[From The Manx Quarterly, #23]
[the printing on my copy is not good and some corrections still needed to Manx - TBD]
The Traditional King of the Isle of Man.
[Contributed by G. W. Wood, A.K.C., Streatham.]
The following piece is taken from a booklet of 32 pages printed in Douglas about the year 1870. The booklet, which is now very scarce, contains also an old Manx carol by Wm. Kinrade, of Maughold, and a piece in English verse entitled " The Chione Prash : or the Brazen Head of Lewaigue." The " Co-loayrtys" is an amusing and ingenious composition, and it would appear worthy of being better known, especially to those who are interested in the Manx language. I have not been able to meet with a copy of the English original, if such ever appeared in print, so I offer a translation back again to the English. In this I have retained the Anglo-Manx form of expression as much as possible, which so well fits the subject and setting of the piece. It will be seen that the main feature of the conversation is intended to be a comparison of the conditions obtaining in the Island in the 19th century, with those which existed when Mannaaan held sway there. A few particulars concerning him may not be out of place here. Little Mannanan, son of the sea, as his name signifies (Lierr, Lir, or Lear being an old Gaelic word for the sea), belonged primarily to the Irish branch of Celtic mythology, though the had a counter-part in a modified form in Wales. According to a process of conversion from a mythical to a historical basis, he in due time became a mortal, and various accounts are given of him in old Irish' literature. His chid attributes lay in his knowledge of the weather, and his magical power over the air and sea. In his- capacity of navigator, -;he had continual' intercourse with the Isle of-Man which was 'looked upon by the Irish as' one of the enchanted islands to which their heroes might and did resort. He is supposed to have fled thither,: when the tribe he belonged to and led in Ireland was put to flight by later conquerors. On his arrival the was elected by the Manx as their King. The view has been hold that Mannanan was an eponymous hero,, and gave his name to the Island, but later writers on folklore are inclined to reverse the order of the christening, because our hero was originally known as Orbsen. Once settled in Man, Mannanan is represented as living in a fairy palace, and he figures in many stormy encounters with this adversaries, sometimes rolling on three legs like a wheel through the mist, at others being endued with a giant's strength and performing many prodigies. Tradition says that he was buried in Peel Islet, and that his dynasty lasted through four generations. His connection with the Isle of Man is described in the "Traditionary Ballad," printed by Train (vol. I, page 50), supposed, though without doubt, to have been written in the 16th Century. This relates how Mannanan protected the Island by his necromancy. "When he would see ships sailing he would cover it round with a fog, and would make a man standing on a hill appear - as if he were a hundred." It also describes the rent each landholder would pay in the form of a bundle of coarse meadow grass yearly each mid-summer eve, and the life of his people as being "without care, and without anxiety or hard labour to cause weariness." Such then was Mannanan, whose re-appearance on the earth after many centuries is the subject of Kelly's visionary sketch. The greater apart of the allusions in the " Co-loayrtys " are to matters easily recognizable, and I have indicated them in footnotes, but there are one or two which I am unable to identify, vie., the use of ropes with leaden weights at the Chasms, and the staking of the mountains with poles. 'These a friend suggests, may relate to the operations of the Ordnance Survey of the Island and the instruments used for levelling, etc., in connection therewith. Some of the old customs, legends, and sayings of the Island are cleverly interwoven, and the leading events of the day and many topographical details well brought out in this giver little sketch. It is to be regretted that we have no other work from the same pen- that of Thomas Kelly, of Peel. As regards the Manx translation, it would, perhaps, be presumptuous for ma to say it is also well done, seeing that it was by the Rev J. T. Clarke, the well-known Manx scholar, who, it will be remembered, was one of the compilers of the English-Manx dictionary of the Manx Society's series. It would be interesting to know if a printed English edition of the " Co-loayrtys" ever appeared, or, if not, whether. any copy exists of the original manuscript.
By Thomas Kelly, Bridge-street, Peel.
