[From 3rd Manx Scrapbook]



1. Other Obsolete Surnames. — 2. Translated Names. — 3. Colloquial Pronunciations. — 4. Some Characteristic Forenames.

1. Other Obsolete Surnames.

Alcar, M.R.* A place-name near Liverpool. De Altekar held land in Dale St. in 1319 (Crosse Deeds, Lancs. and Ches. Hist. Soc.). The name was frequent in Samlesbury, Lancs., a strong Catholic locality in 15th and 16th centuries, and containing a number of the Manorial Roll names : — Alkar, Cowell, Bell, Finch, Gale (from York), Hyndill, Lucas, Mychell ; while the extant Mx Sansbury — Sammesbury in M.R. — is the name of the place itself. Otker, in the Peel Garrison, 1660, was more likely to be English than Manx. (FPC - Nicholar Alkar is noted as a soldier in 1428; also a Nicholar Alcar is noted as a Miller and Brewer (at Holmtown Mill) in Patrick and noted as previous renter of a chamber in Peel in 1515)

* M.R.=-Manorial Roll," or Rent Roll of the Island, compiled in 1510 and 1513.

Aspallan. John Aspallan and his son Thomlyn appear in M.R. as renting a cottage and croft in Patrick, immediately West of St. John's, and the same names are copied into the Lord's Rent Book for 1643. If it was stressed on the first syllable it was the widely distributed English Aspilon, Asplin, or Aspland of Bucks, also in Cumberland circa 1610 (Denton, Estates and Families of Cumbd., p. 74), and not uncommon in Lancs. later. One of its early occurrences is Aspelon (Hundred Rolls), on the border of Berks. and Oxon — by a coincidence at the same spot and the same date as Flaxney (see page 66). If Aspallan was stressed on the second syllable a connexion with the Irish O'Spealain is possible.

Calcote. In its earlier generations on the Island this was a family of officials, with a predilection for the name Robert. Robert Calcote, Receiver, 1504 and 1510, and again from 1522 to 1543: probably father and son. John Calcot, the Earl's Attorney, 1575. " Robert Callcot, of the Isle of Man," cited in A Catalogue of Special Commissioners, 18 Eliz. (Lancs. and Ches. Rec. Sec., viii.) as owing debts to the Crown, along with Thos. Stanley and Wm. Gerrard of London. Robert Collcatt, an Abbey Tenant, 1611. " Young Robert Colcots " of the Castletown Garrison, 1634. Richard Calcott, Water Bailiff, 1660. Robert Colcotts, O.C. of the Garrison, 1660 ; he was chiefly responsible for the execution of Illiam Dhone in 1662, according to an old Mx ballad, which spells the name Colquitt and avers that the family became extinct in consequence of Robert's act, at any rate in the South. But the bard was more impassioned than accurate, for they were still there in the 18th century. " The easement of the Calgatts, Kerrowmore Claddagh," Ayre Sheading, 1698 (Gell's Index, Reg. of Deeds). Collcoate, Maughold, 1785 (Mon. Inscrns.) Colquitt, War Memorial, parish of St. Thomas, Douglas. The earlier Calcots were connected with Chester. It is an English place-name, e.g. in Lancs. and Cheshire.

(Cardoile.) Ballacartoile, Patrick par., 1703, later Ballacottle and Kerrow Cottle (Ardole was identical or contiguous), may imply a personal name, which was perhaps the Cardoile of the Hundred Rolls, Kardoyle of Testa de Neville, and Cardoyll of Valor Eccles. ; i.e. " of Carlisle." Cotoyle occurs in England later, and there is a modern Cottle. For the presumed Mx surname the Ir. MacArdghail (McArdle) has been suggested, but the ending of the 1703 form does not suit well. If Ardole was the same place some earlier prefix than Balla, such as " Cronk," is indicated. The name has a resemblance to that of Carn Gerjoil or Gerjohl, a mountain in Lonan, where a personal name is unlikely and the Ir. cairdeamhail might be concerned. Feltham (Tour, 1798), who wrote his names phonetically, heard it as " Karn-ajoil " (p. 209).

" Codhere." Spellings are various, but all are meant to rhyme with " Adair." The name was seldom written and has now gone out of its colloquial use, but it is still understood to have been a by-name, equivalent or substitute for Watterson, formerly MacWater, in the parish of Patrick. A man would sign himself (if he could) as Watterson, be born, married and buried as Watterson, and be Watterson to his superiors, but among his own people he would always be called Codhere. Thos. Kerdar and Ine Kerdaragh, 1513 ; Keoder, Kerdere, 1602 ; Codere later in Bps. Bk. ; Cudere, 1698 (Reg. of Deeds). Kerdar, 1513, evidently designates one man only, who rented in Glen May, Glen Rushen and South Barrule ; with, probably, his two daughters renting in German and Ballaugh respectively. An etymological connexion between Kerdar and MacWater might be made out, but it would be rather forced, and Kerdar may originally have been merely a nickname for some man named MacWater or Watterson.

Cotynghin, M.R., Cottiam, 1662, Cottiman frequent in Braddan in 18th cent., also as Cottam, 1727. Eng. Cottingham, Cotyman, from a Yorks. place-name. Cotynghin, Chester, 1446 ; Margaret Cottingham, Bromborough, Ches., 1560 (Lancs. and Ches. Wills). There was also the name Cotum in Garstang, Lancs., in 1283, and Cottam in Preston, mid 17th cent. (Moore MSS.). In Man the two names may have been confused, but in England they are quite distinct from each other.

Croughan, qu. obs.? MacCraghan, M.R. ; Crahan, 1571 ; Croughan, Kk. Michael, 1700 ; Croghan, Croughan and Craughan, c. 1828 (Pigott's Directory) Craughan, Douglas War Memorial. Woulfe derives the corresponding Ir. name from MacConchruachan, " son of the Hound-of-Cruachan " (the old royal residence of Connaught).

