[pp 1181-1211 from Cubbon - Bibliography, Vol 2, 1939]




No copy of this has come to light so far as is known. It is not mentioned by Harrison. In the Manks Advertiser of 21st May, 1818, there appeared a prospectus of which the following is a copy:- Prospectus / Of a Periodical Work / to be called / The Independent Manksman / and Literary Miscellany: / Contents: / Biography of eminent Men. / Conditions: / 1. A number to be published on the first Monday of / every month, and to contain 32 pages, demy, octavo. / 2. Each member to be charged 6d. British, to be / left at the houses of the subscribers in town and country, / and to be paid for on delivery. / 3. Every Subscriber to continue One Year, and the / work to commence as soon as a sufficient number of / Subscribers has been procured. / The design of this publication is to produce a / taste for reading, by disseminating useful knowledge, to / check immorality, and to promote the best interests of / men in both Worlds. The Conductors of this Work / are firmly attached to Religion, are wholly unconnected / with any political Party, and are determined to conduct / this Publication upon independent Principles. The / strictest Impartiality wül be observed, and Answers to / any Paper will be inserted, provided they contain / nothing personal, nor having a tendency to infidelity. / All communications addressed to H. and left with / the Editor of the Manks Advertiser, will be thankfully received, / and due attention paid to them. / Douglas, May, 14th, 1818.

facsimile title Doiglas Reflector
Facsimile of title.



/ To be continued once a Fortnight/ ... / ... Douglas. / Printed by G. Jefferson, Duke-street. / Published by Lane & Son, at The Wellington News Roonĝ, Pier / to whom orders for the work and communications for the editor are required to be sent, post paid. / ... sold also by Mrs. Joyner, Post Office, Castletown ; Miss Louisa Cannell, Kirk Michael; and Mr. John Townsend, Ramsey. / Price 5d. British. George Jefferson, 1821. 16 pp. 206x120. 3750-1, G.W.W. Collection.

Not mentioned by Harrison. In blue covers: well-printed on what appears to be Manx-made paper. Lane & Sons News Room was on the base of the Red Pier:- 'the 'situation and scenery from the Room is truly delightful 'and particularly interesting, having fine perspective and 'open views of the sea, the Ships in the Harbour, the 'Quay, the Market Place, the Nunnery, and the sur'rounding country; the whole forming as picturesque and 'pleasant a spot as any in the Island.'

The first number (16pp.) was published on 5th February, 1821; the second number (24pp.) on the 24th February; the third (24pp.) on 10th March; the fourth on 24th March; fifth on 7th April; and sixth on 21st April. After this date it would appear that the publication ceased to be printed.

Only numbers 2 and 3 are in the Museum Library. The bulk of the well-printed 24 pages consists of literary matter taken from English Journals, with a few original articles and poems. A correspondent in the first number asks the perennial query as to 'the origin and 'meaning of the Three Legs of Man,' and 'whether the 'present motto be appropriate.'

There is no indication on the face of the print as to the person responsible for the editing; but there is a likelihood that the Rev. S. Haining, the first pastor of the Independent Chapel in Athol Street, Douglas, may have been the editor.

There were only few Manx topics dealt with in the Douglas Reflector. The advertisements in the Manks Advertiser announce articles on the following subjects: On the Female Servants in Douglas; Queries and Puzzles from Correspondents in Castletown and Douglas (No. 2, 24th February). Historical Sketches of the Isle of Man (Series to be continued), containing ancient traditions of the Fairies or Good People never before printed; Mercutio's Complaint of the Gentle Sex in Douglas (No. 3, 10th March, 1821).

The introduction to the series of Manx historical Sketches has the lines by ' A Manks Bard':--

" Mona! I sing, the favourite of heaven;
That happy spot that was of old ordain'd
To be the seat of modern bliss; where peace
For ever dwells, and fair prosperity,
Enthron'd, sits smiling on her golden shores."

No. 4, 24th March, contained: The Douglas Hero Pourtrayed; original Manx Sketches; On the Insigne and Motto of the Isle of Man; Lines by a late Deemster on Castle Rushen Lodge.

No. 5, 7th April, contained: Historical Sketches; Slap at the Dandy of Douglas Pier, or Bucks have at ye all; a Quiz or. Some Male Saunterers in Douglas Market Place; Philological Notice by a Manksman, or Manks versus Hebrew.

No. 6, 21st April, contained no Manx items.


Facsimile of title.


first published March 19th, 1825. Weekly, price 3d. The imprint says This magazine will be delivered to subscribers Weekly with the Rising Suit journal. Douglas, printed for the proprietor by J. Penrice, at the Manx Rising Sun Office, 1825. 16 pp. 208x130. [3743 G.W.W. Coll., L 6.]

'here are no local contributions in the Journal. Only No. 1 is known to exist.

The Isle of Man Literary Journal, like the Douglas Reflector, was demy octavo in size, and was equally wellprinted. The first number only of the Literary Journal has survived and is in the Library of the Manx Museum. The lists of Births, Marriages and Deaths are the only local matters mentioned in that number.

It is not known who the promoter was; but it is very likely to have been Trevor Ashe, sometimes known as Thomas Ashe.

In October, 1825, Ashe wrote:

'Soon after my arrival 'in this Island last year, I had occasion to announce myself as a man sold to no side. . . It was a matter of indifference to me whether I took dinner at Castle Mona, Kirby, Bishopscourt, or Ballagawne. But this ' independence as a politician was a death blow to me as a public writer, and director of a museum. A dinner with the ex-Deemster cost me one-third of the Island, and my visits to the Lord Bishop lost me the other two-thirds.... Goaded by claimants, and firmly convinced that any further struggles of mine to barter literature or talent for bread in this Island could answer ' no good purpose, I have to solicit my creditors to accept of my all ---- the contents of the museum, in lieu of their ' claims.'

In his Sketch Book he claims that his acquaintance with the Island ' is upwards of 30 years standing.'