A Conversation between Mannanan beg Mac y Leirr, the three-legged King of the Isle of Man, and an old Manx woman on the top of Snaefell.
| YN CHENN VHN : Moghrey vie ort, Vannanan-vog-vac-y-Leirr,
ta yindys orrym dy veeteil rhyts ayns shoth. Ta mee er ve jeeaghyn er-dty-hon
er dy chooilley cheu son ymmodee bleeantyn fegooish caslys erbee jeed.
MANNANAN : O my ven ennoil ! te gerjaghey my chree dy veeteil rhyts, er-yn-oyr dy vel my heaghyn er ve w:heesh as my chaarjyn cha goaun ta red beg dy haggloo rhyts kcayrt elley, aa-vioghey my chree as te gym.myrkey lheid y voggey ayns my annym, as nagh vel mee er n'ennaghtyn sen ymmodee bleeantyn.
YN CHENN VEN: Cre ta dooghtys dty-heaghyn, O Vannanan-veg-vac-y-Leirr, as cre, woish to er jeet ?
MANNANAN: T'ou jannoo yindys dou dy vel oo briaght lheid ny feyshtyn jeem, my henn ven. Fys feer vie t'ayds er, dy vel mee er ve my ree, ayns Ellan Vannin, agh ayns oor neu-foayroil, as trooid croutys sleih joarree, va mee ceaut sheese veih'n beinntoor 'syrjey jeh ooashley as pooar dys yn voghtynid s'kercheenagh 'syn Ellan. As ere ta'n eiyrtys echey nish ? T'adsyn nagh vod ve er nyn soyllaghey rhyms ayns aght erbee eddyr ayns ynsagh, ny tushtey ny keeayal, jeeaghyn orrym ayns faghid as gymmyrkey ad hene hym rish roosteyr. Keayrt dy row v'adsyn va fo my reiltys cur arrym dou, as v'ad graihagh orrym. Hug ad lhieu hym dy chooilley blein kuse dy hraag lheannagh reeastagh er nonney leaghyr veih mullagh Varrool dys thie-chummal my ard er-oik ec cosh y chlieau. Eer coainey yn Ellan ain ve argid foalsey, mannagh row yn eilley hroor-chassagh er ny chlengey er ; agh nish, my henn ven ennoil, ta my eiyrit ersooyl veih ynnydyn vaghee dy bioee dy rouail er y traie rish oirr-ny-marrey ny er mullagh ny sleityn. Eler ny reggyryn veggey dy phingyn ta ry-gheddyn lesh my chowrey orroo t'ad ceaut ayns curneil myr argid foalsey. Yn ynrican red t'oc nish dy reayll seose cooinaghtyn jeh ny shenn traaghyn te skeayley kuse beg dy huinyn er mullagh Cronk Cheeilleoin.
YN CHENN VEN : C raad eisht ta'n chummal ayd nish?
MANNANAN : Son ymmodoe bleeantyn va mea cummal ayns guag vooar yn Vallaghyr, as va. mee paayrt dy cheayrtyn taaghey tholtanyn Cashtal Purt-yn-hinshey, agh va mee immanit roym lioroosyn va gra dy row mee yn " voddey doo." Fakin er-y-fa shen dy row vioys ayns gaue, hie moe roym dys spooyt vooar Glione Vaie. Ayns shen ghell ad rhym myr y Phynnodderee; shen-y-fa ren mee joan my choshey y hraa nol sleih Ghordan as Glione Vaie, as roym lhiam jeeragh trooid Glione reagh Rushen ghow mee aaght fei-yerrey ayns ny Scauryn ec Cregneish. Agh, cre bheeu shen? Ta ny joarreeyn shoh t'er jeet ny vud ain cha steetagh as cha lane dy pheeikearys, dy daink ad lesh trimmidyn vooarey leoaie kainlt dys teddyn liauyrey, gimman y tedd ayns scoltaghyn ny creggey as leaystaney eh veih cheu dy heu feiyral as jannoo tharmane, dy dagglee ad mee as roie mee roym dys Langness ec Runnysfie; agh eer ayns shen cha voddey duirree mee, son er-yn-oyr nagh row thie-lossan lhuingys dy hauail bioys shiaulteyryn