, ' Sea Field,' on the Sound of the Calf, the most south-westerly field in the island.

Roayrt, ' spring-tide,' in CARRICK ROAYRT, ' Spring-tide Rock.' This rock is only covered completely at spring tides.

Kellys, ' a strait,' in GLIONE-NY-CHELLYS, ' Stream of the Strait' (see p. 95).

Kesh, ' froth, foam,' in BALLA KESH, ' Foam Farm.' This farm is by the sea, and, when it is stormy, the foam is blown upon it. ICesli, though not found in Irish or Gaelic, is used in colloquial Manx.

Ushtey, ' water,' in GOB-YN-USHTEY, ' Point of the Water,' and Ghaw USHTEY, ' Water Cove,' where there is a small stream of fresh water. [(I.) BALLINISHA, (G.) BENASKIE.]

Sloat, ' a small pool, or low water ' (always by the sea), in GOB-NY-SLOAT, ' Point of the Low Water ' ; and TRAIENY-SLOAT, ' Strand of the Little Pool.' The Irish stod means ' a little standing water.'

(b) Rivers, Bogs, etc.

i O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary.

Glaise, glais, or glas (I.), ' a small stream, a brook,~ is not found in our dictionaries, and is not known colloquially, but it is probably the second element in the name of the largest town in the island, DOUGLAS, or, as it is called by Manx-speaking people, DOOLISH, and in the name of the headland on the south side of Douglas Bay, KIONE DOOLISH, now DOUGLAS Bead. The popular derivation of this name is from the names of the two rivers DHOO and GLASS, meaning respectively ' black ' or ' dark ' and ' gray ' or ' blue,' which unite above the town (see p.166). Unfortunately, this derivation is phonetically impossible, because glas can only become ghlas or las, not ghlish or lish. Similar to it is the interpretation of the learned Professor Zimmer, who considers that DOOLISH is an abbreviation of (Balla.) Dhoo-glass, ' Town of Dhooglass,' in the same way as DUBLIN stands for Ath-cliathDublin, and that glas in the original meaning of stream is nowhere found in Celtic literature. But he must surely have meant Dhoo-glaiss, the genitive, which would yield ( Balla-) Dhoolish. There is, however, no evidence of the existence of the name of the town in this form. As regards his second statement, there is no difficulty in showing that it is too sweeping. Stokes, quoting from the Book of the Dun Cow, gives the phrases medon na glassi, 'in the middle of the brook,' and bru Dub-glaissi,' ' on the brink of the Black-brook,' and from thence he deduces a feminine noun, 'glais (rivulus) with an old Irish genitive glassi, which at a later date became glaissi or glaisse "~ ; while Professor Rhys points out that this genitive, Dub-glaissi, implies a nominative, Dubglais, ' Black Stream,' which would naturally become Doolish without requiring any balla to put it into the genitive.3 ' Black Stream,' then, seems to be the most likely derivation of the Manx DOUGLAS, which may be compared with the English BLACK-BURN and BLACK-POOL.4

Laagh, ' mire, mud, slush,' probably in BALLAUGH, ' Mire-town.' The village so called has given its name to the parish in which it is situated. In 1231 it was called

BALLALAUGHE, and in 1775 Vicar-General Wilks, then Rector of Ballaugh, explained its name, in answer to a query from Pennant, the antiquary, as being ' from the Manx : Bal-ny-laghey, which laghey signifies mire or mud, wherewith this Parish formerly abounded from the number of quags or mires in the E. side thereof.' But a derivation from lough, ' lake,' is also possible. In Durham's map of 1595 the name of the village is written BALLALOUGH, ' Lake-town,' and a lake which drained to the westward by the Killane River is shown to the north of it.

i Colt. Gel. Anz., xviii., No. IS. Dub-glaissi comes from the fragment of the translation into Irish (at the beginning of the Book of the Dun Cow) from Nennius. The Latin is, ' Super allied fiumen, quod dicitur Dubg-lass ' ; it ought to have been Dubglais.

