[From The N.M.P. Manx Year Book 1925]

THE MANX "WHO'S WHO" FOR 1925

SHORT BIOGRAPHIES OF THE LEADING MEN AND WOMEN OF THE ISLE OF MAN

In compiling the following " Who's Who in the Isle of Man " regard has been given to questions of space, and to special qualifications. It may avoid some misunderstanding if we say that the principle of selection adopted-or at least attempted-has been that the subject has given conspicuous voluntary public service or has contributed in a special way to literature, science, art or music in the Island.

With the best intentions, we are conscious of many omissions. For these we apologise, and trust revisions in future will supply what is now missing. While every care has been taken to give only reliable particulars, there are no doubt many errors, and for these the Editor alone is responsible.

BROWN, John Archibald, J.P.

Managing Director and Editor of the " Isle of Man Times." B. at Liverpool, November 4th, 1839. When ten years old took a prize open to the whole school. His father, James Brown, was committed to Castle Rushen by the self-elected House of Keys for commenting on their proceedings. It was left to his son largely to secure his release, and the present editor may also be said to be practically the founder of the paper. Has been an active supporter of hospital work for 25 years. Raised about £2,000 for Noble's Hospital ; identified with various agitations, including redistribution, promenades, street improvements, the development of the visiting industry, and consistent defender of free speech and freedom of the Press in face of prosecution and influential opposition ; was a volunteer in the early days of the movement ; a director of many public companies — at one time no fewer than thirteen — five of which he was Chairman ; he has been over forty years chairman of the Palace and the amalgamated companies of the Palace and Derby Castle Ltd. His publications include three Guides to the Isle of Man and various brochures. His record in Freemasonry in the Island is unparalleled; he is a P.P.G.M. At 85 years retains supreme control'-of ",The Times " and is the hardest working member of his newspaper staff. Address : " Isle of Man Times " Office, Athol Street, Douglas.

CAINE, Sir [Henry] Hall, K.B.E., created 1918.

B. Runcorn, 14th May, 1853, of Manx and Cumberland parentage. Educ. in the Isle of Man and Liverpool. Was for some years on the " Liverpool Mercury " ; went to London at invitation of the poet-painter Rossetti and lived with him till his death. After some serious contributions to literature, wrote his first novel, " The Shadow of a Crime," in 1885, but made his first big success with a Manx novel, "The Deemster," in 1887; and since then has become known and made the Isle of Man known throughout the English-speaking world. Among many other novels, those of chief interest to the Island are " The Manxman," 1894; "The Christian," 1897, and "The Woman of Knockaloe," published in 1923. Edited King Albert's book in 1914-15, and was made an officer of the Order of Leopold by the King of the Belgians ; edited Queen Alexandra's " Christmas Carol " on behalf of the Queen's Fund ; lectured extensively in the United States during the war ; wrote a great deal in the same period through the " Daily Telegraph " ; has had nearly all his books dramatised and filmed ; is a justice of the Peace for the Isle of Man and sat in the House of Keys in 1901 and during the early years of the Reform Movement as a Member for Ramsey. Address : Greeba Castle.

CAINE, William Ralph Hall,

writer, brother of the novelist. B. Liverpool, 5th February, 1869. Is said to have " never sought and never refused " any public office, yet for more than twenty-five years has been prominently identified with the social and economic life of the Island. He had a great deal to do with the publication of his brother's brochure, " The Little Man Island," by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. (over a million copies being circulated) ; the inception and execution of up-to-date methods in advertising the Island ; followed by flattering offers from firms and resorts with a national reputation in publicity. He was responsible for securing the " moral obligation " from the Home Office to staff the two enemy camps from the manhood of the Island, past military service, and to buy all supplies through local tradesmen, as a. result of which £4,000,000 passed through the hands of the Insular trading community during the war, with all its attendant beneficial consequences. He has contributed over 1,000 columns to the Insular Press during the past ten or fifteen years ; is the author of " The Isle of Man," in Black's Colour Series (now out of print and worth from 10/- to 12/6)," The Cruise of the Port Kingston " (with Sir Alfred Jones to the West Indies) and a long series of booklets dealing with T. E. Brown, the name " Isle of Man," the " Three Legs," etc., which may be consulted in the British Museum, the National Library of Wales, and the Stamford University, America. ;- of " The Courting of Kitty-theWater-Wheel " and " The Tale of the Tailors " (why Scotsmen were forbidden the Isle of Man),-Messrs. T. C. Moore, Ltd., St. John's, have circulated about 100,000 copies. " Rationalist, Freemason (London), Golfer, but above all else proud of his Lancastrian upbringing, its vision, and practicality of mind." Address : 16, Castletown Old Road, Douglas.

CAIN, Richard, M.H.K.

B. Douglas, Senior Member for Ayre Sheading, first elected 1919, re-elected 1924 ; a Member of the Advertising, Agricultural, and Health Insurance Boards, also of the Finance Committee of the House of Keys, and Chairman of the Unemployment Committee under Tynwald. Took a keen interest in early progress of Manx Reform Movement and gave evidence before the Home Office Commission, 1911. Advocate of agricultural co-operation ; housing enthusiast ; interests himself in establishing Debating Societies in country districts. Address : St. Helena, Braddan

CALLISTER, Edward, M.L.C.

B. 1869 in Marown. Elected to the House of Keys for Glenfaba in 1916 ; returned as Senior Member, 1919 ; elected by the House of Keys, 1921, as a Member of the Legislative Council, and is thereby ex-officio a Justice of the Peace in the Island. Served for 21 years as a Member of the Marown School Board. A keen agriculturalist ; has taken many prizes at Agricultural Shows in the Island. Has recently been appointed by Tynwald as a Member of the Asylums Board. Address : Meadow Bank, Crosby, I.O.M.

CALLISTER, William.

Onchan, Clerk to the Village Commissioners since creation in 1896; a Headmaster of Onchan Elementary School for 43 years out of 50 years as a Manx Headmaster. B. 1857 at Peel ; received his education and qualifications as a scholar and student of the Peel Mathematical and Clothworkers' Schools. A member for 12 years of the Onchan Voluntary Poor Relief Board ; one of the Committee of four responsible for building the Village Hall; has been Hon. Secretary of numerous local village and parish movements, the latest being the Onchan War Memorial. Is at present Hon. Secretary of the Isle of Man Municipal Association. Holds the Royal Humane Society's Medal for life-saving ; is extremely fond of the sea ; if he had not been so good a schoolmaster, he would have become, say his friends, another of the numerous school, during the last generation, of first-class Manx navigators.