voghtey, va my chree bunnys brisht cheusthieo jecem ec fakin wheesh dy chragh jeant jeh lhongyn brisht ayns peeshyn mynney, er y creggyn, as ec geaishtagh rish eamyn atchimagh shiaulteyryn voghtey baih. fegooish cooney dy hauail ad. Cha voddagh ennaghtyn my chree shassoo oh vog sodjey, as hie mee roym dys ny sleityn jiass as twoaie, yn daa Varrool, Cronk yn Irree Laa, Sniaul, Slieau Whallian as sleityn elley yn Ellan nagh row foddey voish y traie, raad va mee dy kinjagh faarkey. Agh va'n shee aym reesht er ny vrishey 'sy chlieau. Chreek ad ny sleityn voghtey voym as voish y theay. Chouds daag ad yn reiltys aynns, va wheesh ec y theay dy ghra rish ny sleityn as v'oc dys yn aer er-nyn-skynas ny ushtaghyn mygeayrt-y-moo. Aght nish ooilley'n raad veih Kione Ghoolish dys Kione Vaughold as harrish ooilley sleityn Vannin t'ad er staikey ad lesh maidjaghyn vooarey goll-rish greie-vuiltee as t'ad er chur ennym vooar Vaarlagh er ny staikyn, nagh vel u.ss as mish, my henn chumraag, toiggal feer vie, er-yn-oyr dy re Gailck chengey ny-mayrey ain, as cha mooar lhian yn Vaarle oc. Ta ennym ny staikyn er ny sleityn va cliaghtey ve Ihian hene red ennagh goll-rish Abernethies , lhig dou ve kicrt ny dyn. Agh s'yindyssagh yn red oh, Ven! (marish dy chooilley nhee olley t'ad er n'yannoo) ec Purt Chiarn er slyst ny mcrrey my 'hearr je'h'n Ellan ain, t'ad er n'oanluckey 'syn ushtey ny keeadyn as ny thousaneyn thunney jeh creggyn ny Howe 'sy vaie, as er vhilley yn phurt veg, v'ayn roie va cliaghtey ve boayl dy hauchys veih'n Cholloo dys Kione ny Bayrey.
YN CHENN VEN: Agh Vannanan voght, c'raad ta dty chummal nish ?
MANNANAN : Ta mee nish cummal ayns unnane j~eh ny glionteenyn ~s'bwaaic 'syn Ellan ain, ta shen dy ghrc Glione Vallure cc Rumsaa, agh ta aggle orrym cor ayns shen, nagh beo my hoe as my vaynrys foddey beayn, son y gherrit shoh ta mee er ohlash.tyn yllagh as eam feer neu-ghooghyssagh, gra " C'raad t'ou Adam (Adaue) ?" Heill Moe hashiaght ooilley dy row ny eamyn hrsih shoh cheet voish fer ta abyl loayrt ass y volg, son haink y chora.a ec oaghlaaghyn oheayrt voish dagh skcerey runt my gecyrt. Eisht laa dy row vrie moe jeh forish va. mee ainjys-sagh urree, as dinsh ee dou dy row ny coraaghyn va mee er chlashtyn cheet voish credjuagh dy row ta soilshaghey magh yn aigney echey paart dy cheayrtyn da'n theay, as .goaill aggle dy voddagh paart dy leih smooinaghtyn dy row yn kynney echey lteayrt ny keayrt ennagh er jeet neose veih buggane vooar Gob ny Senit, t'eh baarail yn chooid smoo jeh'n traa echey ayns arganey rish y sleih, as gen-naghtyn feer imneagh dy jivnagh yn chied ghooinney va hashiaght er ny chroo reesht cheet er-aagh, as cur e EEney da dy chur dy lhiattee dy ehoo'dley vee-ourys dy row moo.injerys ed'dyr eli he.ne as y buggane (buggane vooar Gob ny Scuit) v'eh dy kinjagli gyilagh 'syn egin hroih echey, "C'raad t'ou Adam?" Ga-reih d,a'n choontey shoh cur-rit doays ec yn ferish jeh ny eamyn hreih va mee clashtyn va yn irriney ny dyn, fys feer vie t'aym pene nagh voddym shassoo eh monney sodjey.