2 Celtic Declension, p. 20.

3 In a letter to the writer Professor Rhys also points out that there was a Dub-gleis, ' Black-brook,' which occurs in the Liber Landavensis as Dub-leis and Du-gleis, the modern form being Dulais, of which Dowlais, near Merthyr Tydfil, is a representative. This is pronounced Dowlisk on the spot.

4 This is also Sir H. Maxwell's opinion ; see Scottish Land Names, p. '5. 11VÁ~L ~PP1AJ~S 121


Farrane, ' a spring, a fountain,' in BALLANARRAN, ' Spring Farm ' (there is a spring by the farm), and in SLIEAU-NYFREOGHANE, a map-maker's error for SLIEAU-NY-FARRANE, ' Hill of the Spring.' There is a spring which gushes out on the side of this hill, and, as its name is always pronounced farrane, not freoghane, ' bilberry,' by Mawr people, there can be little doubt but that the derivation given is the proper one. It seems probable that the name CREG-YN-ARRAN or CREG-Y-ARRAN means the

' Rock of the Spring,' as the initial f is frequently elided in Manx, and, moreover, the only other possible interpretation, ' Rock of the Bread,' is not in any way appropriate.

Cuilldg~ ' a nook,' originally a diminutive of cooil, in CHLELGNY-CUILLEIG, ' Hedge of the Nook.'

( c) Position.

Under this heading we have only bun or bunt, in BALLABUNT, formerly BALNYBUNT, ' Farm of the End,' or ' End Farm,' which is on the boundary between Braddan and Marowri [ (I.) BALLYBUNINTABBY] ; and gol4 goul~ ' a fork,' in

THALLOO-EDDYR-A-GOULL, ' Land between the Fork,' a name given to a piece of land between two branches of a stream.

(d) Buildings, Wells, Roads, etc.

Uhllin, ' a stack-yard or hay-yard,' in MAGHER-YN-ULLIN, ' Field of the Stack-yard.' This word would seem to be a corruption of the Irish ith-lann.

Keille:g, ' an enclosure belonging to a church or chapel,' probably originally a diminutive of Keeill, in CRONK-YKEILLEIG, ' Hill of the Church Enclosure.' There are the remains of a keeill and its little graveyard at this spot.

Colt, coil, ' a cott or cottage built on a croitt ' (or croft), which seems to be simply a corruption of the English word, is found only in BALLAHOTT, formerly BALLACOTT, ' Cottage Farm.'

Creagh, ' a stack,' in Gullet-CHREAGH-MOAINEE, ' Turbary Stack Gullet ' ; and LOUGH-NY-GREEAGH, ' Lake of the Stack.'

( e) Offices, Trades, etc.

Ree, ' a king ' ; probably in SLIEAU REE, ' King's Hill ' ; BOL RELY, ' King's Fold ' ; CLOSE REI and CLOSE REIGH, ' King's Close ' ; and CASHTAL REE GORREE, ' King Gorree's Castle.' This last, however, is merely a modern and fanciful name for an earthwork on a neck of land west ofGob Gorrym in Andreas. [(I.) MONAREE, (G.) ARDREE.]

Chiarn, ' a lord,' signifying the Lord of the island, in SLIEAU CHIARN, ' Lord's Hill ' ; KEEILL-YN-CHIARN, ' Cell of the Lord ' ; CLOSE-Y-CHIARN, ' Close of the Lord ' ; CHIBBERY-CHIARN, ' Well of the Lord,' and MAGHER-Y-CHIARN, ' Field of the Lord,' in Marown. In this field is the so-called ' St. Patrick's Chair,' in which the saint is said to have sat when he blessed the Manx people. The ' chair' is really a cromlech, or rather the remains of one. Its lower portion consists of a platform of stones and sods, seven feet six inches long by three feet six inches deep. On the platform stand two upright slabs of granite, with crosses on their western faces. Clziarn may possibly occur also in PURT CHIARN, ' Lord's Port,' as Porterin is some-times called, and in Boeyn PURT CHIARN, ' Lord's Port Sunken Rocks,' near Aldrick.