Fearn, Fern. Said in Patrick to have originated with a baby found in the fern, above Glen May. " Feearn " is the Mx pronunciation of " fern " — i.e. bracken. However, Fearon appears in the parish before 1754 (Mon. Inscr.) and is a fairly common Sc. name. The last Mx Fearn is said to have emigrated towards the end of the 19th cent. " Mary Ann Fearn of Trelja, 1867," occurs on a Patrick tombstone. " Edward Fern of Johannisburg, a native of Kirk Patrick, one of seven sons whose father emigrated in 1854 and returned later to the Island, leaving the three elder sons in Australia." (Manx Quarterly, No. 7, p. 680, in a notice of his death, 10-11-1909).

Forbor, M.R. Norman-Eng. "le Fourbeur," the polisher. Adam the Fourbour occurs in a Liverpool grant, 1369 (Moore MSS.)

Hindley or Hingley. Hindley, 1575, Hinley, 1699, both in Castle Rushen Garrison ; Hingley, blacksmith, Arbory, 1690 (Mon. Inscr.) ; " intack at Hinleys," Balladoole, 1743 ; Hingley, Malew, 1792 (Mon. Inscr.). Hindley is a Lancs. place and surname ; the surname Hingley is commonest in Worcs. Here Hindley is likely to have been the form in which it arrived.

Joiner, Ballakermeen, Douglas, 1610 ; Joyner, Douglas, 1730 ; Jonner, Joner, Douglas, 1757 ; Joyner, Malew Par. Reg., 1773, and Douglas, 19th cent. Probably the same as Genor, 1498, Geonor, 1510, and Eng. fenner, Jenoure ; from Fr. ingenieur used in a military sense.

Kewny, Lezayre, 1611, 1703. Fairly numerous there in 17th cent., but not found early or after 19th cent. Kewney, Lezayre, 1820 (Mx Charities). Probably either MacDhuibhne, " ill-going," or MacGëibheannach, " fettered," mod. Keveney, etc. ; MacGivney in Cavan (Woulfe). Sc. McEwney, no doubt from the same source as the Mx name.

Kinglish. John McAnglish had a small holding near Creg Malin, Peel, in 1643. Margaret Kinglish on Ballaterson, near Peel, in the same year. Jane McKinglish in same locality, 1703 (Lord's Rent Bk). " Son of the Englishman." Found also in Ireland and Scotland, and doubtless reached Man from one or the other for a short life on the Island. [FPC McAnglish appears c.1633 - Kinglish disappears c.1750 - see Peel Property]

MacCrowton, MacCrawton, 1422. From an Eng. or Sc. place-name. Adam de Crawton was a Liverpool landholder in 14th cent. ; Crowghton was a signatory to the surrender of Furness Abbey in 1537 ; Crougton and Creuhton in Wigtown, 1592. The Ir. Crofton may be the same. Woulfe says " of Crofton in Yorkshire or Hampshire," but two substantially different place-names may be concerned in the Eng. names.

MacCure, M.R. Cure, 1577, Bps. Bk. From Maclomhar, the Gaelic version of Norse Ivar; or possibly direct from the latter. Old Galloway McKeuar, McUr ; mod. Sc. Maciver.

MacInay, M.R. ; Kinnay, 1577, 1585, Bps. Bk. ; Keaney, Kenney, Cenney, 178o. From MacCinaodha, " son of Kenneth." Mod. Ir. and Sc. McKenna. Dominic Kenneth, Vicar of Arbory, 1370, may have originated the name in Man, where it still survives as Kenna.

MacKere, 1502 , Carre, MacCaure, 1510 ; MacCarre, Kyrre, 1540. A name of many possible origins, and the spellings are unhelpful. It might be the Sc. Kerr, the Eng. Carr which entered Scotland in 13th cent. (M'Kerlie, Lands and their Owners, ii., 341).

MacMoleyn, M.R. Mollane, 1589, Bps. Bk. Others of the name entered from Ireland later. Sc. and E. Ulster MacMaolain, dim. of maol, " tonsured one." McMolyn, 1327 (Rot. Scotiae) ; old Galloway McMullane, mod. McMillan, Mullen, etc.

MacNellen, M.R. ; confined to German par. and probably to one family. It may be the name for which Woulfe gives an Irish spelling Mac an Ailin, in English forms M'Enallen, MacAnallen, Nallen ; adding, "son of — ; a rare surname in Ulster and Connaught, the origin of which I cannot trace. The above represents the pronunciation as I heard it."

Quate. MacFaite, 1430 (Sloane MS.), MacQuate, M.R., MacQwayte, 1540. Obs. early. Sc. McPhaid, dim. of Patrick; mod. McQuade, McQuadd, In North of Ireland it has become McFate, McFeat ; but Ir. McQuade is from another source.

MacQuisten, Ine Quistin, 1540 ; perhaps the Mac-Costen of M.R., but to be distinguished from MacAusteyn of the same date. Sc. MacHuisdean, from Oistean, the Gaelic form of Norse E ysteinn. Cf. Eng. Wistan, 13th cent. Mod. Sc. McQuistin. James Oistan, Wigtown, 1703.

Nidderagh. MacNedragh, M.R. ; qu. McKedrawe, Kedrawe, 1540 ; Neddrough, 1580, Nidderagh, 1765, Nidraugh, 1786. Extant till after 1816. Mac yn-Fidder, son of the weaver, with the possessive suffix agh which is seen also in Qualtrough and once in Kerdaragh. In these the sense appears to be one of relationship , when added to Scottish clan names, as in Griogarach, it signified the clan Gregor together with all its dependants and followers, and was regarded as a collective plural. If this was the case in Man, and these names were equivalent to " the Weavers," " the MacWalters," we must, of course, read Mac-ny-Fidderagh for the Manx original. McKedrawe may be the same without the article — MacFidderagh. The translation " Webster " was occasionally used. Webster appears once in M.R. as against three MacNedraghs. Though weaving was such a common trade it has contributed no surname to Woulfe's comprehensive Irish collection, and in Scottish material I have noticed a McNider once only (Lower, Pat. Britt.), which probably belongs to Galloway. Though it has outlived the Manx name, it must be extremely rare. (See also sec. 2. below.)