CALLOW, Charles Thomas Cheslyn.

Clerk of the Rolls and Southern Deemster of the Isle of Man ; Member of the Legislative Council. The oldest living member of the Manx Bar. Chairman of the Isle of Man Hospital Committee. Held offices of Chairman of Old Age Pension and National Health Insurance Commission, and was Chairman of the first Board which paid Old Age Pensions in the Isle of Man--January, 1920. Before entering public life as Vicar-General in 1903, held Secretaryships of the Highway, Asylums and Assessment and Local Governnlent Boards. Address : Burleigh, Douglas.

CALLOW, Thomas.

One of the Members of the House of Keys for Garff ; was for many years in business in Douglas. He had not previously held public office. Is a Member of the Advertising Board. Address : " Moaney-Quill," Lonan.

CANNAN, John William, M.H.K., J.P.

B. at Michael; Chairman of the first Parish Commissioners of Michael; Member of the House of Keys for Michael, for eight and a half years from 1904, and returned again for the same division in February, and November, 1924. Has been for many years a Member of the Forestry Board, and is also at present on the Local Government Board. Address : Craig House, Michael.

CLUCAS, George Frederick, M.A., J.P.,

Speaker of the House of Keys since 1919 ; B. 11th January, 1870, in London. Educ.: Repton School, and Christ's College, Cambridge. Called to the English Bar, 1894, and to the Manx Bar, 1895. Was president of the Isle of Man Agricultural Society in 1909 ; and in 1923, president of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society. From 1915 to 1918, served as a deputy-director at the Ministry of Munitions. For some years has devoted the whole of his time to public work, among his present positions being, in addition to the Speakership, the following :A trustee of Government property ; a trustee of King William's College ; a trustee of the H.B. Noble Trust ; a trustee of the Baume (Isle of Man) Music Scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music ; a trustee of the Jones and Wilson Trust for distressed gentlewomen; Chairman of the Council of Education; Chairman of the Old Age Pensions Authority; and a Member of the National Health Insurance Board; Chairman of the Asylums Board; and a Member of the Tree Planting Board. He is also Chairman of Committee of the Manx Music Festival, and a vice-president of the Manx Society and of the World Manx Association and a Member of the Committee of Noble's Isle of Man Hospital. Publications : " Points of Order and Procedure in the Tynwald Court," 1909, ; and " Tynwald " (in the press). Address Cronkbourne, Braddan.

CLUCAS, John Donald, M.L.C., J.P., C.P.

B. at Sunnyside, Onchan, eldest son of the late John Thomas Clucas, H. K.; J.P., C.P., and the late Margaret Clucas, eldest daughter of the late William Callister, H. K., J. P., C. P., of Thornhill, Ramsey. Educ. : Pembroke College-Cambridge; M.A.; admitted to English Bar, 1892 ; to Manx Bar, 1894 ; appointed Captain of Parish of Rushen, 1894 ; J.P., 1921 ; has sat in the House of Keys as Member for Rushen and Ayre on four different occasions from 1903 till 1924, when in November appointed by Governor M.L.C. Chairman of Local Government Board; Chairman of Common Lands; Chairman of War Contribution Committee and of first Finance Committee of the House of Keys ; has been a member of three or four deputations to Home Secretary and English Board of Agriculture ; was responsible for negotiating purchase of Lord's or chief rents of the Island and consequent legislation ; is a director of the Isle of Man Steampacket Co. and of the Isle of Man Banking Co., and Chairman of the Manx Salt and Alkali Company. Address : Thornhill, Ramsey.

CLUCAS, William Philip, M.H.K.

B. at Peel; the first Chairman of the present Manx Labour Party ; contested Glenfaba Sheading four times as a candidate for the House of Keys, and elected at the fourth time of asking, November, 1924 an elected Member of the National Health Insurance Society since its inception ; Chairman of Peel Town Commissioners in 1918 ; a Member of the Committee of Management of the Manx Co-Operative Society since its start ; served 26 years in the Liverpool Police ; retired with rank of Sergeant in 1908 ; selected by Liverpool Police to give evidence before a Select Committee of the House of Commons on one day's rest in seven for members of all police forces, 1908 ; took a prominent part in the demonstration at Tynwald, 1916, in favour of Manx Reforms and a new Governor. Address : 52 Glenfaba Road, Peel.

CRAINE, James.

An Alderman of Douglas. Born at Union Mills. Has been a Member of the Town Council without a break since 1896. Served in every office in the gift, of his fellow members, but the Mayoralty, which he refused. Represented the Corporation on the Isle of Man Municipal Association and been Chairman. A keen fresh-water fisherman. Although a considerable small property owner has always supported the Rent and Mortgage Restrictions Act in face of opposition from the Douglas and Onchan Property Owners' Association, of which he was President. Address : Thorny Road.

CRAINE, Walter Clucas, M.H.K.

B. 1877, at Douglas. The first Labour Candidate to contest a seat in the Manx Legislature. He first stood for South Douglas in 1908 ; then North Douglas, 1921 ; South Douglas again, 1922, in all of which he was defeated ; then successfully South Douglas, 1924. Is an elected director of the Manx National Health Insurance Society. Secretary of the Isle of Man Football Association ; a trustee of the Manx Museum ; and has done a good deal of the spade work in connection with preventing tenants from being ejected from their homes since 1923. Was the first Labour nominee of the Douglas Poor Law Guardians. Served in France and Salonica from August, 1914, to February, 1920. Has been actively identified with the Manx Labour Party for 28 years ; and with Rugby and Association Football, Boxing, Bowling, Racing, and Gymnastics has a long record. Address : 31, Falcon Street, Douglas.,

CRAINE, William Albert.