Aspick, ' a bishop,' in BALLASPICK, and a corrupt BALLASPET and BALLASPIT, ' Bishop's Farm ' ; in CURRAGH-ANASPICK (yn), ' Curragh of the Bishop.' This was the bishop's turbary in the Gui-ragh at Ballaugh. [(I.) MONA-SPICK, (G.) ERNESPIE.]

Abb, ' an abbot. ' It is tempting to derive RENAB, ' Abbot's Ridge,' from this name, but as there is no abbey property at RENAB, which is a ridge at the confluence of two streams in Maughold, such a derivation must be regarded as doubtful. The abbot of Rushen was formerly a spiritual baron, and had great influence in the island. [(I.) BALLANAB, (G.) BALNAB.]

Saggyrt, ' a priest,' in BALLATAGGART, ' Priest's Farm.' This name may possibly be derived immediately from the personal name TAGGART, which, however, is itself derived from saggyrt (see p. 45). [(I.) DERRYNASAGART, ( G.) ALTAGGART.]

Pesson, ' a parson,' appears to be simply a corruption of the English word. We have it in CROLT-E-PHESSON, ' Parson's Croft,' and probably in BALLAPHESSON, ' Parson's Farm.' These are both glebes. But it should be noted that the latter is on the treen of KIRK SUASAN, in Rushen, of unknown meaning, with which it may have some connexion. [(I.) BALLYFAESOON.]

Managh, ' a monk,' in CLOSE MANAGH, ' Monk's Close,' which, according to the Liber Vastarum of 1606, was ' a piece of ground of one daymath of hay, and in BALLAMANAGH, ' Monk's Farm. ' There are several BALLAMANAGHS, all found on abbeyland, which are liable to be confounded with the more numerous BALLAMEANAGHS, ' Middle Farms.' [(I.) ARDNAMANACH.]

Caillagh (pl. cailleevn), ' an old woman, a nun ' ; only in LAG-NY-CAILLEEYN, ' Hollow of the Nuns.' It is said that there was once a nunnery in the valley to the east of Cronk Sumark, on the Grange estate (see p. 133), and that LAG-NY-CAILLEEYN is the name of the avenue where the nuns once walked. According to the Manks Advertiser ( June 4,1801), the foundations of this nunnery were dug up and cleared away in 1801.

Druiaght, ' sorcery, a druid,' in CABBAL DRUIAGHT, ' Druid's Chapel.' This chapel, with a burial-ground, is close to Ballahutchin in Marown. It is on a slightly elevated circular mound, about forty-eight feet in diameter. The chapel itself is fifteen feet by twelve feet. Just enough remains of the walls to show its form. Its name, however, is due to modern inventiveness. If old it would certainly have been corrupted into some such form as the Irish drui (gen.), druad, in LOUGHNADROOA, or GOBNADRUY.

Briw, ' a judge,' possibly in KNOCK-E-VRIEW, ' Judge's Hill,' and BALLAVRIEW, ' Judge's Farm,' but they are more probably from the surname BREW (see p. 47). .

Meoir, ' a moar,' the official appointed to collect the lord's rents and fines, in BALLAVOAR, ' Moar's Farm.'

Crutire (I) , ' a harper,' possibly in GLENCRUTCHERY, formerly GLENCRUTTERY, ' Harper's Glen.' This word is not found in our dictionaries, which give claaseyder for a harper, and claasagh for a harp. Bishop Phillips, how-ever, whose Manx Prayer-Book was written about 1610, gives the word kruit for a harp.