Half a dozen instances occur of weakly represented names preceded by "O." Their fewness in comparison with the mass of names with and without " Mac " is characteristic of Scotland also. In Ireland the prefixing of "O" was the earliest and the regular method of forming family names. In Man there were o Barron, Odaley, Odanell or Odenell (together with Odoney), O Fayle, O Morgan and O Quyllan. Nearly all occurred in the Northern parishes in the 16th century, except Odaley, Lezayre, which appears in Lib. Scacc. at 9-3-1647 This survived till at least 1882 as Daily, Dally (Brown's Directory). It may have been a comparatively late incomer from Ireland or the S.W. of Scotland. In Galloway it assumed the " Mac," as McOdali, but became obsolete before the 18th century. Odanell, Odenell and Odoney are entered in the Bps. Bk. for Peel in the last two decades of the 16th century, where they are intercommingled and apparently interchangeable on the same holding. Probably they are all the patronymic Danell found in the same century and the same neighbourhood (modern Cannell), with a temporary addition of the Mx oe, grandson, either after the forename or in front of the second name, to distinguish a certain branch or two of the family from others. The same supposition may hold good for O'Fayle in relation to the co-existent Faile and MacFaile. Hugh o Morgan is a fugitive name which appears only in a Castletown lawsuit against a member of a local family, the Stephensons. O'Quyllan, O'Morgan and O'Barron were Irish names at the time, and are still extant in that country without the prefix.

2. Translated Names.

As the Manx language gradually gave way to English there was a slight tendency towards the translation of native names into their corresponding English equivalents, or what were supposed to be their equivalents. On the absence of MacClerey and the frequency of Clerk I have already commented. Some of the present Smiths may have been Gawnes, but Gawne is much commoner among the genuine Manx population. The Liber Scaccarii mentions, 9th March, 1647, " Edmond Gowne alias Smith " of Ballaugh ; but that may have been only an accidental coincidence.

Cregeen's idea (Manx Dictionary) that Corjeag was a native rendering of Cavendish is sponsored, with the addition of apparently sound evidence, by A. W. Moore in his Manx Names; but Corjeag had existed, in different forms, since 1513, and the connexion between the two names could only have been the absorption of Cavendish into the already existing Corjeag.

Teare may, theoretically, have been occasionally translated Joiner, as Joyner is found ; e.g., sharing Ballakermeen estate in 1600 (Moore, Notes and Documents), among the Douglas householders in 1730, and in Malew in 1773 (Mon. Inscr.) ; but it is more likely to be the Geoner of the M.R., in the same parish as Ballakermeen and Douglas.

Tailor has been common, especially in the South, for at least four centuries — it appears in the parish of Patrick in 1498 — but the adoption of the trade-term almost unchanged into Gaelic (Mx thalleyr), precludes Tailor from the category of translated names. It may, however, have entered the Island as an English name. Taylor was one of the 36 representatives chosen by the people in 1430 (Acts of Stanley, p. 8o) ; but William le Taillour of Carlisle was the King's Lieutenant-Governor in 1334 (Monumenta, ii., 181). He had under him, by the way, two men named Macoter and Makstephan to control the North and South respectively, as their names show, who may have introduced the now familiar " Cottier " and " Stephen " or

" Stevenson," and the obs. " Stean." Or they may have been natives.

Joughin is Mx for " deacon " ; but the Diaconson who held a croft near the Creg Mill, Ballasalla, in 1540 is more likely to have borne the Lancs, name Dicconson or Dicconson. Hugh Dicconson was one of the Earl of Derby's Commissioners in 1561. The Sloane MS. (Acts of Stanley, p. 76) has Mac Joyene, Mac Joychene, in 1422, where Statutes have Caighen. Mac Joghens were numerous in 1513, and the single Dicon then appearing was probably the Eng. name which is now Dickin and Dickens, so translation is unlikely here. There seems to have been give-and-take among these Eng. names, as between the Eng. and Mx forms Dickson, 1429 and 1430, MacDik, Dik and Dicon, 1510, Dycke, 1611, Duckan, 1611. Surviving from these are Duggan and probably the uncommon Gick.

The unstable character of names in earlier times is well seen among the extracts from the Malew Par. Reg. printed in the Manx Note Book, No. 8 : — " 1663, Ann Norris daughter of Tho. Webster, bapt. Apl. 3, Elizabeth ffargher daught. to Thomas the webster bapt. March 6th. 1667, Tho. Bridson, son to Tho. the webster and Jane his wife, bapt. June 5th. John Bridson, son to Christopher webster, bapt. July 14th." Bearing in mind that people had then, with very few exceptions, only one forename, the record is baffling, even if two Thomas's were concerned. Apart from that, either or both may have been Webster by trade and translation to the parson and his circle, but to their own cronies " Tom Nidderagh."

3. Colloquial Pronunciations.

in reference to what has been said on page 19 of a. tendency to retain in common speech a second pronunciation of some surnames, the following list will. be found to comprise most of these variations from what is now considered the polite form. With names of recent advent, to which Manx tongues have not taken kindly, the alterations have been merely a matter of convenience, and I have only included one or two of these, by way of example. The others may be divided into two classes : those in which a closer approach is made to the true — that is to say, the earlier-form of the name, and those due to departure from the proper sound. In the latter class, the Manx love for the triphthong " eow," rhyming with " cow," is very noticeable, especially in the North, which is strongest in what remains of the old Manx spirit generally. Final " ey " becomes " ya " or " yeh," as in many place-names. Most of these " popular pronunciations " are now heard only on the lips of the few who are fortunate enough, or wise enough, to be well behind the times ; but as place-names resist change better than personal names, people who would not permit themselves to use the vulgar form of a surname speak without scruple of " Ballacunyah," " Eairy Cuishlan," " Kinlye's Glen," " Spooyt Woodber," etc.

Name as spelt.

Popular pronunciation.



Boddagh (guttural gh)

Writt "n Bodough," Bishop's Book for Jurby, 1601.


Brideson universally ; Breezha, Vreezha, not heard now.

Discussed on pp. 39-40.


Curley in North Lonan.


Formerly spelt, and doubt less pronounced, Callister,



Now very uncommon, but occurs twice, as Clewes, on the Roll of Honour in Lonan Church.



Retained in farm-name Ballacormawtha, or-cormortha, Michael.







See pp. 107, 134.


Cotcher universally

Originally Cotter (Mac Otter).


Kaghan usually

Rhyming with Scottish"clachan."


Kenyuch usually.

Guttural ch.


Kinnish always.

Discussed on page 35.