B. Douglas, May 16th, 1871 . married, 1903, Emily Whitworth, of Rochdale, Lanes. ; one son; Educ. : Thomas St. Wesleyan, Green's, and first Board School. agent L.M. & S. Railway - 40 years' service. Organist and Choirmaster, Loch Parade P.M. Church at 18 ; Solo Tenor and Assistant Organist, St. Thomas Church, for fourteen years. Founded Douglas Choral Union, Hon. Sec. for twenty years ; also played chief tenor roles for many years. Hon. Sec. Douglas Amateur Minstrels. Founded, Douglas Association Football Club. Hon. Sec. World's Manx Association for fourteen years; Hon. Sec. Manx Musical Festival. Hon. Local Representative Assoc. Board, R.A.M. and Royal College of Music ; Trustee Baume Music Scholarship. Chairman, Onchan Village Commissoners for third time. Vice-Chairman, Board of Advertising. Chief Clerk and Accountant to Q.M. Knockaloe Camp. In charge of Coal Control, Isle of Man under the Lieut.-Governor, three times; also Secretary, Milk Commission. Recreations Music, collecting Autographs and Water-Colours. Travel: has heard the finest Opera singers, etc., in France, Italy, and America. Address : North Cliff, Onchan.

CRELLIN, John Frissell, M.C., M.H.K., J.P., C.P.

Son of the late J. F. Crellin, M. H. K., J. P., C. P. B. in Douglas, 1889. Served in France 1914-18, wounded in 1916, awarded M.C. with bar 1918 ; appointed Captain of the Parish of Andreas 1918 ; elected to the House of Keys as a Member for Ayre at General Election, 1924 ; is a Member of the Isle of Man Harbour . Board; the Council of Education and the Local Government Board. Sports: Yachting, Rowing. Address : Ballachurry, Andreas.

CROOKALL, Arthur Binns, M.H.K., J.P.

Mayor of Douglas for the third year in 1924-25. Born at Blackpool ; came to Douglas with his parents when 13 years old. Elected to the Town Council in 1911 ; to the House of Keys for North Douglas 1921 ; returned in 1924. During the war had the catering contract at the Aliens Camp, at Knockaloe. Keenly interested in football in his youth and introduced the association game into the Island. His Mayoralty has been marked by many public spirited gifts to the old people and children and in hospitality on public occasions ; he also presented the Silver Trophy for the International Amateur Race for Motor Cycles. Is a Member of the Isle of Man Highway Board; the Finance Committee of the Keys ; and represents Douglas on the Advertising Board. Address : Woodlands, Douglas.

CORLETT, Robert, J.P.

B. in Lezayre over sixty years ago. Came to Douglas 1878 ; went into business as a builder, 1884 ; elected to the Town Commissioners in 1894; made an Alderman of the Borough in 1907 and still serving; Mayor of Douglas, 1913 and 1914 ; appointed a justice of the Peace in 1919. Has held during thirty years every office in the disposal of his fellow-members of the Town Council; been vice-chairman of the Isle of Man Advertising Board and is at present a member of the Douglas District Licensing Court. Address : Woodland Terrace, Douglas.

COWELL, William Frederick, M.H.K.

B. July 9, 1868 at Douglas. A member of the Board of Agriculture ; president of the Farmers' Union ; a Member of the Council of Agricultural Society and a Director of the Isle of Man Dairies, Ltd. As tenant of Bemahague Farm, Onchan, had four successive governors of the Island as neighbours ; first entered public life as a member of the Onchan Village Commissioners in 1902 ; afterwards was elected to the Douglas Town Council. Sent to the House of Keys in 1913 as one of the Members for Middle Sheading ; defeated at the General Election in 1919 ; but returned again by the same division in 1924. Address Ballamona, Braddan.

COWLEY, Charles Henry,

of Peel. B. 1874. Is perhaps the best-known Manx archaeologist alive to-day. A report by him on " Manx Pigmy Flints " appeared in the journal of the British Archaeological Association in December, 1921. He is also a Manx linguist. Address : Albion Place, Peel.

CORRIN, James Robinson, M.H.K.

B. 1878. Identified with the Labour Movement in the Isle of Man since 1906; and has held office of Chairman of the Manx Labour Party ; also as a Member of the Rushen School Board and the Southern District Higher Education Board till these were abolished by Act. Contested Castletown for the House of Keys in 1919 ; won a seat at head of the poll a few months later in Rushen, and was again returned. by same constituency in same position in 1924. Served from 1920 to 1924 on the Old Age Pensions and National Health Insurance Board ; also on the Unemploynlent Board. At present is a Member of the Housing Committee of Tynwald, the Council of Education, and of the Local Government Board. Address : The Level, Colby.

COWIN, Walter Kewley, M.H.K.

B. Lonan, 1871. A Member of the Laxey Village Commissioners, Jan., 1921, to Dec., 1924. Chairman of Board in 1923. Secretary to the local Unemployment Committee during the time the Laxey Mines were closed. The first labour Member of the House of Keys to be elected for Garff Sheading in the General Election in 1924, when he was returned at the head of the poll. Address Dumbell's Row, Laxey.

CURPHEY, Edward James, M.H.K., C.P.

B. at Sulby Bridge. As Parish Commissioner, Poor Law Guardian, and School Board Member, has put in thirty years of local public service. Is the oldest Wesleyan Methodist local preacher in his district but has served three times as Churchwarden ! He is also the Father of the House of Keys, having been elected 1907, and re-elected at every General Election since. Appointed by the Lieut.-Governor as Captain of the Parish of Jurby, 25th June, 1913. Is a Member of the Asylums and Assessment Board and of the Advertising Board. Address : Ballahowin, Sulby Bridge, Lezayre.

DALGLEISH, Frank Samuel, M.H.K.

B. at Douglas, February 29, 1868. Elected to the House of Keys for Glenfaba in 1917, and re-elected at the General Elections since. Fifteen years on the Peel School Board, and Chairman of that body and the Higher Education Authority in the Western Area. A successful exhibitor of cattle and sheep at Agricultural and other shows. A Member of the Board of Agriculture. Farms the estate of Ballawattleworth and other lands near Peel, and carries on a corn and seed merchant's business. Address Ballawattleworth, Peel.

DRINKWATER, John Roddam, M.A., J.P.,

Crown Receiver of H.M. Government for the Isle of Man ; eldest son of George Drinkwater, Esq., and grandson of the late Deemster Drinkwater ; B. at Chiswick, London, April, 1888. Took I.L.B. at King's College, Cambridge, and is a solicitor of the High Court of Justice in England. Served in France, 1915-1919, as Hon. Captain, Royal Artillery, and was wounded and gassed. Was responsible for the formation of the Loyal Manx Association, 1914, and Commandant, 1914-1915 ; President of the Isle of Man Rifle Association. Sports and Recreations : Shooting VIII Rugby School and Cambridge University; King's Hundred, Bisley, 1908. Address : Athol Street, Douglas.