Gaaue, ' a smith,' in BALLAGAUE, ' Smith's Farm,' and perhaps in BALLAGAWNE with the same meaning, though the latter more probably comes directly from the personal name GAWNE ; also in GEAYLIN-Y-GAAUE, 'Shoulder of the Smith,' the name given to a rock in the sea. [(I.) BALLYGOWAN, (G.) BALNAGOWAN.]

Seyir, ' a carpenter,' in BALLASEYR, ' Carpenter's Farm.' Teer in BALLA-TEER, the name of an adjacent farm in Andreas, seems also to be a corruption of seyir, and OOig—NY-SEYR is ' Cave of the Carpenter.' [(I.) RATHNASEER, (G.) DRUMNATIER.]

Fidder, ' a weaver,' in THIE-NY-FIDDER, ' House of the Weaver.' Hand-loom weaving, more especially of flannel, is still carried on in the country to a small extent.

Beaynee, ' a reaper,' in CLOSE-NY-VEAYNEE, ' Close of the Reaper.'

Joarree, ' a stranger, an alien, a foreigner, in EAIRY JORA, formerly EAIRY JOAREY, ' Stranger's Shealing,' and BALLAJORA, ' Stranger's Farm.' In the Isle of Man formerly all who were not natives were called strangers or foreigners.

Maarliagh, 'a thief,' in GLIONE MAARLIAGH, ' Thief Glen.' It is not known how this name was acquired.

The following names arise from industrial occupations having been carried on at the places they indicate:

Fasney, 'a winnowing,' in STROOAN FASNEE, ' Winnowing Stream,' so called from the mill which it drives.

Garmin, ' a weaver's beam,' in BALLAGARMAN, ' Weaver's Beam Farm.'

Tuar, ' a bleach-green,' in BALLATHOAR, formerly BALLNETHOAR, ' Bleach-green Farm,' and GLIONETHOAR, ' Bleach-green Glen.' There were formerly bleach-greens in both these localities. This word is not found in the Manx Dictionaries. [(I.) BALLITORE.]

(f) The Animal Kingdom.

Tarroo, ' a bull,' in MAGHER-YN-THARROO, ' Field of the Bull,' and POOYL THERRIU, ' Bull's Pool.'

Dow, ' an ox,' in Ghaw-YN-GHow, ' Cove of the Ox.' An ox with a plough is said to have fallen into this cove and to have been drowned there.

Boa (gen. pl. ny baa), ' a cow,' in CREG-NY-BAA, ' Rock of the Cows.'

Maase, ' cattle,' in BALLAVAASE, ' Cattle Farm.' This farm in German is where the cattle were formerly kept which were slaughtered for the use of the garrison of Peel Castle. On this Professor Zimmer comments : ' One is immediately reminded by this maase, " beast for slaughter," of the Irish maise, " food, victuals," which appears in Fiacc's Hymnus, maise dome nistoimled, " men's food he ate not." ' Maase also probably occurs in LOUGHAN-NYMASHEY, or MAIDJEY, ' Pond of the Cattle,' which has now disappeared.

Muc, ' a pig,' in BOAL-NA-MUCK, or BOOL-NA-MUCK, ' Place of the Pig ' ; TOWL-NY-MUCK, ' Hole of the Pig '; and BoolLNA-MUCK, ' Fold of the Pig.' [(I.) SLIEVENAMUCK, (G.) BALMUCK.]

Muc-aill, ' a sow,' in CRONK-NY-MUCAILLYN, ' Hill of the Sows.' There was formerly a curious breed of wild pigs, called purrs, which is now extinct.

Collagh, ' a stallion ' (of the male of most animals, but usually of a horse), in CRONK-COLLACH, ' Stallion Hill,' and CLOSE-NY-CHOLLAGH, ' Close of the Stallion.'

