As in the case of the aquatints from D Robertson's tour these are based work done by Moses Griffith and other artists who visited the Island in 1774 with Thomas Pennant (noted Welsh antiquary) and Cpt F. Grose. Francis Grose (c. 1731-91) was born in Middlesex, Richmond Herald from 1755-63, adjutant of the Hampshire Militia from 1763 and then of the Surrey militia from 1778. He was an artist, keen Antiquarian and author of Antiquities of England and Wales published in 6 volumes in 1787; the Isle of Man section concluding vol 6.
Although some earlier volumes have the date 1773 it would appear not to have been published until 1787 by S. Hooper whose name is on many of the plates. The work exists in many reprints, some dating post 1810; in the case of the Isle of Man a separate volume was published in 1829. In some editions the illustrations are on separate pages, in others at the head of the relevant text. Likewise in some editions the titles of the illustrations are centered beneath the plates, in others the titles are erased.
Four of the illustrations - Castle Rushen, St
Patrick's Church and Armory, Peele Castle and St German's Cathedral
(and ground plan) - were copied by Alexander Hogg, a bookseller and
publisher of partworks (f. 1778-1805) and presumably used in The
antiquities of England and Wales displayed by Henry Boswell,
1795, and A new and complete abridgement or selection of ... the
antiquities of England and Wales by F.Grose, 1798. This print is
slightly larger and is on much thinner paper than the original.
The order of illustrations are:
The Tynwald plates are dated 1787 and may only have appeared in the new edition of that year.
THIS delightful spot lies in the Irish sea, or St. George's Channel, and is generally reckoned to belong to Cumberland, it being the nearest to that county, from whence it is distant 30 miles. Cæsar called it Mona, Ptolemy, Monoeda, or Moneitha; Pliny, Monabia, and from modern historians it has received various appellations. It is about 30 miles long, and about nine broad, divided into north and south, containing 17 parishes and four chapels. Its bishop is stiled bishop of Sodor and Man, but, though formerly a baron, has no seat in the English House of Peers. Its language is peculiar to itself, and termed Manks, a mixture of Erse, Greek, Latin, Welch, and English originals. The Sovereignty of the island, before 1765, was possessed by the earls, of Derby, but the duke of Athol, its then possessor, for a valuable consideration, relinquished that dignity to the crown, to prevent the pernicious practice of smuggling carried on there, when a free trade with England was permitted. On it are the remains of several very old buildings, and the remains of Druidical superstition. At its south end, is a little island, about three miles in circuit, called the Calf of Man, separated by a channel of about two furlongs broad. There are more runic inscriptions in Man, than perhaps elsewhere, most of them entire and in the Norwegian languages
ANTIQUITIES in this ISLAND worthy notice,
Germains (St.) Cathedral in
Patrick's (St.) Church in Peele Castle
Rushin Abbey, at Balasallay
THE bridge here represented stands at Bala Sala, in the Isle of Man, and is by the inhabitants esteemed of great antiquity: It is called the Abbey Bridge, but whether it really belonged to the Abbey of Bala-Sala, or not, seems uncertain. It is extremely narrow, the passage being not above eight feet in the clear. One of the arches is nearly semicircular, and the other somewhat pointed, but both irregular.
THIS view was drawn anno 1774.
THIS view was taken within the walls, and shews the north side of the cathedral, which appears to have been constructed with more attention to strength than beauty. It is built with a coarse grey stone, but the angles, window cases, and arches, are coigned and formed with a stone found hereabouts, almost as red as brick. This mixture of colours has a pleasing effect, and gives a richness and variety to the building.
THIS church is described by divers writers, Waldron in particular, as being richly ornamented, and abounding in monumental inscriptions in different languages. At present, however, there is not one single piece of carved stone about the whole edifice; nor the least vestige of any funeral memorandum, except near the west door, where there are the marks of a small brass plate, said to have been placed over the grave of one of the Bishops; this being the episcopal cemetery. The whole building is now extremely ruinous, much of it unroofed, and the remainder so much out of repair, that it would not be oversafe for a congregation to assemble in it. The eastern part of it is, however, still covered and shut up, in which there are seats, and a pulpit. The inhabitants continue to bury within and about its walls This edifice was never very large; its whole length from east to west measuring only seventy-six feet, and its breadth twenty. The length of its north transept, for it is built in the form of a cross, is twenty-eight feet; that of the south, thirty; their breadth much the same as that of the body.