DOUGLAS, Constance Mona.

B. at Woolton, Liverpool, September 18, 1898. An exponent of Manx folklore and song ; lecturer ; has held position of Hon. Secretary of the Manx Society, and Manx Hon. Secretary of the Celtic Congress; founder and manager of the Ballasalla Players from 1919 to 1922 ; Organising Hon. Secretary of the Animals' Welfare Week Committee in the Isle of Man. Takes a keen interest in the Scout and Girl Guide Movement, but is best known to the general public as a writer of poetry and has published the following books, etc. :-" Manx Song " (Erskine Macdonald, 1916); " Mychurachan " (John Long, Ltd.) 1918; " A. Dooragh " (Clucas and Faragher), 1919 ; " Three Manx Plays," together with a play by . J J. Kneen (Manx Society), 1920. Address : Bollarrgh, Laxey.

FARAGHER, John Thomas.

Alderman of the Borough of Douglas. B. at Foxdale ; the oldest Member of the Douglas Town Council, on which he has served continuously not only since the Town's incorporation, but even before that, since 1890, as a Member of the old Town Commission. He has been Mayor three times and filled .every other position in the gift of the Town Council. His special work has been the Town Improvement Scheme, but the outstanding characteristic of his public life has been the exceeding fairness in which he has excluded all sectional and personal considerations and assisted every scheme which was for the betterment of Douglas. He is the oldest Wesleyan local preacher in the Isle of Man, having been on the " plan " for sixty years. Address : Adelaide Terrace.

FARRANT, Reginald Douglas,

Member of the Manx Bar; High Bailiff of Douglas and Castletown. s. Ballamoar, July, 1877 ; appointed to present position, November, 1919 ; had been previously Clerk to the justices at Douglas. SubLieutenant Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (Auxiliary Patrol), January, 1916; Lieutenant, January, 1917 (in command) ; on anti-submarine patrol in English Channel, 1916-17 ; and in the North Sea, 1917-18. A member of the War Pensions Committee, and of the Douglas War Memorial Committee; Chairman of the House of Industry, etc. Has written on Manx Law and Customs in law quarterly reviews ; in sports, shown keen interest in yacht-racing, ski-ing, hockey, badminton, and golf. Address : Athol Street, Douglas.

FRY, Major-General Sir William, K.C.V.O., created 1920; C.V.O., 1909 ; C.B., 1900 ;

Lieut.-Governor of the Isle of Man since April 1st, 1919, being the first Governor of the Island to be appointed for a term of years. B. 8th September, 1858 ; son of the late Thomas Fry of Dublin ; married, 1886, Ellen Margaret, eldest daughter of the late Sir John Goldie Taubman, Speaker of the House of Keys ; one son ; entered Army in 1878; Captain, 1886; Lieut.-Colonel, 1900 ; Colonel, 1904; Major General, 1911 ; served in the Afghan War, 1879-80 (Medal) ; South Africa, 1899-1902 (mentioned in despatches three times ; Brevet Lieut.-Colonel, Queen's Medal, five clasps, King's Medal two clasps, C.B.) ; European War, 1915-16 (mentioned in despatches) ; commanded the East Lancashire Division, Territorial Force, 1908-10 ; commanded a Division, 1912-15 ; 30th Division, 1915-16 ; Major-General in charge of Administration in Ireland, 1916-1919. During his Governorship of the Isle of Man a large number of social, constitutional, judicial and financial reforms have been carried out ; and unemployment, which has been rife here as on the Mainland, has been sympathetically dealt with by providing work instead of doles. Was knighted on the occasion of the visit of the King and Queen in August, 1920. (The eldest daughter of Sir William and Lady Fry was married in 1913 to Henry Russell Hornby, eldest son and heir-presumptive of Sir Henry Hornby, Bart., late M.P. for Blackburn). Address : Government House, Isle of Man. Club : Junior United Service. (We are indebted for practically the whole of above details to the 1921 edition of " Who's Who," published by A. & C. Black).

GELLING, Richard Daniel,

Captain of the Parish of Marown ; Secretary to the House of Keys since 1898 ; Clerk to the Tynwald Court, 1909 ; a Member of the Manx Bar; Clerk to the justices at Peel; a Member of the Noble's Hospital Committee ; Joint Secretary, Ellan Vannin Disaster Fund, etc. Address : Athol Street, Douglas.

GILL, Charles, M.H.K., T.C.

Son of the late Mr. Alexander Gill, builder of many of the biggest properties in Douglas. B. 1881 at Douglas, elected to House of Keys for Middle Sheading 1919 ; re-elected at the head of the Poll 1924 ; is a Member of the following Boards under the Legislature-the Isle of Man Highway Board ; the Isle of Man Harbour Board ; the Local Government Board ; the Military and Naval Pensions Board ; elected a Commissioner of Onchan 1919 ; retired in 1923 and was re-elected 1924 ; a Member of the Isle of Man Hospital Committee. Address : Queen's Villa, Little Switzerland, Douglas.

GOLDIE-TAUBMAN, John Leigh, J.P., C.P.,

son of the late Sir John Goldie-Taubman. B. at Edinburgh, 15th February, 1861. Elected to the Hduse of Keys for South Douglas at a byelection and at the General Election in 1919 ; Member of the Legislative Council in 1922, resigned 1924 ; is Chairman of the Isle of Man Justices of the Peace ; Chairman of the Isle of Man Naval and Military War Pensions Committee; Captain of the Parish of Lonan ; President of the World Manx Association, and has been closely identified with practically every organisation and movement in the Island since the war for the assistance of Service and ex-Service men. Chairman of the Isle of Man Banking Company and a director of the Isle of Man Railway. Sport : was for some years Master of the Isle of Man Harriers. Address : The Nunnery, Douglas.

HUGHES-GAMES, Cyril Tomlinson Wynne, M.A., J.P.,

Vicar-General of Diocese of Sodor and Man. B. at King William's College, 4th January, 1868. Educ. : there and at Cambridge, where he took his M.A., graduating in classical honours. Is a Member of the Manx Bar; was appointed Vicar-General in 1906 and became ex-officio a member of the Legislative Council, but ceased to be eligible as such when the Council was reformed in 1919. During his membership of the Legislature held the Chairmanship of the Isle of Man Highway Board and of the Asylums and Assessment Board, and was a member of the Local Government Board. Is at present Chairman of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Co., and a director of the Palace and Derby Castle Company. At school and college carried off numerous prizes in cricket, football, and swimming, and won the Lawn Tennis Championship of the Isle of Man in 1895 and 1896. Address Homefield, Laureston Road, Douglas.