Mohlt (pl. muihlt), ' a wether,' in GLEN-Y-MULT, ' Glen of the Wethers ' ; CRAIG-NY-MULT, ' Crag of the Wethers '; and CREG-NY-MOLT, ' Crag of the Wether.' ~(I.) ANNAMULT.]

Lheiy, ' a calf,' in BALLALHEIY, ' Calf Farm.' [(I.) CLONLEIGH.]

Colbagh, ' a heifer,' in CLOSE-NY-CHOLBAGH, ' Close of the Heifer.' [(I.) KILNACOLPAGH.]

Keyrr or keyrrey (pl. kirree), ' a sheep,' in TOWL-GhaW-NYKIRREE, ' Hole of the Creek of the Sheep,' and GiauNY-K1RREE, ' Creek of the Sheep,' where sheep were swum ashore ; in EANYN-YN-GIRRACH, ' Precipice of the Sheep '—this is steep, yet not so steep that sheep can-not graze on it ; and BALLAKEERAGH, ' Sheep Farm.' [ (I.) MEENKEERAGH, (G.) BALKEERIE.]

Rayn, ' a lamb,' in KNOCK-Y-NEAN (yn-ean), ' Hill of the Lamb. ' This is a tumulus in Andreas. [(I.) GORTANOON, (G.) DRUMALONE.]

Feeaih, ' a deer,' in CARRICK-A-FEEAIH, ' Rock of the Deer,' in Lonan ; in LHEIM FEEAIH, ' Deer's Leap,' at a bend of the narrow stream, just above the chapel at the head of Sulby Glen, and in CURRAGH FEEHEH, ' Deer's Curragh,' in German. It is said that the skeleton of an elk had been discovered there. [(I. and G.) DRUMANEE.]

Ragh, ' a horse,' in BALLANEAGH (yn-eagh), ' Farm of the Horse.' [(I.) KINEAGH.]

Cabbyl ' a horse,' in GIAIJ-NY-CABBYL, ' Cove of the Horse '—this is the cove whence horses were swum across to the Calf Island ; and in SLOC-NA-CABBYL-SCREEVAGH, ' Pit of the Scabby Horse ' (see p. 175). This word has been adopted from the late Latin caballus both by the Celts and the Scandinavians. [(I.) GORTNAGAPPUL.]

Sharragh, ' a foal,' in KNOCKSHARRY, ' Foals' Hill ' ; CHIBBYR HARREE, ' Foals' Well ' ; GOB-NY-SHARREY, ' Point of the Foals ' ; BALLACHARREE, ' Foals' Farm ' ; and possibly in BALLAHARRA and BALLAHARRY. The well-known CAIRN SHARRAGH VANE, ' White Foal Cairn,' is a huge block of white quartz in the mountains near Druidale. It is now usually called ' The SHARRAGH VEDN.' [(G.) BARSHERRY.]

Moddey (pl. voddee), ' a dog,' in Cooll VODDY, ' Dog Nook'; CRONK-Y-VODDEY, ' Hill of the Dog, or Dogs ' ; ELLANY-VODDEY, ' Isle of the Dog, or Dogs,' in Ballaugh Curragh ,~ CARRICK-Y-VODDEY, ' Rock of the Dog, or Dogs ' ; MWYLLIN MODDEY (ob.), ' Mill (of the) Dog,' now known as ' The Dog Mills ' ; and in various BALLAMODHAS and BALLAMODDEYS, ' Dog Farm.' On the farm of BALLAMODHA in Malew there is a granite font, which probably belonged to an adjoining keeill. [(I.) KNOCKAVADDY, (G.) BLAIRMODDIE.]

Quallian, ' a whelp, cub,' is in local names applied to a low hill when near a higher one, as in CREG-Y-WHALLIAN, ' Crag of the Whelp ' ; LHERGY-AWHALLAN (Aah-whallian), ' Whelp's Ford Slope ' ; and AWHALLAN, ' Whelp's Ford'; also probably in SLIEAU WHALLIAN, ' Whelp's Mountain,' near the loftier South Barrule. Down the steep northern side of this mountain the witches who survived the ordeal of being ducked in the Curragh-glass are said to have been formerly rolled in barrels with spikes inside. [ (G.) ALWHILLAN.]