Ashe's Sketch Book was published on 3rd August, 1825, by John Penrice at the Manx Rising Sun Office, and is one of the most charming publications of the early part of the nineteenth century. Its retail price was 12/-. The text is printed on paper made at the Laxey Paper Mill. His little poetical work was also printed by Penrice in April, 1825, at the price of 1/6. (Manx Sun, 23 April, 1825. )


TIiE ISLE OF MAN MAGAZINE. A projected Literary Monthly.

This was another project of Thomas Ashe (or 'Trevor' Ashe as he subscribes himself elsewhere), which unfortunately miscarried. In the Manx Sun of 23rd April, 1825, he announces in a contribution of over a column of the paper the appearance on 1st June, 1825, of a new magazine. He says: It has long been a matter of regret and surprise that so interesting a territory should not have furnished a work for diffusing general knowledge, recording insular events . . . and exhibiting the beauties of the Island. . . . To prevent this reproach Mr. Ashe has come to the final resolution of editing and publishing an Isle of Man Magazine, every number of which shall be illustrated with a fine view of some distinguished feature.

Ashe had previously started a museum on the North Quay, Douglas, and had come to grief. It was founded to exhibit the Island's 'Natural and Artificial Curiosities, Remains of Antiquity, scarce subjects in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdom.' . . All contributors of objects 'are presented with a ticket of free admission for life.'

The views already executed are: Douglas Town and Bay; Castle Mona; Castle Rushen; Dalby; Peel Castle; Falls of Rhenass and Glenmaye; Bishopscourt; Sulby Glen; Ramsey Bay, and Laxey Glen. Amongst the monthly articles was to be 'The Hermit in Douglas, or Delineations of Manx Society; The Politician, or Mediator between the Duke and the Keys; The Advocate, or Visit to the Court House; The Perambulator, or Walk to Mona Castle; The Topographist, or Sketches of Manx Scenery; The Poet, or first of a series of Manx Poems; The Biographer, or Life, genius and character of the late Mr. John Stowell; The Novelist, or Manx Tales; The Historian, or scarce sections of Manx History.'

Specimens of the plates were to be seen at Lane's News Room, where subscribers were to give their names The notice did not appear in a subsequent issue, and the proposed magazine failed to come into being.

The subscription was to be 20/- per year, and orders were to be left at. his 'study,' Athol-street, Douglas. The six lithographed plates mentioned above were ultimately published in The, Manx Sketch. Book by 'Trevor' Ashe along with appropriate text. (Manx Sun, 30 July, 1825. )

For further particulars regarding Ashe see p. 1101.



This seems to be another of the abortive attempts to create a Manx periodical. It would appear to have been one of Captain Colquitt's or James Grellier's projects. As no copy has come down to us it: is assumed that it did not see the light.

The prospectus, as contained in The Manx Sun of 7th Nova, 1826, is interesting:


What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The Mole's dim curtain and the Lynx's beam.


On Wednesday, the first week in January, 1827, will be published, price three pence - The Manx Lynx, No. 1; to be continued weekly, after the manner of other Newspapers.

The design of The Manx Lynx may be explained in a few words; it is to afford amusement and information to the Public, and advance the Interests of the Isle of Man.

The subjects introduced into our Columns will be partly of a temporary and partly of a permanent kind, but imitated, probably, very little from our Contemporaries.

We shall strictly avoid several subjects which are favourites with the Manx Press, and jargonize very little in Metaphysics, foreign Codification, or domestic " Dry Rot." But we may be able to offer some pleasant disquisitions on local affairs, and some original Sketches from various points and aspects of Society in the Island.

It will be our aim, in fact, to gratify the intelligent few, and to be ambitious to distinguish ourselves by serving caviare, well seasoned to the multitude.

There is one point more on which we must venture another word; we mean to make The Lynx a real Manx Paper! and we frankly think a genuine Manx Paper a desideratum. A True Tory Paper.

The object of a Manx Paper should be to excite good taste and a right feeling, and to make some of its readers wiser, and some of them merrier, by the utility and variety of its columns.

An Article shall appear in each number under the head of " The Wasp." Let those who pride themselves in the austerities of puritanism, in the fastidiousness of affectation, and the cant of the Schools, beware of " The Wasp " and The Lynx

Orders, Communications and Advertisements will be received at Lane and Son's, Public News Room and Circulating Library, Quay.



There was advertised in The Manx Liberal of 17 Sept., 1836, the preparation of a new publication to be called The _Manx Album, a weekly journal of poetry, history, fiction, romance, anecdotes, general literature, and local chit-chat. A statement was added that 'the first number would appear when a sufficient number of subscribers 'to augur success to the undertaking shall have enrolled 'themselves.' It would appear that the desired number did not come forward, as there is no record of its publication.


THE ISLE OF MAN TEMPERANCE GUARDIAN AND RECHABITE JOURNAL. Publishers Walls and Fargher, and later in 1837 Robert Fargher.

No copy of this publication has been preserved, although it was claimed that thousands had been printed. It appears to have been one of Robert Fargher's ventures, and G. W. Wood states it was continued for five years until it was merged into the British Temperance Advocate and Journal.

Harrison's Bib. (p. 148) mentions the publication as having been commenced in 1836 and running for five years.


BRITISH TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE AND JOURNAL. Published under the Authority of the British Association for the Promotion of Temperance. Speaking the Truth in Love.-Paul. No. 1, Douglas, January 15, 1839. Price l½d., with supplement 2½d. Douglas, Isle of Man: printed and published by Walls and Fargher, Top of Post Office Lane. 12pp. 280x186. The Preston Temperance Advocate, the Isle of Man Guardian and Leeds Herald are incorporated. [125, W.C. Coll., L 10/1.]

This periodical, which was issued by the Association named above, was founded to advocate 'full, consistent, thorough-going Teetotalism.' The Isle of Man Guardian, which had been established in 1836, ceased when the Advocate commenced. There were local agents in Yorkshire, North of England, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, Warwickshire, Leicestershire, London, Scotland and Ireland. The agent in Man was Robert Fargher, Douglas.

It was claimed that 10,000 copies were distributed. Postage was free to all parts of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Greece, Canada, the West India Colonies, etc., and could be re-posted.