[the following note taken from Journal of Manx Museum vol III no 44 Sept 1935 should be noted: Before the late Mr. P. M. C. Kermode died he was very anxious that a survey should be made of Peel Castle and its ruins. Willis's Survey of the Cathedral, published in 1727 (and copied here) , which is far from being correct, is still used in the official guide used at the Castle. Dr. George A. Fothergill, of Cramond Bridge, West Lothian, writes
' About a fortnight ago I made a careful sketch of the Church of St. German's, on Peel Island, showing the north side of it, and when I got back to Castletown I looked at the plan of the Cathedral which I found in the guide book. This plan appears to have been made in 1727, and was republished in 1859, and is still being published. It contains a gross error, showing but three lights in the north side of the chancel and the. same number in the south side, whereas there ought to have been shown five lights on etch side. I look upon the chancel here as being early English, and not 'Norman transitional,' - is some have supposed it to be. The date usually given for it, circa 1226, would be correct enough. The architecture is so exceedingly plain and undecorative that it is difficult to fix a date for it, and one might possibly term all the lights, including those of the east end, Norman transitional, which intermediate style was in vogue during the years 1154 to 1189; but on reconsideration we find very little that is Norman about them, and the arches are certainly more Early English than anything else. The triplet arrangement of the three lights at the east end is somewhat similar to that at St. Cuthhert's Parish Church at Darlington, a church that was commenced by Bishop Pudsey in 1180, and more or less finished by 1200, a mixture of Norman transitional and Early English, and showing a good deal of rich decoration. I worked seriously in and about that old church and wrote and published a Pictorial Survey of it, so that my mind ever since has been full of the numerous and interesting points of Early English architecture.']
This view shows the remains of St. Patrick's church, which exhibits evident marks of antiquity. Its doors and windows seem to have been circular. It stands a small distance to the westward of the church of St. Germain, and seems to be built with the same materials; the same red stone being employed in its arches and coigns. The small round tower, seen a little to the west of the church, is a watch tower or look-out; a flight of steps ascends to the door, and within are stairs for mounting to the top of the building.
A few paces south of St. Patrick's church are the remains of the armoury, from whence many match-lock muskets, and other ancient arms, were removed on the sale of the island. In the cellar of a wine merchant in the town of Peele, there were, anno 1774, several very ancient guns, their bore measuring a foot in diameter. They were formed by a number of bars laid close together, and trooped with thick iron rings. Several of them had no breech, and seemed to be of the peteraro kind, loading from behind with a chamber. Many other unserviceable guns, made about the time of Hen. VIII., are still lying up and down in the castle.
About the middle of the area, a little to the northward of the churches of St. Patrick and St. Germains, is a square pyramidical mount of earth, terminating obtusely. Each of its sides faces one of the cardinal points of the compass, and measures about seventeen yards. Its height may be judged by the view. It is surrounded by a ditch, about five feet and a half broad. It appears near the right hand side of the plate. Time and weather have rounded off its angles, and given it the appearance there depicted; but on a careful observation it will be found to have originally been of the figure here described.
That this mount could not have been intended for defence seems clear, it being by far too diminutive to command at any distance, and is, besides, just beneath a hill, which rises almost perpendicularly over it, from the foot of the castle wall; for what use it was made may not be easy to determine; perhaps it might have been raised in imitation of the Tinwald, a mount so called in this island, from whence all new laws are promulgated, and that from this eminence the governor or commanding officer harangued his garrison, and distributed his orders; or else it may have been the burial place of some great personage in very early times; tumuli of this kind not being uncommon in the island.
Waldron speaks of the remains of four churches within the walls of this castle. At present the ruins of St. Patrick's and St. Germain's only are visible, or at least carry evident marks of their former destination. Bishop Spotswood, in his history of the Church of Scotland, says, from Hector Boetius, that Caralynth, lying of Scotland, coming to the crown in the year 227, at which time the Isle of Man was an appendage to that kingdom, he made it his first business to expel the Druids, which having effected, he built there a stately church to the honour of our Saviour, and called it Sodorense Fanum. Probably it might be one of the four churches mentioned by Waldron, if such ever existed.