Keown usually.

"ow" as in "town."


Keowsh usually




Long "o," rhyming with"melancholia."



With accent on second, in some cases, indicating a derivation from Mac an Laoi as well as from MacFhinlay.



Killya is also considered to be an equivalent for the name Gill, perhaps by confusion with guilley, (Irish giolla) a boy.



A frequent initial change ;



cf. Greeba for Gneba.



Here the correct form has been quite superseded by its perversion, which, never common, is following its original to limbo.







of the song "Kiree fo' Niaghtey."





Often heard in Lezayre30 years ago.


Ribbeth, Ribbat, Rivet, etc.

A recent introduction from England which has suffered severe dilapidation.



Discussed on page 37.



From "MacWatter," stressed on third syllable ?


Woodbert, Woolbart, etc.

4. Some Characteristic Forenames.

The earlier records show a strong Gaelic element mixed with the sometimes adapted English fontnames, but Scandinavian names are surprisingly few, and most of what there are appear to have passed through Gaelic. Feminine names are, naturally, seldom found until the institution of Parish Registers. With one exception, Ballaugh, this did not occur until the 17th century was well under weigh. Though the Registers have been completely transcribed, only scattered extracts from two have been printed — Ballaugh and Malew in the Manx Note Book.

Aalish, Ealish, fem. Alish Kieg, 1786, Patrick (Mon. Inscr.). Fairly common till recently. Always written in its Eng. form, Alice, in M.R. as printed. Allis in Ireland generally, also Ailes (monosyllable) in the North. In Man the suffixes -ed and -et were sometimes added.

Ally, f. Alea Quay alias Brew, 1793, Malew (Mon. Inscr.). Mx aaley means " beautiful." Not quite obs. The modern Ellie may have replaced it to some extent. Sc. Ailie.

Allow, m. Allow Abel, M.R. Allow MacAllow later. Formed from the surname MacCalo, M.R., MacCaloe, 1585; mod. Callow. Calbhagh, bald, tonsured.

Apeke, m. The only instance is Apeke MacNeyll in 1429 (Acts of Stanley, p. 82). Assuming it to be correct, it appears to be really the surname Peake deriving ultimately from the early Eng. Pic. The initial here stands for " At "; i.e., " at the hill-top." In Ireland and S.W. Scotland, MacPeake, MacPake, MacPike.

Auley, m. Hawley MacKissacke, 1422, Auley MacKissacke, 1430 (the same man). The Norse Olaf, Gaelicised. Hence MacCawlowe, MacCowley (same man), 1422. Now Cowley.

Averick, f. Averick Steane, 1598, Ballaugh Par. Reg.; Averick Creer, 1623, Braddan, Bps. Bk. Arick Kenred, 1667, Lezayre (Mon. Inscr.); " Aucrick " Duggan, 1790, Malew (Mon. Inscr.); " Eric-ny-Moaney, an old woman so-called" (Kelly, Mx Dict.); Leany Arick (Averick's meadow), a Lezayre intack in 1703; Struan Arick (Averick's stream), in Upper Sulby Glen: these are some of the occurrences of this old Gaelic name in Man. In Ireland it is Aifric, though now almost gone out of use; in Scotland Oihrig, where Effie and Euphemia came to be substituted for it. The river Affric, and its loch and glen of the same name, commemorate a nymph, according to Macbain. He and Prof. W. J. Watson explain the word as athbreac, " very dappled, or speckled." Foam-decked is the normal state of many Highland rivers, but feminine humanity in the North is more likely to be freckled.

A nymph might be both. Knock Efferick in Galloway may refer to Affrica, daughter of Fergus, Lord of Galloway, at the end of the IIth cent. In Man the name may have been popularised by Affrica, daughter of Godred, King of Man (Chron. Mann.), who founded the Grey Abbey in Co. Down in 1193. Two abbesses of Kildare, in the 8th and 9th cents. respectively, bore the name.

Bahee, f. (first syll. as " bah "). Rarely " Baggy." Bahee Ine Gilcrist, Lezayre, 1513; Bahe Calyworre Ine Casse, Lezayre, 1540; Bahie Quinney, 1659, Malew Par. Reg.; Bahee Sayle, 1725, Andreas Churchyard; Bahee Kaighen, 1730, German (accused of witchcraft): these are some specimens of this curious name. It occurs also in a " charm against looseness: Philip va yn Ree," etc.; in English, " Philip was king of the fairies and Bahee was his wife," etc. The two personal names are probably substitutions for less domesticated ones.

Morrison and Goodwin, Anglo-Manx Dialect, equate Bahee with Biddy, and mention entries in Par. Registers of persons thus baptised who were married and buried as Bridget. But in many European countries names are equated with and substituted for others without there being any essential relationship, and in the cases just mentioned the connexion must have been quite arbitrary. For the true source and meaning of Bahee I can only make the most tentative suggestions, such as the Norse Bjargey (" helpful "), a fem. name in the Landnama-bak, or the Frisian Bauke, Bawke.

Brice, m. Brice Bullok, Brys Clarke, Bris Mac Alstyen, all in the Court Roll of 1417-8; Bric MacArthure, and Brice as surname, M.R.; John Brice, 1694, Malew Par. Reg. Now ohs. as forenam and surname. Probably of Scand. origin.

Caesar, m. This, like Flaxney, was an Insular family name which is now extant only as a forename Both have already been dealt with here.

Caly-. Ir. Cailleach, a nun; lit., " veiled one.' This was prefixed to names of saints and other sacred names to form fem. forenames. Like those with Gilto which they correspond, they were used chiefly it the North of the Island, and especially in the par of Lezayre.

Calibrid, M.R.; " Nun of (St.) Bride." In one cas' it is entered in the Rolls as the name of a man.
Calycrist, M.R.; " of Christ."
Calyhony, M.R.; " of the Church," or " of the Lord."
Calypatrick, M.R.; Callypharick, 1609; " (St. Patrick. "
Callychrowney, n.d. (Moore, Manx Names); " (St. Croine," a 6th cent. local saint in Carlow and Wicklow place-names Kilcroney near Bray, Temple Croine it Tirconell. Hence also the rare Ir. surname Mulcrowney
Calaghdooney, n.d. (Lioar Manninagh, I, pt. i.) " the Church," or " the Lord."
Callyvorry, Andreas, c. 1500; Calyborri and Calyvorr, M.R.; Calyworre, 1540. The second element in each means Mary. She of 1540 had the distinction, rare for the time, of bearing two forenames
In full, she was Bahe Calyworre Ine Casse; i.e., B.C., daughter of Casse-the present Cash.