In the 7th number of the Advocate the name of Walls was dropped out of the imprint; it read on 15th July, 1839: 'Printed and published by Robert Fargher.'

In No. 9, 16th Sept., 1839, the printer was advertising for a second-hand printing machine, preferably one made by Cowper or Napier. No. 11 announced that they had purchased ' a new printing machine capable of throwing 'off fifteen. hundred impressions per hour.' It was proposed to distribute gratuitously 10,000 copies per month, costing £500 for the year.

Although there is no water-mark in the paper, it is very likely that it was made at the Laxey Paper Mills, which were in full operation at this time.



The following prospectus appeared in the Manx Liberal, dated 3rd April, 1841:-

New Publication.

Prospectus of the Manx Lady's Magazine to be published every Monday Morning, price 4d., at the Office of the Manx Liberal.

This Work will consist of Original Tales, Selections from elegant Authors, Anecdotes, Historical Facts, and all that may enliven and amuse in Prose and Poetry. Every Thing tending to Political Discussion or Private Satire will be carefully avoided.

As this is the first Publication of the kind particularly emanating from an Island which is rising into Notice and Estimation, the Editor solicits the Patronage of its Inhabitants. Every exertion shall be made to suit the taste of each Class of Readers, whether grave or gay.

Contributions will be thankfully received, in particular whatever relates to the Island, either Legendary or Historical Facts of different Periods.

Advertisements will be printed on the covers.

As in the case of other publications prior to 1841, there is no record that it was ever published.


THE KING WILLIAM'S COLLEGE -MAGAZINE or LITERARY MISCELLANY. Douglas : William Cannell. 1843. pp. 32. 223x140. [5745, L 6.]
Part 2, Vol. i, Nov., 1843, only in Library.


THE NATIONAL TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE, the organ of the British Association for the Promotion of Temperance, and of the Irish Temperance Union. Monthly 1½d.Edited by Dr. Frederic R. Lees, of Leeds. Printed by John Livesey, Athol Street, Douglas. Published by R. Lees, at the office. Thomas Street, Douglas, for the proprietor, Dr. F.R. Lees, Leeds, to whom all orders and communications must be addressed. 246x160. [125, W.C. Con., L10/1.]

The earliest copy of this monthly in the Library is dated 1st October, 1844, and is called 'new Series.' It is of smaller size than that of the year 1848, and embraced in its title the words 'and the Irish Temperance Union.' The name of John Livesey in the imprint for a few issues is worthy of note; he was a well-known Lancashire temperance worker. Livesey, in the imprint, soon gave place to William Robinson &. Co., 66, Athol Street, Douglas.

The circulation was claimed to be 10,000.

The Liberal of April 11th, 1846, in its editorial column, gives a catalogue of other newspapers either dead or, in the Liberal's opinion, dying. These include the Manxman, the Temperance Advocate, the Church Chronicle (associated with Mr. Dillon, apparently dead at the time of writing), and Brontiere O'Brien's National i?eformer. But the Refor-aver, published at 40, Duke Street, was advertising itself in the Sun on October 10th.

The Advocate continued for several years, certainly up to July, 1849, a copy of which date is in the Museum. In this there is a notice to Subscribers, Postmasters, &c., announcing its free postal facilities to many parts of the world.

In the issue of the National Temperance Advocate for May, 1849, the editor, who writes from Bolton, announces the cessation of the Free Postage privilege. He states that they have been taken away without a moment's notice in common with the other Isle of Man papers. ' Since the order withdrawing the privilege was 'issued, the most strenuous efforts have been made to ' secure it again, either for an indefinite period, or down 'to the end of the year. Thus far, however, the ' exertions made have been unavailing, and the delay on ' the part of the Government in giving an answer to our 'memorial leaves but little hone of the recovery of the 'lost boon.'

Publication ceased in Man, it is thought, with the June number of 1849.


MANKS FARMERS' MAGAZINE. AND MONTHLY HISTORICAL NEWSPAPER. No. l, 8th April, 1844. Douglas : W. Dillon. 1844. pp. 16. 4to. Price 6d.

No copy is known to be in existence. The only printed reference to this publication appeared in The Marx Advertiser.

1844 -1849.

THE ODDFELLOWS' CHRONICLE, JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, THE ARTS, AND COMPENDIUM OF NEWS. Fortnightly. Price 1½d. monthly. Edited by Bro. William Shirrefs. Published at the office, Oddfellows' Hall, Douglas, under the sanction of the Independent Order of Oddellows of he Manchester Unity, and under the supermtendence of a committee of past and present officers of the Isle of Man District. Printed by Peter Curphey Co.. Manx Sun Offïce, 6, North Quay, Douglas. Vol. I. Oct.. 1844. to Dec., 1845. 245x165. [2589, G.W.W. Coll., L10/1.]

Vol. II, from Jan 1840, to Dec., 1847 (2 years). Printed by P. Curphey. [2584, G.W.W. Coll.]
Vol. III, from Jan..1847, to Dec., 1847. Printed by Shirrefs and Russell. [1722, R.J.M. Coll. ]

The editor of the Oddfellows' Chronicle, William Shirrefs, was a capable journalist, and from 1844 to 1849 was very enterprising in the Island, launching literary ventures, and all of them conducted with no little ability. The profits of this publication were devoted to the benefit of the charitable funds of the Order. The editor was the Provincial Secretary of the Isle of Man District, and the publishing office was the Odd-fellows' Hall in Athol Street, which is now the Douglas Court House.

The literary matter is of high quality. There is news of Odd-fellowship all over the British Isles, and occasionally details of Manx occurrences. For instance, there is a vivid account in the first number (Oct., 1844) of the visit of Dr. Bowring, M.P., who for a long while in Parliament worked for what was called the New Fiscal Duties Bill, which enabled freer entry into Man and England of exciseable goods. 'There was a whole week's 'holiday and processions and public dinners, an account of which occupied ten columns of the Mona's Herald of 'Oct. 1st and 9th, 1844. A family may enjoy the unequalled salubrious climate, the best society, and all the necessaries and luxuries of England at nearly half the expense.' There is an excellent biographical sketch of Morris Lemon, the P.P.G.M. of the Isle of Man District.