JOHNSON, Ramsey Gelling, M.H.K., T.C.,

youngest son of the late Frank Johnson, Registrar of Deeds ; member of the Manx Bar; entered public life as a Town Councillor, 1921 ; won a seat as a Member for North Douglas, 1924 ; served, 1915-19, in France as Adjutant, R.F.A., and was wounded at Messines, 1917; Chairman of the Public Free Library Committee ; Chairman of the Douglas branch of the Manx Legion ; Vice-President of the Friendly Society's Council ; and a Member of the Old Age Pensions Board and Unemployment Committee. Address : 51, Derby Square.

KERMODE, Josephine (Miss),

the Manx writer of poems and plays, under the nom-de-plume of " Cushag " way born at Ramsey, and is sister to Mr. P. M. C. Kermode. Address Finch Road, Douglas.

KERMODE, Philip Moore Callow, F.S.A. (Scot.),

Curator of the Manx Museum since its establishment in Douglas in 1922. B. at Ramsey ; a member of the Manx Bar and for many years Clerk to the justices of the Peace at Ramsey; has also been Chairman of the Ramsey Town Commissioners. Founded the Manx Natural History and Antiquarian Society in 1879; responsible for the archaeological survey of the Island, i9o8. Publications : " Catalogue of Manks Crosses " 1887 (2nd edition, 1892) ; " Manks Antiquities " (with Sir William Herdman), 1904 (2nd edition, 1914) ; " Manx Crosses," 1907, and several papers, pamphlets and reports on the Natural History and Antiquities of the Isle of Man. Address : Clifton House, Finch Road, Douglas.

KELLY, Thomas Gilbert.

Of Manx descent, but was born at Bolton, Lancashire ; a Member of the Douglas Town Council since 1910 ; Alderman of the Borough ; twice Mayor of Douglas. Has always taken a great interest in football and sport generally.

KEWLEY, John, M.A., J.P.,

Archdeacon of Isle of Man Diocese; B. 1st May, 1860, at Castletown. Educ. : Foundation Scholar and Prizeman of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; Wrangler; M.A. ; appointed Archdeacon, Surrogate, and Rector of Andreas, 1912 ; was ex-officio a Member of the Legislative Council from 1912 till 1919, when that body was re-constituted. Is a Justice of the Peace ; a Member of the Licensing Appeal Court; a trustee of the Manx Muesum ; of King William's College, the Castletown Grammar School, etc. Has been Chairman of the Council of Education, editor of the " Manx Church Magazine," the " Diocesan Calendar, " and also held various other offices in local government. Address The Rectory, Andreas.

KNEEN, John Joseph.

B. at Douglas. A recognised authority on the Manx language. Secretary to the Manx Society; President in 1914; on Executive Committee and VicePresident since its inception in 1899; a member of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society; of the Committee of the World Manx Association and of the English Place-Name Society. Is the author of the "Direct Method of Teaching Manx " (1911), and various other reports and lectures on the Manx language, and re-edited " Cregeen's Manx Dictionary " (1908) ; has written dialect comedies and plays which have been produced before Manx Societies in England, Canada and America, as well as in the Isle of Man. Among them may be named " A lil' Smook," " Yn Blaa Sooree " and " Illiam Dhone." Address : 53, Bucks Road, Douglas.

KNOX, Archibald,

the Manx painter of landscapes, was born at Tromode, near Douglas. He is at present a Master of Art under the Isle of Man Central Education Authority.

LaMOTHE, Frederick Malcolm, M.L.C.

B. at Ramsey, 22nd November, 1864. Appointed High Bailiff of Ramsey and Peel, 1916 ; Second Deemster on 1st October, 1921 ; and Deputy-Governor and Acting Clerk of the Rolls, May to July, 1924, during the illness of the Lieut.-Governor. Judges are not now appointed on principle to Executive Boards and Committees of Tynwald. Address : Myrtle Hill, Ramsey.

MADOC, Henry William, C.B.E., M.V.O.,

Chief Constable of the Isle of Man since July, 1911. Served in the Boer War, 1899-1902, and afterwards held posts as Assistant Inspector-General of the South African Constabulary, and Assistant Commissioner and Acting Commissioner of the Transvaal Police. During the Great War, 1915-19, was Commandant of the Prisoners of War Camp at Douglas. Is Hon. Secretary of the Douglas Branch of the Lifeboat Institution. Address Court House, Douglas.

MOORE, Ramsey Bignall, M.L.C.,

Attorney-General of the Isle of Man. B. 25th January, 1880, at Douglas. Educ. Douglas'lSecondary School ; matriculated first class London University, January, 1897 ; after serving articles and then being some years partner of the late Attorney-General, was himself appointed Attorney-General, February, 1921. Public offices previously held: :Member of the Douglas School Board and Higher Education Board of :Eastern District, agog-igig ; Member of the House of Keys for North Douglas, 1919-1921. Is now Chairman of Old Age Pensions and Health Insurance Board ; Chairman of the Apprenticeship Board ; Vice-Chairman of the Council of Education and trustee of King William's College. Sports;: as a youth played for Gymnasium Association Football Club. Forthcoming publication: " The Isle of Man and International Law." Address: Rolls Office, Douglas.

MOORE,William, M.H.K.

B. in Arbory. Farms Balladoole, Rushen. First elected to the House of Keys at a by-election, December, 1919, for the Sheading of Rüshen ; re-elected, 1924 General Election. Had previously served on the local and Southern District' Education Board and on the Southern Agri cultural Society, of both of which he was Chairman. Is at present a Member of the Agricultural Board and of the Asylums and Assessment Board, and of the Highways Board of the Island all under the Legislature. Has been interested in sport and been Chairman of the Castletown Football Club. Address : Balladoole, Arbory.

NEWTON, Frank.