Others occur in the Parish Registers, etc., but the type did not long survive the 17th century.

Cavaleiro, m. Cavaleiro Christian, died 1756, son of Edward Christian, Captain of the town of Ramsey, and Jane Teare, his wife (Maughold Mon. Inscr.). Unique in the Island, so far as I have seen.

Charlereta, f. Charlereta Taylor, 1677 (Malew Par. Reg.). Evidently meant as a fem. of Charles, and perhaps home-made. But Miss Yonge says of " Charlotte " that it was brought into England by Lady Derby, of the I,a Tremouille family, and first appeared in the 17th cent. as Charlet.

Christian, Cristen. Both m. and f., but commoner for women, from at least 1510, and probably long before. A Christian was Prioress of Douglas in 1408. Christiana occurs in 1540. The source was Norse. The Sc. Gaelic Cairistiona, " beloved," makes one suspect that the modern Scottish Christina had, in part at least, another origin.

Conchor, m. Conchor Gray, c. 1600, Bps. Bk. One instance as a surname in M.R. Ir. Conchobhar, an old and popular name, now Connor.

Coonie, f. " Coonie Stockan als. Quirke," 1667 (Malew Par. Reg.). If correct, and of Ir. derivation, " handsome "; if Mx, " helpful."

Christal, Cristil, m. Christal Shemyn, Kewen and Bell, Abbeylands tenants, 1611. As a surname in M.R., and later in the form of Christory. A forename and surname in Scotland, equivalent to Christopher (Criostoir).

Denys, m. Denys Daniell, 1536. Though in Ireland this has been the common anglicisation of Donncadh, in Man it seems to have been a popular adaptation of its true original Dionysius, which occurs twice in M.R. Or, conversely, Denys may have been latinized into Dionysius.

Darraty, f., the dialect form of Dorothy. Daratie Leece, 1654, Bps. Bk.

Dollin, m., was a very favourite name down to recent times; less often as Donall. Do]en, Dolyn and Donald, M.R. Cf. the Galloway McDollan, for McDonnell or McDonald. From early Celtic Dumnovalos, " World-ruler "; " Macdonwald " in Macbeth preserves the second initial of the primitive name.

Donagher, m. Roeder (Lioar Manninagh, iii. 145), records a Rushen fairy story in which a man is named Donagher Lowey. I have not met with it elsewhere, but if authentic it is the Ir. Donncadh which gives the surnames O'Donoghue and McDonagh, and the Mx MacDoncan and MacConky in M.R., Doncan, M.R. and 1580; John Doncan was elected Bishop of Mann in 1374. Duncan is the Sc. form.

Elena, f. Elena Ine Cane, M.R. Its form suggests the Norse Elina (Landnar''a Bok). A name closely resembling it is used once in M.R. as a metronymic: Gilmurry Elenagh.

Emell, Aimel, f. Emell Goldsmith compounded for Myre Croft intack, Lezayre, in 1643; Close Emell, a Ballaugh intack, 1703; (Lord's Rent Book). Eme, Emy and Emmy also occurred, but Emily was rare until comparatively recently.

Eunys, Eunice, f. Rather a favourite Mx name at the present time, and only distinguished from the usual English-Greek name by its occasional Manx-looking spelling. In 16th and 17th cent. Lancs. it was sometimes " Unis."

Ewan, Evan, m. Gaelic Eoghan or Norse Ewind; both may have contributed. Ewan is the original here; Evan is rarely seen before the 19th cent. It has been given both a short and a long " E," but the first is the more usual. Ewan or Ewen is the Sc. form also; Owen and Eugene are the Ir. adaptations, Ywain and Owain the Welsh, of Eoghain. Man, like England and France, had Huan, which appears to be a Norman or Breton softening of Eoghan. It may have been regarded by the Mx as a vocative of some form of John. Of how far it was considered the same name as Ewan I do not feel sure. Ewan is a characteristic name of the Christian family, but formerly they spelt it, or it was spelt for them, as Huan. Juan is not on record sufficiently early to be the old Danish Johan or Norse Joann, but it looks like an approximation to some form of John. There is a Scottish (East Coast) surname Shewan which invites comparison. In written records John was the regular Mx spelling of that name, and gave the patronymics MacJohn and MacJon or MacIon. Whether this was the English or the Norse name it would be hard to say; perhaps the latter was reinforced by the former. A Manx-Norse form was Inan, in a runic inscription. As Ewan, Huan, and John with its two Gaelic versions, together with the surnames derived from them, are difficult to disentangle, I give some early instances to make their distinctions as clear as may be.
MacEuyn, 1417, Huan MacNakell, 1417 (but als written Hugh and latinised Hugo), Yven MacQuirk' 1430, MacI(ewne, 1504,1510-13, Sir Huan Norris, 1521 Huan MacChristian, 1532, Huyn Standish, 1540Ewan Christian, 1585, Evan Christian, 1793; a from Eoghan or Eyvind. From Eain (John): MacKane 1417, MacCanne, 1430, MacKeyn, MacKayne, etc. 1540. From John: MacIon, MacJon, 1417, MacJohn 1430, and innumerable Johns as forenames. Ewa and Evan are still in use; Juan is almost obs.; Huan quite so, I believe.

Ferdinando, m. Ferdinando Halsall, 1665, Ferdi nando Stanley, 1692, Ferdinando Calcott, 1704; all i. Malew. It was and is a Stanley name.

Fferdinah, f. Fferdinah Norris, 1675, Malew. feminisation of Ferdinand or Ferdinando.

Fergus, m. Fergus MacCowle, M.R. Also in Mac Fergus, 1422, MacKerrous, M.R.; now Kerruish, bu obs. as a forename.