" There are (says he) places of pennance, also, under all the other churches, containing several very dark and horrid cells: some have nothing in them either to sit or lie down on, others a small piece of brickwork; some are lower and more dark than others, but all of them, in my opinion, dreadful enough for any crime humanity is capable of being guilty of; though he supposed they were built with different degrees of horror, that the punishment might be proportionate to the faults of those wretches who were confined in them. These have never been made use of since the times of popery; but that under the bishop's chapel is the common and only prison for all offences in the spiritual court, and to that the delinquents are sentenced. But the soldiers of the garrison permit them to suffer their confinement in the castle, it being morally impossible for the strongest constitution to sustain the damps and noysomeness of the cavern even for a few hours, much less for months and years, as is the punishment sometimes allotted. But I shall speak hereafter more fully of the severity of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction."
These subterranean places of punishment are either filled up or otherwise demolished, the Cicceroni of the place not being able to give the least account of them in 1774, when this view was taken.
This castle stands on a small rocky island, about an hundred yards north of the town of Peele. The channel which divides it from the main land at high water is very deep; but when the tide is out, is almost dry, or at least scarcely mid-leg deep, being only separated by a little rivulet, which runs from Kirk Jarmyn mountains. This island is called Holme Peele and Sodor, the last from the Greek word Soter, or Saviour, in allusion to the Christian churches standing here: from hence, it is by some conjectured, the Bishop of Man prefixed to his title that of Bishop of Sodor. At present this island is joined to the main land by a strong stone quay, built a few years ago to secure the harbour.
The entrance into this island is on the south side, where a flight of stone steps, now nearly demolished, though strongly cramped with iron, come over the rocks to the waters edge; and turning to the left, others lead through a gateway in the side of a square tower into the castle. Adjoining to this tower is a strong vaulted guard-room.
The walls enclose an irregular polygon, whose area contains about two acres. They are flanked with towers, and are remarkably rough, being built with a coarse grey whin stone, but coigned and faced in many parts with a red gritt found in the neighbourhood. It is highly probable this island has been fortified in some manner ever since the churches were built; but the present works are said, by Bishop Wilson, to have been constructed by Thomas Earl of Darby, who first encompassed it with a wall, probably about the year 1500. It could never have been of any considerable strength, being commanded towards the south-west or land side by a high hill, which rises suddenly from the foot of its walls. Here are the remains of two churches; one dedicated to St. Patrick, the aera of its erection unknown; the other called St. Germain's, or the Cathedral, built about the year 1245, a view, and farther account of which, is given in a separate plate. The whole area is full of ruins of diverse buildings, walls, and dwelling houses; some of them were inhabited within these few years. Among them is one shown as the bishop's house. It consisted of only one small room on a floor, and has more the appearance of one of the gunners' barracks.
Before government purchased the royalty of the place, this fortress was garrisoned by troops kept in pay by the lord of the island. Here died, anno 1237, Olave King of Man, to whom K. Henry III. granted safe conduct, and settled an annual pension on him of 40 marks, 100 quarters of corn, and 5 tuns of wine for his homage, and defence of the sea coast.* He was buried in the abbey of Rushen.
" It was in this castle (says Waldron) that Eleanor, wife to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, uncle to Hen. VI. and lord protector of England, was confined, after being banished through the malice of the Duke of Suffolk and Cardinal of Winchester, who accused her of having been guilty of associating herself with wizards and witches, to know if her husband would ever attain the crown, and other treasonable practices. Sir Thomas Stanley, then Lord of Man, had the charge of her, and having conducted her to the island, placed her in this castle, where she lived in a manner befitting her dignity, nothing but liberty being refused: she appeared, however, so turbulent and impatient under this confinement, that he was obliged to keep a strict guard over her; not only because there were daily attempts made to get her away, but also to prevent her from laying violent hands on her own life. They tell you, that ever since her death, to this hour, a person is heard to go up the stone stairs of these little houses on the walls, constantly every night, as soon as the clock has struck twelve; but I never heard any one say they had seen what it was, though the general conjecture is, that it is no other than the spirit of this lady, who died, as she lived, dissatisfied, and murmuring at her fate."
This view, which shows the south aspect, was drawn 1774.
[ * Copies of these documents are printed in Oliver's
Monumenta, vol. ii. pp. 69-76; Manx Society, vol. vii. 1861.]
This monastery was, according to Sacheverell, in his history of the Isle of Man, first founded by one Mac Marus, elected to the government of the island on account of his many virtues. " He," says that author, "in the year 1098, laid the first foundation of the abbey of Rushen, in the town of Ballasalley. These monks lived by their labour, with great mortification; wore neither shoes, furs, nor linen; eat no flesh except on journeys. It consisted of 12 monks and an abbot, of whom the first was called Conanus. I find the Cistertian Order to have its first beginning this very year; though, probably, it was not planted here till 36 years afterwards by Evan, Abbot of Furness."