B. 1865, at Ashton-on-Mersey. A Member of the Onchan Village Commissioners for twenty-two years ; Chairman five times; also a Member of the Guardians of the Poor; an original Member and twice President of the Isle of Man Municipal Association, and several years a member of the Douglas Licensing Bench. Sport: Rugby Football in 80's ; an active follower of the Isle of Man Hunt for some years. Address : Strathview, Royal Drive, Onchan.

NORRIS, Samuel, M.H.K.,

B. in Manchester; came to the Island for the late F. W. Spencer, of the " Manx Sun " ; accepted "Liverpool Mercury" staff appointment in the Island, 1898 ; " Liverpool Post and Mercury, 1905, and "Manchester Guardian," 1906; relinquished these on taking sole control of the Norris Modern Press in 1913. Published, 1903, "Manxland's Home Rule Parliament: what it is and is not" (containing first detailed scheme of Manx Reforms), (" Liverpool Mercury" Branch Office, Douglas) ; "Douglas Past and Present" (the same, 1904) ; "The Manx Patriot" (1906-9) (N.M.P.), "The Manx Year Book" (1906 to date), the ` Isle of Man Visitors' Enquire Within," 1923 and 1924 (Norris Modern Press), and a great many articles in the English and Manx Press on Manx reforms, particularly from 1898 to 1918. Organised and became Hon. General Secretary of the Manx National Reform League throughout its existence from General Elections of House of Keys in 1903 to 1913 ; started the War Rights Union in 1915 and acted as Hon. Organising Secretary ; formed and was Hon. Secretary of the Redress and Reform Campaign Committee, 1916 ; organised the great demonstration at Tynwald Hill, July 5th, 1916 ; wrote the petitions which were presented to the Governor at Tynwald Hill and to the Home Secretary and to the House of Commons (signed by 6,400 residents), praying for appointment of a new Governor, Redress, Retrenchment and Reform (1916) ; was imprisoned by the Governor Raglan and the High Court, October, 1916, for alleged contempt of court for asking people not to buy furniture seized for rates levied on a pre-war valuation. Gave evidence before the Home Office Reform Committee in 1911 ; and, with Mr. C. R. Shimmin, M.H.K., in 1916, was lunched at the Reform Club, Manchester, by the Lancashire and Cheshire Liberal Federation (including several M.P.'s), after an invited address on the reasons for Manx Reforms and the appointment of a New Governor. Elected to the House of Keys as Senior Member for North Douglas, 1919 ; re-elected as Senior Member for North Douglas, November, 1924; is Chairman of Advertising Board; Vice-Chairman, Old Age Pensions Authority; Member of the Keys Finance Committee, the Housing Committee, and the Standing Orders Committee of the House. Address : Carlton Terrace, Onchan.

OWEN, Edward Cunliffe, Rev., M.A. (Oxon.),

Principal of King William's College, Isle of Man, since June, 1913. B. at Oxford, February 5th, 1869. Educ. : at Haileybury College, and was a scholar of Pembroke College. From 1900 to 1912, headmaster of St. Peter's School, York ; he was also a Canon and Prebendary of York. Member of the Head Masters' Conference. Author of " The Plain Man's Creed " (Wells, Darton, Gardner & Co., 1912). Address : King William's College, Castletown.

PHILLIPS, Joseph, J.P.

First elected to School Board of Douglas in November, 1902. Became a member of the Higher Education Board of the Eastern District on its creation under Higher Education Act, 1907, and continued a Member of that Board and the School Board up to April, 1921, when the Boards were abolished under the Education Act, 1920. Chairman of School Board from 1914 until its extinction. Was elected a Member of the Isle of Man Central Education Authority on its establishment and was Chairman of the Authority for the years 1921 and 1922. Free Dinners Committee : for many years Chairman and Treasurer of this Committee, which provided Free Dinners to Poor Children from funds raised by voluntary subscription. Also Treasurer of Children's Boot and Clothing Fund for many years, and a Member of the Douglas Guardians. Address : Regent Street, Douglas.

PRESTON, George Corlett.

B. at Ballaugh, 1857. Forty years Headmaster of South Cape School in Laxey; a Fabian Socialist; one of the original Members of the Manx Reform League in 1903 ; elected as an Independent to the House of Keys for Garff Sheading 1922-24 ; in Friendly Society work and as Clerk to the Village Commissioners has had a long record of public service.

QUALTROUGH, Ambrose, M.H.K.

B. at Port St. Mary. Educated at Castletown Grammar School. An Independent Liberal. Been closely identified with the municipal life of Port Erin and was a member of the Village Commissioners for 15 years. A prominent figure in the question of public rights in the "brows" below Port Erin promenade; and next to the oldest member of the present House of Keys, being elected to that body 16½ years ago, and re-elected at every succeeding General Election. Describes himself as a free-lance Democrat ; the only member who claims he has fought and won his Keys elections at less than no financial cost to himself ; got into trouble during the war for asking a question over the 'phone from Government Office and refusing to disclose his informer, and was committed to prison for 14 days ; a vigorous supporter of Manx Reforms throughout his political life and a warm friend to those poorer than himself. Address : Ambrose Qualtrough, M.H.K., Port Erin.

QUALTROUGH, John James, T.C.

B. at Rushen 1861. A Member of Port St. Mary Commissioners for 26 years; Chairman several times; represented the Southern District on the Board of Advertising; been Chairman of the Isle of Man Municipal Association. A long and outstanding association with friendly society work in Rushen, and a delegate to the A.M.C. Oddfellows on several occasions.

QUALTROUGH, Joseph, M.L.C., J.P.,

Receiver-General of Isle of Man. B. Port St. Mary. Elected to the House of Keys as a Member for Rushen in 1897 ; re-elected at subsequent elections till December, 1919, when under the Reform Act he was chosen by the House as one of the first elected Members of thelnew Legislative Council. In the Keys he had been one of the most consistent Reformers throughout a period of twenty years. After his elevation to the Council was appointed by the Crown, on the recommendation of the Governor, as unpaid Receiver-General, which until then had been a salaried office and was condemned as such by the Reformers. In this position is ex-officio Chairman of the Isle of Man Harbour Board. He is also Chairman of the Fisheries Board, and Chairman of the Board of Guardians of Castletown. Was a Member of the Castletown School Board from 1892 till 1920, when School Boards were abolished in favour of the Central Education Authority. Address : Alexandra Road, Castletown.

QUALTROUGH, Joseph Davidson, M.H.K.