Goayr, ' a goat,' in GLIONE-NY-GOAYR, ' Glen of the Goat'; and CLOSE-Y-GAUR, ' Close of the Goat.' [(I.) GLENAGOWER, (G.) ARDGOWER.]

Shynnagh, 'a fox,' in CRONK SHYNNAGH and CRONK SHANNAGH, ' Fox Hill,' also in LHEIM-Y-CHYNNEE, ' Leap of the Foxes,' a perpendicular cliffin Rushen. Foxes are now extinct in the island, but the records tell us that they formerly existed. [(I.) COOLNASHINNAGH, (G.) AUCHENSHINNAGH.]

Mwaagh, ' a hare,' in TOWL-Y-MWAAGH, ' Hole of the Hare.'

Conning, ' a rabbit,' in CLOSE CONNING, ' Rabbit Close'; CROIT-NY-GONNING, ' Croft of the Rabbit '; CROIT GONNING, ' Rabbit Croft,' and possibly in MAGHER-Y-CUNNY, ' Field of the Rabbits.' [(I.) KYLENAGONEEN.]

Kap', ' a cat,' in CRONK-Y-CATT, ' Hill of the Cat.' It is tempting to derive the name of this place from the Irish cath, ' a battle,' especially as there is a tumulus on it ; but, if it were so, it could scarcely have acquired its present hard sound. [(I.) CARNAGAT, (G.) CRAIGENCAT.]

Raun, ' a seal,' in CARRIGRAUN, ' Seal Rock '; CREG-NY-ROAN,

' Rock of the Seal ;' Ghaw RAUN, ' Seal Cove,' and GOB-NY-ROINNA, ' Point of the Seals.' Seals were formerly common off the Manx coast, but they are now rarely seen. [ (I.) CAIRIcKROAN.]

Maggle, ' a testicle,' in SLIEAU MAGGLE, ' Testicle Hill.' It was probably so called because the shepherds brought the mountain lambs together there to be cut. [(G.) BARNEAN, (I.) LISNANEANE.]

..Eean (pl. ein), ' a bird,' generally used of chickens, possibly in DHYRNANE, which may be a Corruption of Dubbyr-yn

ein, ' Pond of the Birds ' (see The DHOOR, p. 91). This pond was drained about forty years ago. The creek in Maughold of the same name, which is close by, has evidently been named after it, and in CLOSE-NY-EANLEE, ' Close of the Chickens.' [(I.) LISANEANE, (G.) BARNEAN].

Ushag, ' a bird,' in CHIBBER-NY-USHAG, ' Well of the Bird,' and CROIT-NY-USHAG, ' Croft of the Bird.' This word is common in colloquial use, and is found in the Manx Bible. There is nothing corresponding to it in Irish or Gaelic.

Urley, ' an eagle,' in CRONK URLEY, ' Eagle Hill,' where a Tynwald Court was held in 1422. It is called RENEURLING in the Statute Law Book, which would seem to be a corruption of REN-URLEY, ' Eagle Ridge.' Eagles and falcons were formerly common in the Isle of Man, which the Stanleys received from the English Crown for the nominal obligation of presenting a cast of falcons at each coronation. [(I. ) CRAIGANULLER, (G.) BENYELLARY.]

Feeagh, ' a raven,' in GLIONE FEEAGH, ' Raven's Glen '; CREG FEEAGH, ' Raven's Crag '; EDD FEEAGH VOOAR, ' Big Raven's Nest '; and CROTT-Y-DAA-FIAG, ' Croft of the Two Ravens." [(I.) CARRICKANEAGH, (G.) BENNAVEOCH.]'