YN CHENN VEN: Ny lhag-haghyrtyn hreih shoh Ver duittym orts, O Vrnnanan volgllt my Chree, Vad er ve kyndagh rish mellid dty reiltys ayns dty reeriaght. Dy lreagh oo ayns dty reiltys er c.hionney yn eiystyr ayd red beg smoo, as " er chur crnlsuin er y vooa vreddagh" cha row yn arlcys shoh er verraghtyn orrin clua ta,ppoo, snn ta serghyn as anguish er jeet orryms chammah as omt liene.
MANNANAN: Ayns dy oliooilley arrymid dys dty vriwnys, my heshey vie, ta mee aarloo dy yannoo magh .nagh vel reiltys embeo er ve ayns hlannin dy ve er ny hoylaghey rish yn ghurneillys aym pene. Avns laghyn yn reiltys aym's, va'n sleih beaghey ayns shee as mrynrys. Cha row ad fe cheeshyn myr Vad nish. Cta row carriads erbee ormoo agh red beg sen ny raa.idyn vooarey. Cha row meshtallee ny mast' oc, as er-y-fa ahon, cha row ymmyd erbee 'syn Ellrn aym sen plaase vooar aalin son sloih cheoie.
Yn chuilleig-hashtee va follym jeh'n chostrayl
Agh nigh ta, 1loght as kercheonys oh lhieeney nyn straidyn. agh cre'n seaghyn t'er jeeh orts, my hern ven?
YN CHENN VEN: Ta'n seagkyn aym's ny smoo na oddys chengey fockley magh. Gull-rhyt hene ta nee er ve ecbrit ersooyl as currit ass cheer. Bon ymmodee bleeantyn hooar moe a aght-his 'syn Niasbyl as Lhagg Vooar Eelby. Deiyr ny noidyn nee ass stien dys Ronnag, rand hooar moe ymmyrkey-bea, ny cumsnaltee ecliey mhillit ec drogh yantee. Hie mee eisht dys Feieferd nagh row monney share, as veih shen dys ny Chickenyn ; tesekt hooar ad magh moe syns shen as deiyr ad roym meo, as nish son y oheayrt s'jerree ta nee er jeet dys sleityn yle ahenn Ellan villish ein dy ghoaill yn ahvlley s'jerree jec masish slystyn ny marger dy, gholl roym ass y cheer,san dy bragh dys Cleveland syns America, vier graih dou as ghowys chymmey jeem, son t'ad loayrt ny ghlare sym pene as cummal woes ee dy ohooilley lea.
MANNANAN: My henn ven voght, son sym pene ta'n ven. sym bunnys roit, agh my hig use royd nee ymmodee gosnaghey er y choontey syd.
YN CHENN VEN: Ta nee credjal dy vel shiartanse 'syn Ellan foast nee gonnaaghtyn son sym, lheid as pesson Cheeill Chairbre, pesson Cheeill Vraddan, Cheeill Ohonnaghyn, Cheeill Lonan as Cheeill Vreeshey marish ymmodee sleih by yiam ashy Eoia,e, tier ve susen dy ahur Ihieu nee dys yn stayd va nee kenyrt syn. Agh ere sheen stien ? Royin biggym ny-yeih, as vergin llhiam marym enmyra Aspick Wilson as Mark Iïildesley as ooilley ny shenn saggyrtyn ren ehyndaa goo Yee syns Qailok, ypi ahenn glil~ gihraihagh sym pene as ooilley adsyn er-dy-henney tier st~u dy reayll souse ee, as bee ad caarjyn Vann nagh my three.
MANNANAN::. Ny ahenn tsaaghyn rGi,ah nigh va ny traaghyn ghloyroil. .