Anno 1134, Olave King of Man, third son of Goddard M Crownan, gave to Evan, Abbot of Furness, in Lancashire, the monastery of Rushen, together with some additional lands, with which he either enlarged or rebuilt the abbey, dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin, instituted the Cistertian discipline, and made it a cell dependent on the abbey of Furness, to which he gave not only the right of electing the Abbot of Rushen, but, as some say, the bishops of the island. It was a sort of chapter to the diocese. Rushen Abbey was by King Olave endowed with great privileges and immunities.
"The revenue (says Sacheverell) was set out after the most ancient and apostolical manner, viz. one third of all the tithes to the bishop for his maintenance; the second to the abbey for education of youth, and relief of the poor (for those good monks were then the public almoners, and by their own labours rather encreased than diminished the public charity); the third portion of the tithes were given to the parochial priests for their subsistence." Anno 1192, the monks removed to Douglas, but returned four years after.
In the year 1257, Rich. Bishop of the Isles consecrated the abbey church of St. Mary Rushen, which (though begun 130 years before, and in that time had been the repository of many of their kings) it is probable was not finished till that time. This monastery was in the year 1316 plundered by Rich. de Mandeville, who, with a numerous train of Irish, landed at Rannesway on ascension-day, and defeated the Manksmen under Barrowl Hill; after a month's stay he, with his people, re-imbarked for Ireland. Tanner says this monastery flourished some time after the suppression of religious houses in England. This abbey, though a cell to Furness, had another subordinate to it, which happened thus: Goddard, son of King Olave, having married Fingula, a daughter of Mac Lotlen, son of Maccartack, King of Ireland, without the accustomed ceremonies of the church, anno 1171, Viranus, Apostolic Legate, came into Man, and caused it to be canonically performed, Olave, the fruit of this union, being three years old. Sylvanus, the Abbot of Rushen, married them; to whom the King, as an expiation of his error, gave a piece of land at Mirescoge, to build a monastery in, which was afterwards given to the abbey of Rushen, and the monks removed thither.
Mirescoge is conjectured to be Ballamona in Kirk Christ Lee Ayre. Browne Willis, in his history of monasteries, says that, anno 1553, there remained in charge these following pensions, viz. to Henry Jackson, abbot, 10l., James More, John Allowe, and Rich. Novell, 2l. 13s. 4d. each.
In the third year of the reign of King James, the site of this abbey was in the crown, where it had remained ever since the dissolution, and was by that king leased to Sir Tho. Leighe, Knt. and Tho. Spencer, Esq., together with the priory of Douglas, the Grey Friars at Brymaken, and the rectories and churches of Kirkecrist in Shelding and Kirklavan, with their appurtenances, parcels of the abbey of Rushen, usually let at the annual rent of 101l 15s. 11d., for the term of 40 years at the same rent, and several other payments amounting to 211. 17s., as also a fine of 101l. 15s. 11d., all woods, underwoods, mines, and quarries being reserved to the Crown.
This was excepted out of the grant made of the island afterwards by James I. to Hen. Earl of Northampton, and Rob. Earl of Salisbury; but afterwards granted, anno 1611, to Wm. Earl of Derby, and Elizabeth his wife, and their heirs, to hold of the manor of East Greenwich, paying the accustomed rents; and afterwards confirmed by Act of Parliament, reserving the rights of Leighe and Spencer, the former lessees, during the term of their lease.
At present the site of the ruins is in possession of More, Esq., who has built thereon a very handsome house, converting part of the offices of the ancient monastery to outhouses. Nothing worth notice more than is here shown remains of the ancient buildings, which seem to have been constructed with some view to defence. In an adjoining close, the tombstone of one of the abbots is shown; on it is the pastoral staff and a broad sword, signifying he had temporal as well as spiritual authority. There is no date or inscription on it.
This view was drawn anno 1774.
This castle is considered as the chief fortress in the island. According to the Manks tradition, it was built about the year 960, by Guttred, grandson to a King of Denmark, and the 2d of a succession of 12 kings, by them called Orrys. This building, which is even now remarkably solid, is said by Challoner, Sacheverell, and other writers, to be reckoned by travellers a striking resemblance of the castle of Elsinore in Denmark. Guttred, the founder, lies buried in its walls, but the exact spot where, has not been handed down. As this fortress has at different times suffered several sieges, the repairs of the damages sustained must have somewhat altered its interior parts, though in all probability the keep of the castle itself is still in its original form.