Finlo, Fynlo, Fynlowe, Finglo, Phinloe, Phinlough etc., m. A favourite name until the Igth cent. I occurs in 1422, and with " Mac " from 1429 (now Kinley). Phinlough Christry of Ballachristory, 1758 is a late instance when it was growing unfashionable but it is not yet quite obs. It is Scottish in origin Fionn-Lugh, compounded of fionn, fair, and L?`gh a deity whose home was for a while the Isle of Ma under the aegis of Manannan Mac Lir, in Irish legend According to Woulfe (Irish Names, p. 36~), modern Sc. nasalisation of MacFionnlaoich has given it a pronunciation which would explain the Mx (Mac)Kewley, supposing such nasalisation to have been current early enough. But MacKewley and MacFynlo stood side by side in 1510.

Flaxney, m. See page 65.

Gemini had some popularity in Lonan, whether for twins, or a twin, does not appear. Gemini, Gemelli, 1736, both in Lonan Par. Reg. Jemony (Rydings, Manx Tales, page 92).

Gennet, Ginnett, Jinnet, Jinetta, f. Gennet ffoster, 1634, Ginnet Bridson, 1683. Jenet Lake, a water mill for corn in the Abbey Demesnes near Castletown, 1540. Not connected with Janet and John. Eng. Geneta, 13th cent., Frankish Genida, 10th cent.

Germot, Germede, m. Germede MacWilline, 1429. Germot MacGermot, M.R. Kermott, Igth cent. From the patronymic MacGermot (MacDiarmid), now Kermode.

Gibbon, m. Very common in early times; interchangeable with Gilbert, which gradually superseded it. Also in MacGibbon, now Cubbon. The Eng. dim. of Gilbert.

Gilchrist, m. Gilcrist MacDowyll and MacNelle, 1408, Gilchrist MacComish, 1430, M.R., and later. Patronymic MacGilchrist, now Mylchreest. Still common in Scotland.

Gildow, m., appears as a nickname in Malew Par. Reg., 1689. " Dark lad." Cf. Gildow McPaye, Perth, 1471 (Macbain), and as a Sc. forename in later centuries.

Giloo, -nho, -nhow, -noo, -now, etc., m. Dilnow MacCorkyll, 1408 (Oliver, Monumenta, ii, 248) should probably read " Gilnow "; Gilno MacCrokell, M.R., and sparsely later. In use in Lonan in 1733 (Par. Reg.), but long obs. Gaelic Giolla-na-Naomh, " servant of the saints." Cf. Keeill Knock-y-Noe, " Chapel of the Saints' Hill," Maughold, and Cronk-yn-Oe, a burial mound and oratory in Lezayre. Gilnef and Gilnew were Sc. forenames in 16th cent. McIlnoy, Wigtown, 1603. Gildernew is an extant surname in Tyrone; Gillarnowe McKeigane was a 17th-cent. Scot.
Gil-andrew, -ander, -calm, -martyr, -mere, -more -murr, and -murry all appear as masc. forenames in 1510-13. Their corresponding patronymics are dealt with in chap. iv.

Glennie, f. I have known but one instance of this name, but as it was given to a child because she was born in a glen (Glen Aldyn), it is worth recording as a case of an invented name, independent of the Sc. and Ir. family name of the same origin, and the cognomen in the old song " John O'Dwyer a'gleanna." Sc. Eglen has, I think, the same import.

Hane, m., occurs once: Hane MacGaw, Sulby, 1513. Cf., perhaps, Ballahane, Rushen. Either the old Eng. forename Heyne (variously spelt), or taken from a Gaelic surname. Mr. Gilbert Magilhane was Capellan at Whithorne in 1479; McHane, 1610, and McElhane 1613, appear in Reg. Privy Cncl. Sctd. Are all these based on Sheathan, Sean, John ?

Hommy, m., is " Tommy " treated as a Mx word, put in the vocative case, and used as a nominative. Quite common till recently. Also Hom.

Huan, m. (See Ewan.)

Ibbot, Ibot, Issot, Isot, all M.R.; Essot, 1540, Issa, Isa, 1690; Issa to-day; all shortenings of Isabel, also a favourite name often stressed on the last syllable, hence the common Bella. Essie, likewise common as a name by itself, may belong to these, or represent Esther - probably the latter. Issot, however, may have had an additional source in Ysolt of the Breton romances introduced by the Normans. This occurs in West Lancs. in a Lancs. Inquisition. It had been adopted by the Norse as Isodd.

Jezabel, f. Jezabel Curphey alias Christian, 1713, Lezayre (Mon. Inscr.), may be deemed worthy of record.

Johna, f. Once in M.R. as Johna, wife of Johne Atkyne. This shows an intermediate stage between the early Johnet and the later Joney. (See below.)

Johnet, f. Very numerous in M.R. Jonet was the Old Sc. form of Janet. Sc. Gaelic Sionaid.

Joney, f.; rarely Juney; once as Johna (see above). Talbot's Manorial Roll contains no Joney, pace P. M. C. Kermode (Kirk Michael, page 30), who says it is often met with in the Roll. Formerly the commonest of Mx fem. names, but now demoded. Popularly but erroneously equated with Judith (e.g. Moore, Manx Ballads, pages 45, 47), perhaps because of the resemblance of Juney to Judy, which was also popular.

Juan, m. (See Ewan.)

Kermott, m. (See Germot.)

Lailie, f. I have heard of two zoth cent. bearers of this name, both Mx; one in Lezayre, the other near St. John's. It is supposed to be a sort of by-product of Elizabeth. Eulalia was formerly not uncommon in Cornwall; but t`Lailie" seems more likely to be the Lelia occasionally used in England (French Lelie), from an old Latin source.

Lewes, m. Lewes Kewley, 1661, Lewes Crideene, 1668. Perhaps taken from the surname Clewis in the belief that it was MacLewis; or more probably the Eng. Lewis.

Mallowney, Malloney, Moloney, etc., m. Malowne MacKnelle, 1538, Malowney Cowine, 1635. As Moldonny below, but with the initial of Domknach aspirated. Cf. the surname MacGillowney, mod. Looney.

Mappy, f., is said to have been a familiar substitute for Martha. Chibber Mappy, " Martha's Well," on the Sound Road, Rushen, commemorates a lady of the name. This is the only instance I know, and possibly Roeder, who records the name, may have misheard Matty as Mappy.