Peter Curphey, of 6, North Quay, printed the Chronicle from its beginning in 1844 to the December issue 1846, when the circulation was claimed to be no less than 10,500, a figure which it is safe to say has not been reached by any Manx newspaper up to the present. Commencing with the January, 1847, number, the Chronicle was printed and published by Shirrefs and Russell at their own printing works, 2, Lord Street, Douglas.

The Shirrefs and Russell firm was for the period most enterprising. It had a cylinder machine propelled by steam power in 1847. They were prepared to undertake book and periodical work, as well as serial publications.

It is not known whey, the Chronicle ceased publication; it is known to have been in existence until 17th May, 1849, when the free postal privilege ceased.

At the date of its publication it was a remarkably cheap production, and contained much excellent literary matter. The energetic editor proposed to turn it into a fortnightly publication when the withdrawal of the postal privileges interfered.

The publication was officially recognised by the Order.

1845 - 1849.

THE. TRUTH-SEEKER AND CHRISTIAN THINKER : an organ of free enquiry in Literature, Philosophy and Religion, edited by Dr. F. R. Lees, l,.S.A., of Leeds, and G. S. Phillips. Monthly, 7d.

There is no copy in the Library of the Manx Museum. The first issue is said to be 15th January, 1845. The publishers, according to an advertisement in the National Temperance Advocate of 1848, were Lees and Robinson, of Douglas. In the Advocate of Jan., 1849, there is a reference to it; and also in Harrison's Bib., p. 168.

The privilege of free postage was of value to such a publication as this. The advert in the Long-pledge Teetotaler dated Bolton, July, 1849, states that it is printed on good paper, with a new and neat type, and contains 96 pp. roy. 16rno. for the price of 9d. per single number, and post free to any part of the world where the stamped papers can go for 6s. per year.


THE CHURCH CHRONICLE. Printed and published by W. Dillon of the Advertiser.
Commenced 24 April, 1845, as a weekly. There is no copy in the Library. It continued for a very short period.


THE TRUTH-TESTER : devoted to Free discussion on Teinperance, Hydriatism, Diatectics, Physiology, Chemistry, National and Social Economy, Mental and Moral Philosophy and Logic, Biblical Criticism and Theology. Edited by Dr. F. R. Lees, F.S.A.Scot.. author of 'The Metaphysics of Owenism Dissected.' Published monthly, price 2d., on the 15th of each month, post free. Douglas, Isle of Man : printed by W. Robinson and Co., 66, Athol Street.

No copy of this appears to have survived. It must not be confounded with The Truth Seeker, which was also edited by the well-known and popular Dr. F. R. Lees, with George S. Phillips. There is an advertisement of it in the Oddfellows' Chronicle, Nov., 1846, Sept., 1847, and it is believed to have run to August, 1848.

In its later period it was edited by W. Horswell, of Ramsgate.


THE LONG-PLEDGE TEETOTALER, TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE, AND BRITISH WASHINGTONIAN. Edited by the Rev. John Stamp. The owner was Dr. F. R. Lees, and it was printed and published by Lees and Robinson, Douglas. Monthly, price 2d. London publisher, Wm. Britain, 11, Paternoster Row. All orders and communications addressed to Rev. John Stamp, Teetotal Cottage, Manchester. 12 pp. 250x175. [125, W.C. Coll., L10/1.]

The first number of this monthly periodical was issued on 7th January, 1846. It is not known how long it continued, but certainly in Man up to February, 1848. The pledge which the editor urged his readers to take is as follows:- 'In the name and by the help of God I will abstain from all intoxicating drinks as a beverage, as medicine, and at the table of the Lord; likewise from cigars, tobacco and snuff; and will do my best to rid the world and the church of these their greatest curse.'

It was the intention of the editor to have issued the work weekly. After April he states he will publish twice a month if 3,000 subscribers were obtained.


THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL AND YOUTHS' TEMPERANCE JOURNAL. Monthly. Owned and published by W. Robinson. No copy of this publication appears to have survived. There is no record when it commenced, but we know from the pages of the Advocate it was issued on 20th December, 1847, and that it ran to May, 1849, when,, the free postage ceased.


THE MANX GUARDIAN AND CHURCH OF ENGLAND JOURNAL. Weekly, 16 demy 4to. pp. 3d. Conducted by the Rev. John Marshall, ed. of the Scottish Episcopal Times.

No copy of the paper is in the Museum Library. According to an advert. in the Manx Sun, the first issue was published on the 1st April, 1846. The advert. says that the journal contains, among other matters, ' a portion of the famous Chronicle of Man and the Isles,' the first of a series of 'Letters from the Isle of Man.' The publisher was William Dillon, Duke Street, Douglas. It would appear it was published every Wednesday, 16 demy 4to. pp., 3d. each number, and sent post free. It was sometimes called the Church of England Journal.

The English Churchman's Magazine, in reviewing it, says that it was creditable alike to the editor and publisher. . . . Its high and Christian tone and spirit will make it acceptable to the wealthier and better informed portion of our Church.

Our knowledge of the Manx Guardian and Church of England Journal is derived from a few references, uniformly uncomplimentary, in the three local journals published during the year 1846. Its editor and proprietor (see the editorial column of the Manx Sun of Nov. 28th, 1846) was the Rev. John Marshall, formerly a pastor in the Scottish Episcopal Church. He lived in Rushen Abbey as tenant (see quotations in a letter to the Sun signed ' A Native' published on October 10th), and according to another letter from ' A Native,' was ' endeavouring to drive a very comfortable worldly trade' there. There is a sneer about his appearance when 'mounted on a hunter.' Towards the end of 1846, it is alleged, he got into debt. In any case, the Sun's allusions to him cease after December 12th, 1846.

From. a remark in the Manx Liberal, it would appear that the Guardian was printed in Thomas Street, Douglas, in which was situated the printing office of George J. Cudd. Marshall himself, in a letter of protest to the Sun against the style of the letters of 'A Native,' speaks of the money spent by him on printers, publishers, papermakers, etc., which money was derived as to four-fifths, in the shape of advertisements, from the other side of the water; to which ' A Native' retorts that Marshall paid one youth,, as full printer and publisher, and that was all.