B. at Castletown, June i1th, 1885. Educ.: King William's College. Eldest son of Joseph Qualtrough, Receiver-General. Served in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps from 1915-1919 as Lieutenant. During his absence in the Army was elected in 1919 Member for Castletown, after a contest ; three months later was re-elected unopposed ; and in 1924, was again the only member to be returned without a, contest. Is a Liberal in politics ; was a member of the deputation sent by the Keys in 1920 to interview the Home Secretary as to more financial control, and is now Chairman of the Keys Finance Committee set up as a result of that interview. A Member of the Council of Education, the Board of Advertising, and a trustee of King William's College. Has played Rugby and Association Football. Recreations Golf, Yachting. Address : Alexandra Road, Castletown.

QUALTROUGH, Richard.

B. in Rushen, 1857. Just retired from the Board of Commissioners of Castletown after 19 years' service ; 6 years as Chairman ; served on Educational Boards for Castletown and the Southern Districts for 34 years, and is still in office as a Member of the Central Education Authority. For 16 years represented Castletown on the Isle of Man Board of Advertising.

QUAYLE, Edward Christian,

a Manx Artist in Water Colours. B. in Douglas, and has been responsible for a larger number of paintings of Manx scenes than any other artist, living or dead. Studied in Liverpool under the late John Finnie, and gained the Scholarship of the Lancashire County Council in December, 1891, and held same three years ; studied in South Kensington and the Slade School, University College, London ; exhibited in Liverpool and other galleries throughout England. He has also gained several awards at the I.O.M. Fine Arts and Industrial Guild. Address : Villiers Chambers, Douglas.

QUAYLE, John Edward.

B.Mus. and a Member of the Union of Graduates of Music of Great Britain. Born in Malew. Has specialised in Manx Folk Song. A pamphlet by him on " The Characteristics of Manx Folk Song " was published by the Celtic Union in 1922 ; he is also responsible for various works for orchestra. Is at present Chairman of the Local Committee of Trinity College, London, and Conductor of the Douglas Orchestral Society; also a Member of the Music Guild Committee. Address : 9 Queen's Terrace, Douglas.

QUILLIAM, John Thomas, J.P., M.H.K.

B. Glenmaye, in 1863 ; eight years a fisherman and A.B. ; joined the Isle of Man police force as a constable in 1887, became a sergeant in 1903, inspector 1905, and deputy Chief Constable in 1912, retiring from the force with that rank in 1921. Acting Chief Constable of the Isle of Man during the whole of the war period. Has taken a close interest in Oddfellows and other benevolent societies. On his retirement threw himself into public work. Peel Town Commissioners, 1921 ; President of Peel Advertising and Recreation Committee from 1922 ; trustee Manx Museum, as representative of Peel, 1922 ; Member of the Licensing Court, 1922 ; elected to the House of Keys at a bye-election in 1924-and re-elected at the General Election-as one of the Members for Glenfaba Sheading. A Member of the Old Age Pensions and Health Insurance Board. Made a J.P. in 1922. Address : Rose Cottage, Glenmaye, Patrick.

QUINE, John, Rev., M.A.

Educ : King William's College, where he won a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford; graduated M.A. Was Chaplain of the House of Keys over twenty years, and resigned in 1924. Vicar of Lonan. He has written what many people consider the best purely Manx novel called " The Captain of the Parish " (1897, Wm. Heineman) ; also in 1911 "The Isle of Man" in the Cambridge County Geography Series; is a Member of the Antiquarian Society and has lectured and contributed to scientific journals. Address The Vicarage, Lonan.

QUIRK, Richard Barton, M.L.C., J.P., C.P.

First entered the Legislature as a Member of the House of Keys for Glenfaba 1908 ; retired in 1910. Was appointed by the Governor as one of the nominated Members of the reformed Legislative Council, December, 1919, for eight years ; Captain of the Parish of Patrick; a Member of the Agricultural Board. Address : " Raby," Patrick.

RALFE, Pilcher George, M.B.O.U.

B. 1861, in Lezayre. An ex-President of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, and has been Treasurer of same since 1895. Has written many articles in journals and periodicals connected with the Natural History of the island ; published a recognised standard work on " Birds of the Isle of Man," and also another on " Edinburgh, 1905." Is a Manx Museum Trustee. Has been a Member of the Castletown Board of Guardians for 20 years, Treasurer of that body for 10 years, and served as Chairman of that body and of the District School Boards before their abolition. Address : Castletown.

ROBERTSON, Alexander.

B. at Douglas, 1864. . Educ. St. Thomas' Day School and King William's College. Has been Town Clerk of Douglas and Secretary to the Free Public Library for 27 years ; and for eight years previous to that was Deputy Town Clerk. Started his business life in the office of Richard (afterwards Deemster) Sherwood ; then for eight years in the Manx Bank. He has seen all the Members of the Town Commissioners and Town Council except one, and all the office staff except one, completely changed, some of the positions many times. Among the many other voluntary public services of Mr. Robertson are those of joint Secretary and Treasurer of the Ellan Vanuin Disaster Fund; a Member of.ithe Isle of Man Hospital Committee ; a Member of the Isle of Man War Pensions Committee ; a Member of the Manx Musical Festival Committee ; Secretary for 12 years of the Isle of Man Municipal Association. During the war he acted on the Appeal Tribunal and as Secretary or a Member of the Committee of various organisations, including the Soldiers and Sailors' Families Association, the War Emergency Relief Committee, the Ladies' Needlework Guild, the National Thanksgiving Fete Fund, &c., and since then the War Memorial Committee. Carnivals and jubilee and other celebrations have claimed and received his voluntary services. He has published many valuable reports on municipal enterprises connected with the town. Address : Town Hall, Douglas.

SARGEAUNT, Bertram Edward, M.V.O., O.B.E., F.S.A.,

Secretary and Treasurer to the Government of the Isle of Man; also Registrar-General of the Island, a Government property trustee and a trustee of the Manx Museum; B. Saltwood, Kent; son of the late Captain F. A. Sargeaunt, R.N., and nephew of the late Admiral of the Fleet, Lord Fisher of Kelverstone, G.C.B. ; married Kathleen Hamilton, elder daughter of the late Robert Thornewill, Esq., of Craythorne, Burton-on-Trent. Educ.: Bedford School. Assistant-Secretary of the Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall ; Assistant Curator of Royal United Service Museum ; late Captain, 12th London Regiment (T.A.). Appointed to present position in 1910, and is at present a Member of the Sodor and Man Diocesan Conference and of the Sodor and Man Diocesan Committee of the English Church Union. Publications: " Weapons " ; " The Royal Monmouthshire Militia " ; " The Isle of Man and the Great War," and numerous articles for journals and magazines, Sports : played Rugby Football in the first fifteen at School. Address : Government Office, Douglas.