The Manksmen, according to Waldron, had a strange tradition concerning this castle, which, as it will probably divert the reader, is here transcribed in his own words: " Just at the entrance of the castle is a great stone chair for the governor, and two lesser for the deempsters: here they try all causes, except ecclesiastical, which are entirely under the decision of the bishop. When you are past this little court, you enter into a long winding passage between two high walls, not much unlike what is described of Rosamond's Labyrinth at Woodstock: in case of an attack, 10,000 men might be destroyed by a very few in attempting to enter.
The extremity of it brings you to a room where the keys sit. They are 24 in number; they call them the parliament; but, in my opinion, they more resemble our juries in England, because the business of their meeting is to adjust differences between the common people, and are locked in till they have given in their verdict. They may be said in this sense, indeed, to be supreme judges, because from them there is no appeal but to the lord himself.*
....* Our author here quotes from Waldron some of the traditionary tales concerning this castle, but as they have already been printed by the Manx Society in their XIth Volume, it is unnecessary to repeat them here.
" The castle, as also the two walls which encompass it, and are broad enough for three persons to walk abreast on, are all of freestone, which is the only building in the island of that sort. Within the walls is a small tower adjoining to the castle, where formerly state-prisoners were kept, but serves now as a store-house for the Lord Derby's wines: It has a moat round it, and draw-bridge, and is a very strong place On the other side of the castle is the governor's house, which is very commodious and spacious. Here is also a fine chapel, where divine service is celebrated morning and afternoon, and several offices belonging to the court of chancery."
This view, which shows the N.E. aspect of the castle taken at low water, was drawn anno 1774.
This view was taken from the right-hand side of that end of the bridge farthest from the castle. At low water the rocky bed of the channel is left quite dry, as was the case when this drawing was made. The figure of the castle is irregular, and may be better conceived from the views, than from any verbal description. A sort of stone glacis runs round it. This is said to have been built by Cardinal Wolsey. The inside contains very good barracks for soldiers and rooms for the officers; though somewhat out of repair, as are many of the outer offices. The stone work of the keep, and divers other parts of this building, are now nearly as entire as when first erected; they were indeed admirably well constructed. It is built with a very hard lime-stone. In the roof of the keep is some uncommonly large timber, brought, as tradition says, from the Isle of Anglesea. Here is a deep dungeon for prisoners, who were lowered down into it by ropes, or descended by a ladder, there being no steps to it; nor was the least glimmer of light admitted into it, except what made its way through the chinks of its covering.
The following regulations respecting the soldiers doing duty in this castle, were communicated by Stephen Martin Leake, Esq., from a MS. folio in his possession, containing divers laws and regulations mide for the government of the
Isle of Man:-
Orders and duties that the soldiers of
WHEREAS we weare enjoyned by the right worshipful John Ireland, Esq., lieutenant and captain of this isle, by vertue of our oaths, to give notice of our knowledge of the ancient orders and duties observed by the souldiers of the castles of Rushen and Peele, in our times and memories, and for that purpose wee twelve, whose names are subscribed, were chosen, whereof six be sworne souldiers at the castle Rushen, and six at the castle Peele, upon advised consideration had, wee find and knowe, That all the ancient orders, customes, and duties to be performed in the said castles, are extant in the rowles, and enrolled in the bookes of the statutes of this isle, and these which we do add hereafter are, and have beene, customarie and usual.
First, At the entrance and admittance of any souldier to either of the said castles, the ordinarie oath was to this purpose:
First, Our allegiance to our soveraigne, next our faith, fedilitie, and service to the right honoble earls of Derbie and their heires, our duties and our obedience to our lieutenant or cheefe governour and our constable in all lawful causes, and noe further.
Item. It hath been accustomed and still continued, that every souldier at the sound of the drume, or ringinge of the alarums bell (the heareing or knowinge of the same) shall forthwith make his present appearance in the gate of either castle, then and there to pforme what shall be enjoyned one them by the lieutent, or the constable in his absence.
Item. It hath been accustomed that night bell should be runge a little after the sun settinge, and that by the porter, and the constable and his deputie with a sufficient guard to be in the castle, for the saufe keepinge and defence of the same.