' A Native' estimates the circulation as from 260 to 300 weekly, but gives no data for the estimate. Marshall belonged to the High Church or ' Puseyite ' school of thought.

The Guardian published verse and critiques - the Sun of July 11th contains an advertisement calling attention to a review of the poems of Thomas Moore - and, from time to time, comments on Manx affairs. Marshall wrote an ' abstract' of Manx ecclesiastical history, ending (on June 24th) with the remark that 'though the Manx Church is as much short of the English Church in its learning as in its revenue, yet in uniformity it outdoes any branch of the Reform Church. This evoked a comment from a Sun correspondent signing himself ' NonClericus.'

The Liberal suggests an association with the Douglas printer and publisher William, Dillon and the lawyer George William Dumbell. Marshall rebuked the Reform party in the Island, which drew upon him an attack from the Herald, but later criticised Manx law, likening it to 'lynch law and jeddart justice.' ' A Native' replied with a series of letters, able but abusive,' in the Sun, and other correspondents followed the 'Native's' lead. Later Marshall published an open letter to the Rev. Robert Montgomery--apparently the Montgomery whose poetry was so mercilessly criticised in a famous essay of Macaulay--in which he described the Manx Press as in a very low state. This was resented vigorously by all the three Manx editors---two of whom, those of the Herald and Liberal, had previously been making disagreeable comments on Marshall's intellect.


THE PEOPLE'S PRESS AND MONTHLY HISTORICAL NE\VSPAPER. Vol. 1, 1847. Published once a month, price 2d., post free. Conducted by William Shirrefs, Fellow of the Statistical Society of London, editor of the Isle of Man Times, the Odd f ellows' Chronicle, &c., &c. Isle of Man: Printed and published by the proprietors, William Shirrefs, of No. 38 Athol Street, and Andrew Russell, of No. 21 South Quay, Douglas, at their General Printing Office, No. 2 Lord Street, Douglas. London: Wm. Britain, 54 Paternoster Row. [2587, H 398, G.W.W. Coll.]

The first volume only of the People's Press, which had belonged to the G. W. Wood collection, is in the Library. It is an excellent example of printing for the period, the worst feature being the unusually small type; brevier size is the largest, the bulk is in minion, and the notes are in pearl.

The last issue in 1847 (Dec. 13) states the New Series to be published in 1848 'will be uniform with Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, and the price will be reduced from 2d. to l½d. with a quarterly supplement, making in all sixteen numbers (of 32pp. each) during the year, price 2/-, postage free! '

It was claimed that the circulation was 6,000 per month, a truly remarkable number.

The editing of the People's Press by Shirrefs is very well done. The articles are excellent and the leaders on the political situations at the time are the work of a far-seeing politician. Dr. John Bowring, M.P., whose labours on behalf of the Isle of Man in Parliament were of great value, writes in No. 6 a well-told story of a sailor's foreign experiences.

The literary items all deal with British and foreign subjects. There are a few exceptions however, and a poem entitled 'Island Echoes - the Rose of Glenmay,' by Mrs. Crawford, is worthy of mention.

No copy of the 1848 or 1849 issues are in the Library; but it is recorded that it continued under the same editorship up to April, 1849.


Facsimile of title.

THE MANX PRESS. Printed thrice a month at Ramsey. Printed for R. Busteed at his office, Dale Street, Ramsey. 4pp. 354x265. [7534, L 8.] We only know of this printer from the fact of the publication of The Manx Press, the only copy of which, dated 27 February, 1847, has come from Canon Kermode. This printer, to judge from the example we have, had very little knowledge of the technique of typography. A copy of the paper (No. 27, Wed., May 5th, 1847) is in the British Museum.

It was reported to the General Post Office, London, by Robert Fargher, as having been in existence in March, 1847.



No copy of this publication appears to have survived. The prospectus, dated 5th Dec., 1846, was printed in the Manx Sun. There was an intimation that the publication would appear at the beginning of 1847. It was to be edited by William Daniells, to be published every fortnight, and to be delivered free by post throughout the United Kingdom and the British Colonies.

It appears that the journal had already been printed in the North of England for about six months, and that in order to secure the free postal facilities the printing and publishing was given to Robert Fargher at the Herald Office, 27 Athol Street, Douglas.

The paper was intended to be 'an organ of instruction 'and communication for the miners of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Isle of Man, and its principal object will be to improve their condition, mentally, morally, and physically. It will develope more fully the capabilities of the Island as to its mining operations and will contain papers on geology, etc.'

The proprietor of the Miners' Advocate was said to be W. Grotott, and W. Daniels the editor, according to a report made by Robert Fargher (in MS.).

Efforts have been made to trace a copy of this periodical, without success. It must have continued until the date of the withdrawal of the postal privilege, for in the Manx Liberal of 21st April, 1849, there is a reference to its being printed at the Herald Office, in addition to a 'Manchester Advertising Sheet and a Welsh paper 'with nineteen consonants in its title.' The latter was Yr Amserau of 1848.

The Miners' Advocate was advertised also in Shirrefs and Russell's Oddfellows' Chronicle and in Penrice and Wallace's Manx Liberal in December, 1846; but no reference to the paper afterwards appeared.

The editor of the Liberal continues: 'Mr. Cudd publishes The Cat, a vile piece of ribald rascality, and The Protestant, another piece of ribald rascality for 'what we know to the contrary.'


THE MANX CAT OR ISLE of MAN CHARIVARI : devoted to Anecdotes, Ballads, Comicalities, Dramatic, Eccentrics, Facetia, Gallimanfrae, Historiette, Incredibilities, Jokes, Knowledge, Lyrics, Mimicry, Nonsense, Oddities, Puns, Sing-song, Theatricals, Unaccountables, Vagaries, Whims, Extravagancies, Yorkshireisms, Zanys. Printed and published for the proprietor, Alfred Ormonde, of 14, North Quay, Douglas. Weekly, td. post free. 355X218. [2596, L 8, G.W.W. Coll.]