SHIMMIN, Christopher Robert, M.H.K.

B. 1870, at Peel. Intended to follow local industry of sail-maker which, however, failing he sailed before the mast and later, in America, underwent experiences in his search for work which have influenced all his after-life. During the war he threw himself into the Constitutional Reform Movement in the Island and took a prominent part in the demonstration at Tynwald in 1916 ; later was sent as a delegate, along with Mr. S. Norris, and addressed the members of the Lancashire and Cheshire Liberal Federation, including many members of Parliament, on the necessity of Manx Reform and the appointment of a New Governor. Mr. Shimmin and his colleague on that occasion were lunched at the Manchester Reform Club. On the formation of the Manx Labour Party in 1917, he became an active member and is this year's President. Elected Member of the House of Keys for Peel in 1919 ; re-elected, 1924- Has written numerous Manx playettes-including comedies and tragedies-as follows 1912, " The Charm " ; 1913, " Illiam Kodhere's Will " ; 1913, " Luss ny Graih " ; 1914, " Dooinney Moyllee " ; 1915, " The Third Boat " ; 1919, " Club Day." He has also published a small book " Outlines from Manx History," 1916. Is this year's President of the Manx Society, a member of the Old Age Pensions and Fisheries Board, the Isle of Man Harbour Board, and of the Peel Poor Law Guardians. Address 23 Mona Street, Peel.

SOUTHWARD, William Charles, M.L.C., J.P., C.P.

Elected to the House of Keys for Ayre, 1913 ; re-elected 1919, and then appointed by the House as one of the first elected Members of the Legislative Council; Chairman of the Isle of Man Highway Board since January, 1920 ; Captain of the Parish of Lezayre. Address : " Milgwyn," Sulby.

TEARE, Daniel Joughin, M.H.K., C.P.,

son of a former Member of the House of Keys. B. November, 1873. Elected for Ayre, 1919 ; re-elected, 1924 ; Captain of the Parish of Bride. Has served four years as Chairman of the Parish Commissioners, and as a Member of the Poor Law Guardians, etc. Is a Member of the Highway Board and the Board of Agriculture. Address : St. Bridget's, The Vollan, Lezayre.

TEARE, Albert Hugh, M.H.K.

B. at Ramsey, 1877. Took a scholarship from the Wesleyan School to the Ramsey Grammar School, but started work at 12 years of age. After nine years in shipping, corn, timber, and agricultural trade offices, including one year in England, he became, in 1900, editor and proprietor of the " Ramsey Courier." Retired from that position in 1921. Became Member for Ramsey in 1918. N.C.O. in the Loyal Manx Volunteers, 1914-1918 ; Secretary, Ramsey Lifeboat Committee ; a Member of the Ramsey Hospital Committee; Chairman of the Ramsey Licensing Bench. Is a Director of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Co., " The Isle of Man Times," the Ramsey Gas Co. and` the Ramsey Water Co. On Boards of the Legislature is a Member of the Old Age Pensions Authority and Health Insurance, Asylums, and Advertising Committees. Publication : Author of a Manifesto in favour of " a Manx National Party and a cabinet system of Government in the Island," which appeared in the " Ramsey Courier," April, 1919. Address : Brookfield''. Ramsey.

TEARE, Alfred James, M.H.K., J.P.

b. at Barrow-in-Furness in 1879, of Manx parentage. Isle of Man Organising Secretary of the Workers' Union since March, 1917 ; Chairman of the Bread Strike Committee of 1918 ; appointed the first working-man justice of the Peace, 1919 ; elected to the House of Keys for South Douglas as a Labour Member at the 1919 General Election and returned again, 1924. A Member of the Douglas and District Licensing Court ; of the Isle of Man Advertising Board and of the Workmen's Hospital Committee. Vice-Chairman of the Advisory Committee to the Government on the Demobilization of Soldiers and the Labour Exchange from 1918 until its close. General Secretary of the Manx Labour Party which, in its present form, he was mainly responsible for organising. Has taken a keen interest in local Musical events, and been an active member of Athletic Clubs ; also was a member of the 7th Batt. King's Liverpool Regiment (I.o.M. Volunteers) from 1899 to 1902. Address : 6, Crosby Terrace, Douglas.

THORNTON-DUESBERY, Charles Leonard, M.A., D.D.,

Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. B. at Glen Helen, Isle of Man, 1867 ; son of the late Captain William Thornton-Duesbery, J.P., of Ballacosnahan, Patrick. Educ.: Victoria College, Douglas, and Dublin University. A lay reader in St. George's Church, Douglas; ordained in St. Paul's Cathedral ; licensed curate, St. George's in the East ; Vicar of St. Luke's, Barrow-in-Furness; Vicar of St. Peter's, Islington, London ; Vicar of Leyton ; Vicar, Holy Trinity, St. Marylebone ; Canon of Chelmsford ; Rural Dean of Leyton and Proctor in Convocation for London. Has taken active interest in Sunday School work and been Chairman of the Church of England Sunday School Institute : also been closely identified with various social movements. Published a pamphlet on Holy Communion in 1919. As a young man, was a member of the Douglas Rugby Football Club, and keen on fishing. Married, in 1896, Ethel Nixon, daughter of General Baumgartner, C.B., of Godmanchester, and has a son and a daughter. Appointed Bishop of Sodor and Man, November, 1924. Address : Bishopscourt, Kirk Michael.

WOOD,-Mary Louisa, A.R.C.O., L.T.C.M. (London)

B. in London; devoted a long lifetime to teaching music in the Isle of Man; founder of the Manx Musical Festival in 1892 ; has carried off numerous prizes and shields as conductor of Choral Societies from Peel, Castletown and Ramsey ; was formerly organist and choir-trainer at the Parish Churches at Peel and Braddan, and still holds the position of teacher of singing at the Eastern District Secondary School. Composed carols and hymn-tunes. Address : Albert Terrace, Douglas.

 


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