YN CHENN VEN: V'ad Ty traaghyn ghloyroil, agh ga dy row ny saragbyn as ny leighaghyn ayds eyr aggle da -Årogh ohbraghyn (Rom. xiii, 3), foast cha row bree erbee ayndoo fegooish ve loayrit ayns my ennym's. Ren mish arganey woishyn yn chloan gyn ayr as ny mraane-hreoghe lesh yn fla.oilid s'breeoil, as er ~stoyl ny mriwnys raad hoie moe dy kinjagh dy reaghey cooishyn y theay, lbiann mee dy kinjagh er aheu graiih as spyrryd dy ghiastyllys, ahamoo dy hurr moe da fea~nish erbee dy ve er ny Eassey liorish leighderys chamlaagagh, as croutyn cham-chroutagh. Cronney ny oolee ren m-ee fockley magh ayna goam feer arrymagh. Yn keesll ren moe dy kinjagh y hoaghey as hie moe marish slenh chrauee dys padjer as arraneyn-voyllee dys y Chiarn as ren ny sharmaneyn aym sinkeil dy dowin ayns craeaghyn y phobbile. Rio moe myrgeddin marish ny deiney aegey dy yeeaghyn san mraame-heshee as tra v'ad er reih ad, hio mee maroo dys y phoosey. Liorish yn choyrle aym ren ad eumnial cooidjagh ayns shee as gerjagh, agh, ah ,treih, ta ny laghyn eunyssagh shen ersooyl son dy bragh.
MANNANAN BEG -MAC-Y-LEIRR : Voish yn taggloo ayd's, my henn ven Ghailckagh, ta mee cur-my-ner dy vel yn seaghyn as yn voire ain er ve cho-laik ; s'yindyssagh ny caghlaaghyn ta. jeant 'syn E+ llan ain chammah ayns ny ckaghtaghyn ain nyn leighaghyn as ymmyrkey nyn moe. Ta ny sloityn ain er ve creckit, ta shsn ooilley fe cheesh, ta ny thousaneyn jeh [puntyn] cheet stiagh yn Ellan ain oanluckit 'sy cheayn, ta cayshyn er jeet ny vud ain t'er chur-mow ellyn mie, lheid as oanraghyn charkyllit, bonnadyn fegeEsh eooyl ny mullagh as rollaghyn gheaysteenagh cast dy cheilley soit cooyl ching ny mraane ain klart goll-rish ruckyn-hraagh.
Agh ta'n cho-loayrtys dy tappee tayrn er-gerroy, as er my, leggaghyn hroor-chassagh shogin dou troailt as goaill aaght ayns Glione aalin Vallure. Shon-y-fa oie vie dy row lhiat as my vannaght ort dy brå, O my henn ven.
| THE OLD WOMAN: Good morning to thee, Mannanan beg Mac y
Leirr, I wonder at meeting thee here. I have been looking for thee everywhere
for many years without any sign of thee.
MANNANAN : O, my dear woman. It rejoices my heart to meet thee, because my sorrows have been so many, and my friends so few, that a little talk to thee once move revives my heart and raises such joy in my soul as I have not felt for many years.
THE OLD WOMAN: What is the nature of thy sorrow, O Mannanan beg Mac y Leirr, and whence has it come?
MANNANAN : Thou surprisest me that thou dost ask the question of me, old woman. Thou knowest very well that I have been a King in the Isle of Man, but in an unlucky hour, and through the craftiness of strangers, I was cast down from the highest pinnacle of fame and power to the most abject poverty in the Island, and what are its consequences now ? Those who cannot be compared with me in any way, either in learning or knowledge or wisdom, look at me with contempt and bear themselves towards me as to a robber. Once those who wore under my sway obeyed me and loved me. They brought me every year a small quantity of coarse meadow hay, or else rank grass from the top of Barrule to the dwelling-house of my chief officer at the foot of the mountain (a). Even the coin of our Island was spurious except the three-legged arms were stamped on it (b) ; but now, my dear old woman, am driven away from the dwelling-place of the living to wander on the sea-shoe or on the tops of the mountains (c). Eve the vary few pence that remain which are found with my token on them are thrown in a corner as bad money. The only thing they have now to keep up the memory of old times is the spreading a small quantity of rushes on the top of Tynwald (d).
THE OLD WOMAN: Where, then, is thy dwelling now?