The first number was published on 19th August, 1847, and the last number in the Library is dated 22nd June, 1848. Ormonde's first printer was Mary A. Quiggin, 52, North Quay. The fifth number dated 16th September, 1847, was printed by George John Cudd, 8, Thomas Street, Douglas.

In the short period during which The Manx Cat was published there were several humorous front page titles. The first was a rumpy cat seated with pince-nez, with the caption ' I am native here and to the manner born' (Shakespeare). The second was more commonplace. The third was the most humorous, showing a shield with the three legs surmounted by a herring roasting on a gridiron and supported by a pair of cats smoking and wearing top hats [see plate post].

The appearance of the paper, which was quite attractive, was frequently embellished by humorous wood engravings probably locally made by George Augustus Dean, senior, of Douglas, who had his place in the Wellington Market, Duke Street.

The Manx Cat was first a 4pp. paper; afterwards it became double the size, viz. 8pp., 3 cols. per page, the length of column being 13 inches.

Alfred Ormonde, the proprietor of the Manx Cat, describes himself as an 'expatriated Irishman.' He is first recorded as living at 14, North Quay, the home of the Lewthwaites, then at 2, Woodhouse Terrace, and later on in 1848 at Minerva Cottage, Prospect Hill. In his editing he often breaks out into verse. He was a professional actor and appeared as Othello, and as Shylock in 'The Merchant of Venice.' He wrote an original comedy, ' Peepo and the Secretary,' and took the principal character. He was manager of the Douglas Amateurs, and received on one occasion a good benefit. It was claimed that over 2,000 copies were sold of No. 1, 19 August, 1847. There seemed to exist a feud between the Cat and the Liberal (Wallace), one calling the other ' a hollow sham,' ' a mendacious print,' ' jealous and envious.' The editor of the Cat is described as a ' drivelling witsnapper,' . . 'itinerant comedian,' . . . ' malignant ruffian,' . . ' pestiferous and blasphemous abortion.' . . . ' The immoral print should at once be crushed.' . . . ' This thing of shreds and patches-this insipid lump.'

In the libel case, John Duggan (of Touchstone fame) v. Alfred Orrronde, tried at Castletown 5 Nov., 1847, the defendant (who conducted his own case) was ordered to be imprisoned for a week and fined 40/-. A record of the case is printed in the Cat of 11th Nov., 1847, and in the Manx Sun of 4th Nov., 1847.

Ormonde states that while in gaol his 'martyrdom ' was not such a bad thing after all. . . We live like ' a fighting-cock here. Such presents! A cod's head and 'shoulders, with a bushel of oysters, from one; a round 'of beef, like a pillion, from t'other; a cask of American ' apples; a kit of red herrings; a basket of grapes-jar ' of preserved ginger-case of champagne-six bottles of 'sherry-sent by divers kind friends ... almost killed 'by kindness.' While in gaol he wrote a poem which has some merit which appeared in the Cat of 25th Nov., 1847.

Journalists will be more than amused to read a notice to correspondents which appeared in the Cat on 23rd Sept., 1847. 'The immense quantity of communications 'we are daily receiving, renders a general notice imperatively necessary. In the first place, correspondents 'must not expect to have their contributions inserted 'immediately. If we did so we might easily fill our 'sheet, three times over, with very good average articles. 'Neither must they think that if they do not see them in print, they are rejected. Again, our friends must not 'be annoyed at seeing their articles sometimes a little 'altered or curtailed, a course which we are often com' pelled to adopt.'

Ormonde was a capable amateur actor, and when he left Douglas he continued to give popular entertainments in England. He also went on a professional tour to the United States.

Demetrius Murray, a printer, who, like Ormonde, came from Ireland, succeeded the latter as editor of the Manx Cat, the life of which, according to G. W. Wood, was only about three years.

At a magistrates Court in Douglas on 9 June, 1849, George John Cudd claimed damages from Robert John Stephen for having brutally attacked him. It appeared the defendant was angry because of a reference to him in the Manx Cat and gave plaintiff a black eye. The defendant was fined £4.


THE, ISLE OF MAN NEWS AND CHRISTIAN RECORD. Weekly, 20pp., 2d. Proprietor, Matthew Price Packwell; publisher, George John Cudd, 8, Thomas Street, Douglas; publisher in Dublin, Matthew Orr, 26, Wellington Quay. 280x225. [7506, L 6.] This was a 16 pp. 4to. weekly. Unfortunately there is in the Library only a fragment of four pages, without a date, which accidentally came into the Museum as a wrapper covering a parcel of books. The year of issue cannot be given. It was, we believe, commenced by the printer George John Cudd, whose office was at 8, Thomas Street, Douglas, close to the site of the present Thomas Street Methodist Chapel. He commenced printing in 1846, so that Isle of Man News and Christian Record would most likely have been first printed in 1847.

It continued to 8th May, 1849, when the postal privilege ceased, according to an MS. statement made by Robert Fargher. M. P. Backwell was the proprietor.

There is a notice in The Manx Cat of 15 June, 1848, that the price of the Isle of Man News was being reduced from 2d. to 12d. per copy. Both these papers were printed by G. J. Cudd.

? 1847 - 8.

CHURCH OF ENGLAND JOURNAL. Printed by G. J. Cudd, 8, Thomas Street, Douglas.

No copy of this publication is in the Library. Mention is made of it in advertisements of G. J. Cudd, printer, of 8, Thomas Street, Douglas, dated 23rd Sept., 1847, and 30 March, 1848, in which he claims to be 'the printer of the Church of England Journal.' It may have been an alternative title of The Isle of Man News and Christian Record.


THE RAMSEY TIMES. Printed and published by F. Leach, Church Street, Ramsey. Price 2d. 318x245. [4085, LS, G.W.W. Coll.]

There was one issue only. It was printed in order to record the visit of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort to Ramsey on 20th Sept., 1847.

The text was written by Leach. It consisted of four quarto pp., and records the joyful event in Ramsey in all its details. Only one copy of the Ramsey Times is Known, that in the Museum. The late John Craine (see p. 1172), who from 1884 to 1889 ran the Ramsey Courier, reprinted this number of the Ramsey Times, and even that is now very rare. There is a copy of the latter in the Museum Library.