Item. It hath been accustomed and continued, that the constable or his deputie should goe with the wardens to the castle gates, and there cause the porter to locke the castle gates, and then the watch to be fourthwith set.
Item. It hath been accustomed, that at either castle there hath beene two standinge porters, who have by course every other weeke held the staff, and given attendance at the gate during one whole yeare, begininge at Michallmas; the said porters to be nominated by the constable, and then allowed by the lieutent and governour, and two standinge watchmen in like manner for the nightlie watchinge upon the walls; and every officer, souldier, and servant, is to doe his pettie watch fiom May till Michallmas.
Item. It hath been accustomed, that the castle gates should not be opened by any man after lockeinge at night (the governor onelie excepted) until the watchman ringe the day bell, which was to be done so soone as the watchman could pfectli discover the land markes bounded within a mile and a halfe of either castle; which beinge done, the porter was accustomed to goe about the walles, and looke that all things be cleere, and forthwith to returne to the constable or his deputie, and affirms all things to be as the watchman had formerlie spoken to the constable or his deputie.
It hath been accustomed, that the souldiers should ward in the castle gates one day in the weeke, and they of the castle Rushen to lye within the house the night before their warding-day, and the soldiers of the castle Peele to lie in the night before, and the night after, in respect the tyd fallinge out uncertainlie, and for more saute guard of that castle, beinge nearer to our enemies the Redshankes.
It hath been accustomed and still continued, that one of the wardens of the inward ward at castle Rushen shall at night locke the inner gate, and keepe the keys thereof to himselfe till morninge, and hath pformed all things therein as constable that night in that ward.
It hath been accustomed, that the receiver of either castle hath at Michellmas made yearly choise of a steward, who hath beene allowed by the lieutent or captain for the time beinge.
It hath been accustomed and still continued, that the souldiers of either castle have wrought the Lord's hay, whensoever they have beene hereunto called.
It hath been accustomed, that Mr. Gunner of either castle hath had allowance of an apprentice, and that either himselfe or his apprentice hath every night linen in the said castle.
Notwithstanding all theise orders, usues, and customer, here set downe, the lieutent, captain, or chiefe governor for the time beings, in his wisdome and accordinge to the necessitie of time set downe orders and decrees for both castles in all lawfull causes, and repeal the same againe, which every inferiour officer and soldier is to obey by reason of his oath.
Thomas Moore, Henerey Garrett, Tho. Whetstone, Tho. Lea, Wm. Lassell, Edward Lucas, Will. Bridgen, John Crellin, Jo. GLauen, Hugh Lambe, Rich. Fisher, John Colbin.
John Ireland, Lieutent.
William Lucas, Will. Ratcliffe, Tho. Sainsbury, Da Ewan Xian.
Note.-The original of all the former acts made in Capt. Ireland's time, are fixed in the Exchequer booke, anno 1609. This view was drawn anno 1774.
This church is situated near the middle of the island, in the way between Peel and Douglas. It is reported to be a votive edifice, built to fulfil a vow made by a person in imminent danger of shipwreck; who or what he was, and when the vow was made, or the church built, tradition does not say; it however relates that the present ruinous state of the building was owing to the malice of some unlucky demons, who, for want of better employment, amused themselves with throwing off the roof, which frolick they so often repeated, that at length it was abandoned. At present it is famous for the quantities of the adiantum, or maiden hair, growing in and about it.
This view was drawn anno 1774.
The Tinwald is an artificial mount covered with turf, having steps cut on its side, I think the south,[* East.] for ascending to the top; from hence all new laws made for the government of the island are promulgated, and from it are called Acts of Tinwald. The word Tin, or Tong, in the Islandic language, signifies an assembly of the people; and Wald' a field or place. There is neither history nor tradition respecting the erection of this mount, which probably is of great antiquity. It is surrounded by a ditch and earthen rampart, including an area of the form of a right-angled parallelogram, within which, at the end facing the steps, is a small church, where, previous to the publication of any new law, the chief magistrates attend divine service.
The entrance into this area was through some upright stone jaumbs covered with transverse imposts, somewhat like those at Stonehenge; most of these imposts are now down.
The Tinwald stands about three miles from the town of Peele, in the high road leading from thence to Douglas.
This view was drawn anno 1774
This view presents the north side of the mount, and the church mentioned in the former plate. At a distance are seen one of the lofty mountains, of which there are several in this island.
This view was drawn anno 1774