MANNANAN : For many years I n:i dwelling in the great cave of Ballagyr and sometimes I lodged do the ruins of Peel Castle, but I was driven away by those who were saying I was the " modde dhoo" (e). Seeing, therefore, that my life was in danger, I went to the waterfall of Glen Maye. There they treated as the Phynnodderee; therefore I shook the dust of my feet against the people of Gordon and Glen Maye, and passing right through the merry vale of Rushen I took shelter at last in the Chasms at Cregneish. But what is the use? The strangers have come among us so sneakingly and so full of inquisitiveness that they came with great leaden weights tied to long ropes, lowering the rope in clefts of the rocks and swinging it from side to side, sounding and banging (f). that they frightened me, and I ran to Langness at Ronaldsway; but even then I could not remain, because there was a light-house (1).to save the life of poor sailors my heart was almost broken within me seeing so many wrecks of ships broken in small pieces on the rocks and at hearing the awful cries of poor sailors drowning without help to save them. The feeling of my heart could not stand it any longer and I went to the mountains south and north, the two Barrules, Cronk yn Irr Laa, Snaefell, Slieu Whallian, and other mountains of the Island, which were no far from the shore where I was constantly bathing. But my peace was again broke in the mountains. They sold the poor mountains from me and from the public (g). Whilst they left me the rule, the people had as much to say in the matter of the mountains as in that of the air above them and the waters round about them. But now all the way from Douglas Head to Maughold Head, and over all the mountains of Man, they have staked them with great staves like sheep-poles (h), and they have given a big English name to the stakes, which thou and I my old comrade, do not understand very well, because Manks is our mother tongue, and we have not much liking for their English. The name of the stakes on the mountain used to be with us something like Abernethies (i), let me be right or wrong. But what a wonderful thing it is, woman (with everything else they have done) at Port Erin on the coast of our Island, they have buried in the water hundreds and thousands of tons of the rocks of the Howe in the bay (k), and spoilt the little port that formerly was the accustomed place of safety from the Calf to the Point of Ayre.
THE OLD WOMAN: But poor Mannanan where is thy dwelling now?
MANNANAN : I am dwelling now in one of the prettiest glens in our Island, that is to say, Ballure Glen it Ramsey, but I am afraid even there my peace and happiness will not last long, for quite lately I have heard a very unnatural shout and cry saying, " Where art thou Adam ? " I imag-road first of all that these doleful cries came from a ventriloquist, for his voice came at different times from each district round about. Then one day I asked a fairy I knew, and she told me that the voices I had heard came from a believer who revealed his mind sometimes to the people, and, fearing that someone might think his kindred at some time or other had descended from the Great Buggane of Gob-ny-Scuit (l), he spends the greater part of his time in arguing with the people and feeling very anxious that the first man who was created should again appear and help him to dispel all misgivings that there was a relationship between himself and the Buggane (the Great Buggane of Gob-ny,-Scuit) he is continually calling in his mournful strain : . "Where art thou' Adam ?" Whether this account given me by the Fairy, of the mournful cries which I heard was true or not, I know very well that I cannot stand it much longer.
THE OLD WOMAN : These wretched mischances that have befallen thee, O po Mannanan-my-Chree, have been because of the slackness of thy rule in thy Kingdom; If thou had'st in thy rule tightened thy halter a little more, and " put a tie on the sportive cow " (m), this certainly would not have overtaken us so soon, for trouble and anguish have come on me as well as on thyself.
MANNANAN : With all submission to thy judgment, my good companion, I am ready to assert that there has been no rule in Man to be compared with my own Government. In the days of my rule, the people lived in peace and happiness. They were not under the taxes as they are now. They had no highway labour, except a very little for the main roads. Drunkards were not amongst them, and, therefore, theme was no need in our Island for a fine big palace for insane people (2).. The cupboard was empty of bottles, for the use either of the for insane people.
The cupboard was empty of bottles
But now crime and poverty have filled our streets; but what trouble has come to thee my old woman?
THE OLD WOMAN: My sorrow is greater than tongue can tell. Like thyself I have been. banished and driven out of the country. For many years I got lodging in the Niarbyl and the great glen of Dalby. My enemies drove me out of that to Ronnag, Where I found the manner of living of its inhabitants spoiled by evildoers. I then went to Fistard (n), which was not much better, and from there to the Chickens; again they. found me these, and drove me away, and now for the last time I have come to the mountains of our sweet old Island, to take a last ;sight of her with her seacoasts, before going out of the country for ever, to Cleveland in America (o) where they love me and take compassion on me, far they speak my own language,. and keep it up every day.