See the facsimile of the title page below:-


THE TEETOTAL Topic. A Review of Temperance Principles and Progress. Quarterly, 21d. Ed. by Dr. F. R. Lees. 64pp., 4to. Douglas, Isle of Man: William Robinson, 66 Athol Street.

The above is from an advertisement in the Oddfellows' Chronicle for Sept., 1847. No copy now exists to our knowledge. The full period of its existence is not known. It is not mentioned in Robert Fargher's report to the G.P.O.


THE HERALD OF CO-OPERATION AND ORGAN OF THE REDEMPTION SOCIETY : a monthly journal devoted to the advocacy and establishment of Co-operative principles. Monthly, 1d. Douglas: Shirrefs and Russell.

No copy in the Library. It is not known when the paper started, but it certainly ran to 15th March, 1848. No. 14 is known to have been published on 15th February, 1848. It is advertised in the Oddfellows' Chronicle of Sept., 1847. Robert. Fargher reports to the G.P.O. that there was owned and printed by Shirrefs and Russell in Dec., 1847, a paper called The Monthly Circular and Cooperative League. It was called The Labour League by the editor of the Liberal.


THE NATIONAL REFORMER AND MANX WEEKLY REVIEW OF HOME AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Price 11d., postage free. Ed. by James Bronterre O'Brien. A.M., assisted by eminent literary friends. Printed by Shirrefs and Russell; 2 Lord Street, Douglas.

No copy of this publication has been preserved, as far as is known. The first reference to it is a prospectus which appeared in vol. iii of the Oddfellows' Chronicle, May, 1847.

It claimed to be the organ of the Repeal Reformers, Political and Social, of the United Kingdom. 'It cir' culated in every county in England and Scotland and 'in most of the Welsh and Irish counties; as also to 'some extent in France and the United States. It is the cheapest newspaper extant, and the only journal in the Empire that is not under the influence of sect, class, or party. Its doctrines upon land tenures, currency, credit, and associative labour have created a new era in politics.'
'It is published every Saturday, at 40 Duke Street, 'Douglas, and by J. Watson, Paternoster Row, London. Yearly subscriptions 6s., post free.'

It is not known how long the paper lasted. According to a leading article in the Liberal of 21 April, 1849, it continued to be printed by Shirrefs and Russell up to the date when the postal facilities ceased in April, 1849.


THE TEMPERANCE GAZETTE - Monthly. Proprietors and printers, Shirrefs and Russell, 2 Lord Street, Dunglas. No copy of the paper has survived. It is not known if this was a re-titling of one of the numerous papers devoted to the temperance mission. It was being published in Douglas in February, 1848, according to a report made by Robert Fargher to the G.P.O.



There appeared in the Manx Sun of 30 Oct., 1847, a notice that in January, 1848, would be published (provided a remunerative list of subscribers be obtained) the initial number of a new monthly journal, the Isle of Man Lancet and Journal of Literature, Science and Art; to be edited by Surgeon Robt. E. Craine, M.R.C.S.E., price 6d. There is no record that it ever appeared.


THE CLOWN. Alfred Ormonde, proprietor and editor. Douglas. Price 1d. 4pp. folio.

In The Manx Cat for 1st June, 1848, there appears an advertisement as follows: 'Here we are! Ha! ha! ha! 'On Whit Monday, a new Comic Periodical will appear devoted to fun, frolic, facetiĉ, and fiction, to be called 'The Clown. May be had on the morning of publication 'at the Manx Cat Office. . . . Price 1d.'

In the issue of The Cat dated 15th June, it was stated that The Clown had been published, and that it contained 'Manx Gossip,' with criticisms and communications on theatricals, the beaux arts in general, dress, and address by Paul Pantaloon Society and other distinguished professors of fashionable literature.

See Harrison's Bib., p. 180.

No copy of The Clown has come down to us.


THE NATIONAL TEIMPERANCE ADVOCATE. Published monthly, under the superintendence of the sub-executive committee, as the organ of the British Association for the Promotion of Temperance. 16pp. 260x1%5. Printed and published by William Robinson, 66 Athol Street, Douglas. [124, W.C. Coll.]

Most of the pages are records of meetings held in England, Ireland and Scotland. There are many accounts of meetings addressed by James Teare, the well-known temperance reformer, especially in Cornwall. (See pp. 45, 59, 103, 119, 141.)

The National Temperance Advocate states that 'it is 'privileged with a free postage from the Isle of Man 'to every part of the United Kingdom and can be re'posted. Within seven days of publication it can also be sent free to the West India and North American 'Colonies, to Sidney (by Packet), France (via Dover), to Hamburgh, Lubeck, Cuxhaven, Bremen, Oldenburgh and Denmark, to Spain, Gibraltar, Greece, Ionian Isles, Malta and East Indies (all via Southampton), to Algiers, Hong Kong, New Granada, Havana, Venezuela, Peru, to Hayti, to Honduras and the Bahamas, and to 'the Brazils and Buenos Ayres, &c.'

In the isue for May, 1848, it says, under the heading of the Isle of Man: 'The good cause progresses steadily. 'Light is being rapidly diffused over men's minds in Mona's Isle. The principles are spreading by means of 'lectures and literature. The spirited committee of the 'Douglas Temperance Society are at the head of the 'movement. . . . A committee of the Legislature has 'proposed the entire closing of the public-houses on the 'Sunday.'

In the issue for Oct., 1848, there is an account of a meeting of delegates from all parts of the Island. William Sayle, of Larivane, Kirk Andreas, was the president, and C. T. Cannell was the secretary.

An extra number of the Advocate was issued in June, 1848, consisting of 64 pp. octavo. In order to do this work creditably, a good staff and ample type and machinery were necessary; and the firm of William Robinson, of 66 Athol Street, came out of the trial very well.

In the issue for Jan., 1849, there is a record of the labours of M. W. Crawford, who delivered in Man 45 lectures, preached 10 sermons, and visited 105 persons in their houses, and had taken 236 pledges.