Margad, Marget, is the usual dialect form of Margaret.

Mariot, f. Passim in M.R. and later. A Norman shortening of Mary; hence the Eng. surname Marriott.

Mericke, f. " John Steene and Mericke his wyfe," Braddan, 1647 (Bps. Bk.). Possibly a MS. error for Avericke, a fairly common name, q.v. But surnames were occasionally given to girl babies at the font; vice Salisbury, Savag, and Sage. Charlotte Yonge says that " Merica " occurs in old Yorks. pedigrees as a Christian name. This would have the same source as the surname Merick.

Moggy, f. Dialect form of Maggy. Very popular until the end of 19th cent.

Moirrey, f. Pronounced Murra and sometimes used in the vocative, Voirrey, this Mx form of Mary was in use until recently. Mary itself must have made a late appearance, as it is not found in M.R. Even now it is less popular in the Island than in other parts of the Kingdom, I think.

Mold, m. From 1422onward this appears frequently as Mould Mauld, Mold and Molde; as Mold it remained common down to the 17th cent., chiefly in the Northern parishes. Now obs. M.R. has it once as fem., but that may have been an error for Mawde, which occurs twice near by. If the intrusive " l " in " Maughold " had become sufficiently general by, say, the 14th cent., and if the saint's name had then been worn down to this degree, it would provide a satisfactory explanation for Mold. Maughold may fairly be deemed the Island's national saint. This might also explain why such a popular forename was never combined with " Mac," since that was not customary in the case of a Celtic saint's name, without the interposition of giolla. (That Mold, if a saint's name, was never combined with giolla tends to show that such compounds were not native, and that the Mx names of that type arose outside the Island and were imported ready formed.) Why Mold does not occur in names of crofts and other secular place-names is not clear, since forenames were often attached to these. Possibly its implied sanctity forbid.

Moldonny, n. Twice in 1408 (Oliver, Monumenta,ii, 248). From Maoldomhnaich, " servant of the Church," or " the Lord "; the same name as Mallowney above. The corresponding fem. forms are Calaghdooney and Calyhony, above. Derivative surnames are McAldonich in Scotland, Muldooney, Muldowney, in Ireland.

More, f. More Ine Kill, and others, M.R. A very old Gaelic name meaning, originally, " great " — perhaps in social distinction, as a chief's daughter. It is possible, however, that here More is meant for Mary as in Gilmore. A diminutive Morag is attested in the Maughold place-names Chibber Morag and Lag Booilley Morag, the Well and the Cattle-hollow of Morag. Though obs. in Man, the personal name in both forms is still used in the Highlands.

Moris, n. Frequent in M.R., and as a surname in various forms which are now Corris and probably some Morrisons. Norman de Marais, " of the marsh." MacMaras was one of the two opposing leaders at the battle of Santwat in Man, 1098 (Chron. Manniae) — an early appearance there for a Norman name. A little later a MacMaras was first witness in a Galloway grant to Holyrood Abbey by Uchtred, brother of Affrica, the wife of Olave, King of Man (M'Kerlie, Galloway, page 16/7).

Murdagh, m. Murdagh MacKerad, Murdagh MacCasmund, M.R. A very old Celtic name. The Muiredach of Adamnan's Columba (I, xii.) must have belonged to the 8th cent. But the " d " appears to have been lenated by the 13th cent., at any rate in Ireland, and the Mx Murdagh, Ir. Murtagh, may represent Muircheartach, " good pilot," or some approximate meaning. Muiredach would also mean " connected with the sea" in some way.

Murghad, m. Murghad MacCowle, M.R. Also in MacCurghy, now Curphey. Ir. Murchadh, " seafighter"; anglicised there as Murrough, and the surname as Murphy.

Nele, m. Nele Dogham (Doghan), Nele Bell, 1540. Though common in MacNele (now Kneale) it was never a favourite font-name in the Island; the MacNeles may therefore have come in already bearing that surname. Gaelic Niall, a hero, champion.

Nessie, f. Though in frequent use as a name by itself, it is probably a pet form of Agnes. There is, however, an Ir. fem. name Nessa (Neasa in Woulfe). King Conchubhar in the Naoise and Deirdre saga was named MacNessa after his mother, Ness.

Neven, m. Neven MacQuain, 1430. Naoimbin, " little saint," from which was formed the patronymic which is now Kneen. Mod. Sc. McNiven.

Ocky, m. Moore, Manx Names, page 8I, quotes from some Par. Reg. the pedigree-name " Ocky-Dick-begDick-Bob." The first of the string is probably the Gaelic Eochaidh, horseman; mod. Ir. forename Oghie, " formerly very common, but now almost obsolete " (Woulfe). It appears also in two Mx place names: " Croit Yoky," a Braddan intack in 1703; and Ballayocky, Andreas. There is a chance that it might be the obs. Eng. Jockey.

Otnel, m. Otnel Caterall, M.R., seems to be the only instance. Eng., like the surname. Otnell Worsley, in a civil action at Leigh, Lancs., 1521. If Otnel was an error for Otuel, Ottwell is also Eng. It is found in Malew in 17th cent. as Ottiwell, but was probably then of recent introduction.

Paton, m., was probably a pet form of Patrick rather than the surname used as a forename, since Paton and Patrick Goldsmith of Bride (M.R.), appear to have been the same man. MacFaden was a surname at the same period; now Cogeen.

Pyee, Paie, etc.; f. Peggy, with loss of intervocalic consonant. These colloquial corruptions were not used on formal occasions, such as being christened, married, and buried, hence do not appear in written records. Now obs., but there roamed about Sulby Glen until a very few years ago an old man known as " Billy Pyee," a metronymic. Somehow the name " Pyee " sank to a low social level, and came to be considered as almost equivalent to " beggar-woman." If a doubt is cast on its derivation from Peggy on the score that Maggie and its colloquial form Moggy did not suffer a similar change, I do not know what else " Pyee " can be. " McPaye " appears in Sc. records.

(Ragnald), m., either direct from Norse or through Gaelic Raghnaill, became by 16th cent. Reynold, and was recorded in the Eng. forms Reginald and Ranlyn, with one appearance as a fem. name, Reynylt in M.R, In 1611 are Raynold and Randall. Surname Crennell. Irish McGrannell. Ronaldsway, Malew, was Rognalswath in 13th cent. (Chron. Mann.). Though the personal name was common then and in the following four centuries, it lost its popularity later.