MANNANAN : My poor old woman, for myself my life is almost run, but if talon wilt go, many will grieve on thy account.
THE OLD WOMAN: I believe there are some in the Island yet who will feel for me, such as the parson of Kirk Arbory, the parsons of Kirk Braddan, Kirk Onchan, Kirk Lonan, end Kirk Bride, (p) with many people south and north who have been striving to restore me to the state I was once in. But what is the use! I will go, notwithstanding, and will take with me the names of Bishops Wilson and Mark Hildesley (q), and all the old parsons who translated the word of God into Manx, my own old language, and all those who have been striving since to keep it up, and they will be the Manx. friends of my heart.
MANNANAN : The old times past were splendid times:
THE OLD WOMAN: They were indeed splendid, times, but although our statutes and laws were a cause of terror to evil works (Rom. xln, 3), yet there was no virtue in them unless spoken in my name. I argued the cause of the fatherless children and widows with the most powerful fluency,, and in the judgment seat where I constantly sat to decide the causes of the people, I cleaved always to the side of love and spirit of charity, neither did I suffer any witness to be perverted by crafty advocacy and crooked tricks. The guilt of the criminal I announced in very solemn words. The Church I constantly attended, and went with pious people to prayer and praise to the Lord, and my sermons sank deep in the hearts of the people. I went also with the young men to seek their wives, and when they had chosen them, I went with them to the wedding. By my advice they dwelt together in peace and comfort, but, alas! those happy days are gone for ever.
MANNANAN BFG MAC Y-LEIRR : From thy talk my old Manx woman, I behold our sorrow and trouble have been much alike, how wonderful the changes which are made in our Island, both in customs, our laws, and manner of living. Our mountains have been sold, we are all under tax-ation, thousands (of pounds) coming into our Island are buried in the sea, fashions which have come amongst us have destroyed good manners, ,such things as crinolines, bonnets without back or top, and rolls of hair twisted together set at the back of the heads of our women just like hay-risks (r). But the conversation has quickly come to an end, and on my three-legs I must go my way, and take up my abode in the beautiful Glen of Ballure. Therefore, good-night to thee, and my blessing on thee for ever, O my old woman.
(a) Old traditionary Manx custom on Mid summer Eve of paying
rent to Mannanan. See ballad in Train, Vol. 1, p. 50.
(b) All Manx coinage. except tokens bore the 3 legs from 1709 until 1839.
(c) Old raying "The thief has the mountain and shore to live on."
(d) Still part of the ceremony on Tynwald day
(e) Old Peel Castle legend.
(f) Obscure, but possibly a reference to the operations of the Ordnance Survey.
(g) In 1860 some Common Lands were sold to defray the cost of forming mountain roads.
(h) Meaning of original uncertain, but see Manx Society, v. xvi, p. 127.
(i) Probably derived from name of Engineer (Abernethy) who constructed Douglas Breakwater in 1862.
(k) Port Erin Breakwater. Begun in. 1864.
(1) A, place in Maughold (referred to by Kennish in "Mona's Isle," p. 14) where there is a cavern formerly supposed to be the haunt of a buggane from the wailing noises which came from it; found after to be due to the wind blowing through a hole in the rock.
(m) An old Manx saying.
(n) At Fistard a buggane was reported in the form of a black cat which grew like a big black bull in a. few minutes. "Manx Notes and Queries," p. 11.
(o) There is still a large Manx colony in Cleveland and Manx may yet be heard spoken there.
(p) (l )J Qualtrough. (2) W. Drury (3) J. Howard (4) T. Caine, (5) D Nelson.
(q) The Bible and Prayer Book were translated mainly through the influence of these two bishops. ,
(r) Chignons of 60 years ago.
addtional notes fpc
(1) Lighthouse at Langness - not built until 1880 so reference
a little obscure
(2) Ballamona Hospital