It is almost certain that the withdrawal of the postal privilege must have caused the discontinuance of this useful paper in May, 1849, as far as Man was concerned. The marriage of the printer and publisher of the Chronicle is recorded in the November, 1845, issue: 'Nov. 4, at Kirk Braddan, by the Rev. Robert Brown [father of the Rev. T. E. Brown, the poet], Mr. William 'Robinson, printer and publisher of the Temperance 'Advocate, to Ellen, eldest daughter of P.Prov.C.S. 'Philip Cashen, Isle of Man District.'

In the National Temperance Advoctate for June, 1849, printed monthly by Wm. Robinson, there is a reference to an enlarged edition of the History of the Origin and Success of the Advocacy of the Principles of Total Abstinence by James Teare, one of the originators of the total abstinence system.

1848 - 49.

THE CAUSE OF THE PEOPLE. Printed in Douglas.

There is no copy of this in the Museum Library. The Manx Sun of 13 Sept., 1848, states that at the time of the passing by the Imperial Parliament of the Postage on Newspapers (Channel Islands) Act on 3rd Sept., 1848, a journal with the above title was being printed by Shirrefs and Russell in Douglas. A successful attempt has been made to verify this statement. According to a report (in MS.) made by Robert Fargher to the General Post Office, the proprietor was Win. P. Linton, of 85 Hatton Garden in the parish of Holborn in the county of Middlesex, and the printers were Shirrefs and Russell. Another Englishman named E. Wood was connected with the ownership.

The Liberal, criticising the withdrawal of the postal privilege, states that Shirrefs and Russell used columns of type from one of their numerous papers and inserted them in others. Thus: 'From a number of The Cause 'of the People now before us, we see five articles making 'in the aggregate eight columns, all of which we have 'seen in the I.M. Times."


THE MANX HEALTHIAN JOURNAL. Proprietors and printers, Sbirrefs and Russell, 2 Lord Street, Douglas.

Not in Library. It is not known at what date this commenced, but it was in existence in June, 1848, according to a report to the G.P.O. made by Robert Fargher. It is possible that Manx Healthian Journal was a subtitle to The Truth-Tester.

1848 or 1849.

THE NATIONAL UNITED TRADES ASSOCIATION RLPORT AND LABOURER'S ADVOCATE. Proprietors and printers, Shirrefs and Russell, 2 Lord Street, Douglas.

No copy of this exists to our knowledge. It is mentioned by R. Fargher in his return to the G.P.O. In 1849 it may have been known as the Labour League, mentioned by the Liberal on 21 April, 1849.



When the free postal privilege ceased in April, 1849, a caustic article appeared in the Manx Liberal against the printers whose presses were used for the printing of English papers. In this article Robert Fargher, of the Herald, was named as one of the delinquents, for the reason that he published from his office a 'Manchester Advertising Sheet' --- the full title is not given -- and nothing further is known of it. Fargher does not mention it in his report to the G.P.O.


THE DOUGLAS SCHOOL MAGAZINE. Douglas : Manx Sum Office. No. 3, March, 186-0. pp. 32. 168x102. [5750, L 6.]
The cover was lithographed by George A. Dean, of Douglas. Two notable articles are 'Two Nights at Sea' and 'Letters from Manxland ' by Elizabeth Cookson. It also has the prospectus of the Middle School.

From this prospectus it would appear that 'the school 'was conducted in the handsome and commodious building near Dalton Terrace, Windsor Road, Douglas.'

A notice had been sent out on the 13th April, 1859, by the Rev. Samuel Simpson, the chaplain of St. Thomas's Church (with which the School was associated), stating that Mr. W. Pearce Poole, .'VI.A., the master of the Middle School, was under notice to quit his office, and that 'the school will be opened in the new schoolroom under a new master, of which due notice would 'be given.'

It appears from a prospectus that. the Middle School was 'founded in the year 1858 for the purpose of affording a sound education to the boys of Douglas and its neighbourhood at a moderate charge.' It was then under the management of the Rev. S. Simpson, the Rev. W. Lloyd Jones, and S. Harris. Mr. Jones had been the curate of St. Thomas's for five years. The fee was a guinea a quarter.

According to the newspapers of the day W. Pearce Poole commenced a school on his own account at Nos. 2 and 3 Dalton Street. In a prospectus dated 14th Jan., 1860, he stated the fees for a general English education was 10/- per term of twelve weeks. Nos. 2 and 3 Dalton Street were two houses on the same side of the street as the present old Grammar School premises (now Telephone Exchange), but near to Windsor Road.


THE STAR OF MONA AND MONTHLY TEMPERANCE ADVERTISER. The organ of the Manx Union for the Promotion of Temperance. Douglas: Matthew Glover, 52 North Quay. First issue 12 April, 1866. 2pp. folio; second issue 10th May. 4pp.

There is no copy of the above in the Museum Library. --- Na. 19 of the above, vol. II, 12 Dec_ 1857. Printed and published by Robert Bowring Fargher. Mona',- Herald Office. 4pp. of 3 cols. each. 350x241. [7489, D 36]


THE RAMSEY AND DISTRICT MAGAZINE AND MONTHLY REGISTER, 1867. Edited by 1. Erskine Clarke, M.A.. Vicar of St. Michael's, Derby. Ramsey : J. Hampton. 1867. 212x138. [7572, L 6.]
The cover only was printed locally. The baptisms of St. Paul's, Kk. Maughold and Dhoon were regularly recorded.

No. 7, July, 1867. Ramsey: .J. Hampton, Post Office. 1867. pp. 28. 224-245. Price 1d. [7551, L .]


THh MANX PUNCH. Printed and published by the proprietor, Thomas John Ouseley, of No. 6 Mona Terrace. Douglas, at his office, No. 38 Prospect Hill, Douglas. Quarto. pp. 8. No. 1 July, 1867. Price ld. Published every Saturday. Woodcut title.

The above particulars are taken from Harrison's Bib. Mon.. No copy of the publication has survived; there is none in the British Museum. Harrison states that after a few numbers it merged into an advertising circular.

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