Rory, m. Rory Smyth and Rory Mason, M.R.; Rory Corleod, c. 1630 (Bps. Bk.). In M.R. as surname MacRory and Rory; but Roger was the usual form of the forename. Gaelic Rnadhri, a form of Norse Hrothekr; often Englished Roderick and Roger.

Sage, f. Sage Beckerleg, Malew Par. Reg. (oral information), must have been Cumbrian by marriage at least; but there was a Mrs. Sage Gelling among the subscribers to Cregeen's Manx Dictionary in 1835 or earlier, and " Cushag " has a poem about a girl called Sage-Ellen. The name appeared in a judicial matter in 1930. When moral qualities are used for fem. names it is always the noun: Prudence, Grace, and so on. So the origin of Sage is probably to be sought elsewhere, perhaps in the Eng. surname.

Salisbury was used as a fem. name in 17th cent. Salisbury Tubman, 1694, Salisbury Halsall, 1654; Bps. Bk. Salisbury Norris, 1667, Malew Par. Reg. All Engl. surnames.

Savag, f. Savag Radcliffe, 1634 (Mx Mt'.s. Jnl., No. 3I), Probably the surname Savage, sometimes so spelt in the Registers: Jony Savag, 1694! Malew Par. Reg.

Sessott, Sissott, f., M.R., are for Cissot, dim. of Cicely.

Stean, Steein, etc., m. Stephen. Steein-y-Chamaish, Steein-ny-Oghe (Manx Ballads, p. 168). Also a surname, obs. in Man. Stephen in M.R.

Tamar, f. Pronounced as the river-name. Extant, but very rare; I only know one instance. Old Test. ?

Tara, f., rhyming with " Sarah." Also unique, so far as I know. Source unknown.

Thormot, m. Thormot MacQua, M.R. Surname MacCormot, now Cormode. From Norse Tormodr, or its Gaelic equivalent Thormoid.

Urmen, m. Once only, M.R., Urmen MacUrmen. MacUrmen was then frequent. Also MacErmyne, 1419; Curmyne, MacCormyn, same man, 1511; Thos. Orman, Vicar of Jurby, 1576; Curmin, c. 1600; Kameen (unless an error for Kaneen), 1600; now Kermeen. Crot Ermeen, a Maughold intack; Ballakemaine, Bride; Ballacarmine, Arbory; all 1703. Qu. Cronk Armyn, tumulus, Ballaugh. This name is probably the Anglian Eormen (Beowulf), giving mod. Eng. F.rmin, Armine, Armyn. John Urmynson, York, 1415 (Bardsley, English Surnames, p. 558). It is unlikely to be the Ir. Eireamhon, in which the " m " was aspirated early and resulted in the surnames Ervine, Irvine, Erwin.

Voirrey, f. (See Moirrey.)

Vorgell, f. Vorgell Ine Killip, Lezayre, M.R. Norse Borgild or Borgilldr. It has been stated that this represents the Ir. Derbiorgaill. Also that the latter was an old law-term used as a fem. name; but Dinneen (Irish Dict.) analyses it in a different light. It had a medieval vogue as Dervorgilla. The Mx Vorgell of 1513 appears to have been the last use of the Norse name in the Island.


Though the records of Mx nomenclature are comparatively recent, dating with a few exceptions from the 15th century, much of its Celtic portion is of respectable antiquity in other countries. Among the oldest repositories of early Celtic personal names are the Lives of the 6th-century St. Columba. A number of their pre-Norse Scottish and Irish names are virtually duplicated among the extant Mx names and those obsolete during the last two or three hundred years.

Aedh; Mx. (MacK)ewe, Kew, both obs.
Aengus; (Mac)Inesh, obs.; Kinnish.
Ailen; Aleyn, MacAleyn, obs.; Callin.
Arthur; MacArthure, obs.
Berach (St.), of Kilbarrack, Clontarf: qu. Mx Berrag, Birrag, obs. unless surviving as Berry, but preserved in Ballabirrag, Jurby. Mod. Ir. Barry.
Cainnech (St.); (MacEl)hinney, obs.; Quinney.
Callach; Kelly.
Ciaran (St.); (MacYl)charane, obs.; Mylcraine.
Columba (St.); (MacGil)calm, forename Gilcalm, both obs. Ballacolum.
Comgell (St.); (MacEl)chole, obs.; Cowle.
Crag, (sobriquet); Crag, obs.
Diormit ; (MacG)ermot, obs.; Kermode.
Domhnall; (MacC)onylt, MacDanell, forename Dolyn, obs.; Cannell, Donald.
Eochaid; qu. forename Ocky.
Fergus; (Mac)Ferghuis, (MacK)errous, forename Fergus, obs.; Kerruish.
Ioan, (John); Mx runic Iuan.
Kairrech; qu. Kearey, obs.; but Ir. Kearey is otherwise derived by Woulfe.
Lugaid; (MacGil)lowey, obs.; Lowey.
Mac-an-Tsuer (" Kiaran mac Antsair "); MacTere, Seer, obs.; Teare.
Mac-nolmore; older form of Mx MacGilvorr, MacGilborr, MacGilvorra, and forenames Gilmore, Gilmurr; surname Molvurra, also obs., but absorbed into the extant Morrison. Mal-muru, fem., in a Mx runic inscription. Place-name Awin Mount, obs.
Muiredach; (see Murdagh in " Forenames ").
Mocudruidi. This family name, occurring in the Hebrides (Adamnan, I., xli.), but perhaps Irish, may be compared with the personal Maqui Droata in a Mx ogham, and with the Ir. tribal name Corcu MuDruad, extant as Corcomroe (Barony), Co. Clare. The legendary Mx name Mollyndroat (" one of the Nine Molleys, sons of Manannan," fabled to have been the first inhabitants of the Island), appears to have a partial affinity with the foregoing, and with the Ir. surname Mac-an-Dr?`aidh, anglicised Drury, etc. All the other " Molleys " are, or have been, attested surnames. (See Morrison, Manx Fairy Tales, " The Lazy Wife.")


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