Earkan, ' a lapwing,' in ~TRAIE-NY-EARKAN, ' Strand of the Lapwing '; and PARK-NY-EARKAN, ' Park of the Lapwing.' This word is not now used in colloquial Manx, but it is found in the Manx Bible.

Fannag, ' a crow,' in CRONK-NY-FANNAG, ' The Hill of the Crow '; and CREGGAN-Y-ANNAG, ' Rocky Hillock of the Crow.' Urns have been found in the tumulus on CRONKNY-FANNAG. [(I.) MULLANAVANNAG.]

Scarroo, ' a cormorant,' in CREG-NY-SCARROO, ' Crag of the Cormorant.'

Foillan, ' a seagull,' in LAG-NY-FOILLAN, ' Hollow of the Sea-gull '; in GOB-NY-VOILLAN, ' Point of the Seagull '; TRAIENY-FOILLAN, ' Shore of the Seagull '; and ELLAN-NYFOILLAN, ' Island of the Seagull,' which is a field, pro-bably once surrounded by water, near the Curragh, on the estate of Loughan-y-Eiy. It was in this field that a crannoge or lake dwelling was found some years ago


i The dual in Manx is not plural. '~-'J~L1L~11Vf1L, -~1Pt1AES 129

Guiy, ' a goose,' in LOUGHAN-YEIY, ' Pond of the Goose'; CRONK-NY-GUIY, ' Hill of the Goose '; GLION-Y-EIY, ' Glen of the Goose '; Gullet-Ny-GUIY, ' Gullet of the Goose'; and MWANNALYGUIY ' Neck of the Goose. ' In these last two names it is used metaphorically of the narrowest part, in the one case of a little creek, and in the other of a field. [(I.) MONAGAY.]

Thunnezg~ ' a duck '; in BALLATHUNNAG, ' Duck Farm,' and CLOSE TUNNAG, ' Duck Close.'

Kellagh, ' a cock ' (pl. kellee), possibly in AIREY KELLAG, ' Cock Hill-Pasture '; BALLA-KELLAG, ' Cock Farm '; and EAIRY KELLEE, ' Cocks' Hill-Pasture.' EAIRY KELLEE may, how-ever, mean Kelly's Hill-Pasture, being sometimes spelled EAIRY KELLY, and AIREY and BALLA-KELLAG may be derived from the obsolete surname KELLAG (see p. 43). [ (I.) KNOCKAKILLY.]

Kiark, ' a hen,' in GLIONE KIARK, ' Hen Glen,' and CLOSE GIARK, ' Hen Close.' These names probably arise from the practice of removing the hens in July, August, and September to sties at some distance from the houses so as to prevent them from damaging the corn when it was coming into ear. [(I.) SLIEVENAGARK.]

Fedlag, ' a feather,' in CRONK-NY-FEDJAG ' Hill of the Feather.'

Edd, 'a nest,'in CRONK NED (yn-edd), ' Hill of the Nest,' and in MAGHER-YNEDD, ' Field of the Nest.' Edd is also found as a prefix in EDD FEEAGH VOOAR, ' Big Raven's Nest.' This name is applied to a crag at the south end of Greeba Mountain. [(I.) NADNAVEAGH] Shellan, ' a bee,' in GLENSHELLAN, ' Bee Glen.'

Carnoain, ' a beetle,' in BWOAILLEE CARNOAIN, ' Beetle Fold.'

Beishtezg-, ' a reptile,' or fteishte:g-, ' a little worm, ' also used of a fly, a diminutive of beishi, ' a beast, brute,' in THALLOO A-PEISHTEIG, ' Land of the Little Worm,' probably so-called from worm-earths. [(I.) LOCH-NA-PEISTE (G.) BALLOCHABEASTIE]

Skeddan, ' a herring,' in GOB-Y-SKEDDAN ' Point of the Herring.' According to an old Manx legend the fish elected the herring as their king. The deemsters swore



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