UPON the solicitation of William Harrison, Esq. of Rock Mount, I have been induced to undertake the preparation of the accompanying paper for publication by the Manx Society. I do this the more cheerfully, as I consider that he has been very much overworked; and I trust that my effort, feeble though it be, on the present occasion, may induce other Members of our Society to come forward and assist in relieving him from the pressure of work which is cast upon him. I have not the slightest hesitation in expressing my belief that had he not worked so laboriously, heartily, and diligently, as he has done, the Society would, ere this, have been a thing of the past,- an Institution whose career had been run -and I cannot avoid making the statement that an unnecessary share of labour in our behalf has devolved on him.

In this my first - and probably my final-attempt in behalf of my fellow Members, I must appeal to their generous indulgence and kindly consideration for any shortcomings or omissions of which I may be guilty, and I venture to hope that what I have to lay before my Manx readers - if it be not to others, may prove to be to them acceptable at least, if not even interesting; money in any form being usually a subject of much interest to most people.

The extracts with which this paper concludes should, properly speaking, have been introduced into Dr. Clay's work on " Manx Currency "--Vol. XVII. of the Society's Publications. Unfortunately, however, the manuscript from which I have obtained them, was not discovered until after-though not long after-the publication of that volume, and I trust that, in the circumstances, I need not to offer any apology for producing them in a detached form. I trust also that the remarks which I shall make as a preface to them, may prove to be of interest to some of those-my fellow-countrymen in particular-who may consider this paper worthy of their perusal.

Through the kindness of the Seneschal, Ridgway Harrison, Esq., Receiver-General, etc., who discovered the manuscript among. the Manorial Records of this Isle, I have been enabled to take a copy of such parts of the original as I required. He, knowing that I take a lively interest in Manx numismatics, kindly informed me of the discovery, and showed me the manuscript, which consists of sixty-four folio pages, and these have for their protection a brown paper cover only. I must, however, in justice say that the document has been well-cared for, and that it is in a good state of preservation. The first twenty-six leaves, commencing at the back of the first leaf, and ending with the front of the twenty-sixth, are paged regularly from one to fifty; then follow two unpaged pages, upon which the names of workmen and days of the week alone are given. These pages are otherwise blank, showing that the coinage was then completed. These leaves contain -what I may term-the daybook of the workmen employed in executing the coinage of 1733. I have not thought it to be necessary to transcribe for publication this part of the original entire, as it is much alike throughout the whole of its contents. I have therefore selected the first, the fiftieth,' and two intermediate pages-twenty-nine and thirty only. These, I consider, to be quite sufficient to give a general idea of the contents, and to enable my readers to form a fair estimate of the remainder of them. I have, however, on the other hand, considered it to be advisable to give the latter part-which is not paged-of the manuscript entire, and I do so the more readily as it consists of a few leaves only. I have omitted to state that there are four pages entirely blank between the former and latter part of the book. It may be as well to make the remark here that the contents of the last named leaves, as well as pages one, twenty-nine, thirty, and fifty, are copied verbatim et literatim, as the spelling of some of the words is very peculiar; so peculiar in fact, that the scribe wrote the same word, probably on the same day, in two different ways. This is, it must be admitted, a way of doing, business very convenient for an uneducated person; but I should have thought, had I not proof to the contrary, that the secretary or clerk-or by whatever title he may have been known, of the Isle of Man mint, would be a person of sufficient education to spell his words in a better fashion.

It has been doubted by many persons that the Isle of Man was-under the Stanleys - an independent kingdom. The grant of the island, made by Henry the Fourth, A.D. 1406, stipulated that Sir John Stanley, his heirs and successors, should present a cast of Falcons at the Coronations of the future Sovereigns of England, " in lieu of all demands, customs, etc., whatsoever." Thus-the presentation of Falcons-may be " a peg " for such persons " to hang their hats on;" but surely a country which issued its own coinage, bearing the arms of its sovereign, struck within its own territory-though it were nothing more than " brass money," and this under its Act of Tynwald, independently of any higher authority-the royal assent to such Act having been given by James, Seventh Earl of Derby, " the blessed martyr," who was at the time of its issue, 1733, Lord, or in other words, King of Man-has some claim to be considered at least quasi independent.1 May I ask if any colony of the British Crown struck and issued at this period of British history a coinage of its own ? Even admitting such to be the case, I would further ask whether such coinage was struck and issued without the consent of the paramount power-that is, of the Government of Great Britain. I am fully aware that some of the British settlements in North America, viz. Massachusetts and Maryland, struck coins, the former in 1652 and 1662, and the latter in 1660. The Somers Islands also, now called the Bermudas, had brass money about 1612. But the question is, whether these coins were struck without the consent of the mother country? And have we not a further proof of the independence of this ancient kingdom in the fact that the Stanleys held in their hands the issue of life and death, as far as regarded felons convicted of capital crimes. "Illiam Dhone," whom Charles the Second attempted in vain to pardon, may, I think, be considered as a sufficient illustration of this proposition.

In the " Money Market and City Intelligence " of The Times of December 18, 1876, which I am now reading, I find that the Khedive of Egypt is styled an Independent Prince The Times should be an authority on such a subject. Surely if the Prince of Egypt is independent of the Sultan of Turkey, the Earls of Derby, as Lords of Man, were independent of the Sovereigns of England; and if the Lords of Man were independent, most assuredly the Manx, as a nation, were so likewise.

The Church in Man is, moreover, a branch of the Catholic Church, separate from the Church in England. Our ecclesiastical laws are not altogether the same as hers. The Church here was no doubt at one time under the See of Canterbury, and is under the See of York; but probably this arrangement of the Church in Man being subject to an English Archbishop, was originally the act of a Foreign Potentate-a Pope-who interfered not with the civil power, but let it remain in the hands of the King. May I ask whether a country, being spiritually under the influence of the Pope, is to be adduced as a sign of its not being an independent power? If this be conceded, I would further enquire whether England was not an independent kingdom up to the period of the Reformation.

We, the inhabitants of this Isle, are not, however, so fortunate in respect to the government by the civil power, as our ancestors under the Stanleys were. The legislature of this Island, with the approbation of the Lord or King of Man, made all the laws by which its inhabitants were governed. Now, however, and for some time past, it would appear that our own legislature is inefficient for the purpose of our legislation. We have been, and still are, governed by a dual legislature. What necessity exists for this double process being adopted I am at a loss to understand, and by what right the Parliament of Great Britain claims to legislate for our internal government I know not. The Crown purchased the rights of the Lord of Man only, and as the Lord could not legislate without the consent of the Council, Deemsters, and Keys, the British Parliament has no more right to do so than he had. It has neither a legal nor a moral right to do so; and I may further state that, when it has done so, as has been the case from time to time, I believe all such Acts to be unlawful, and that they should be null and void. The Crown surely cannot set up a claim to more than it purchased! The error committed by this process of double legislation arises, beyond all doubt, from ignorance, and from British statesmen not being conversant with our peculiar constitution.

Persons in authority should act not only in the spirit but within the letter of the law. The higher the authority the the more incumbent, I conceive it to be, that it should thus act. I grant that of late a more just spirit has been exhibited by the British Government towards the people of this island as regards this matter; but my contention is that in no case had nor has the British Parliament any right to introduce into any of its Acts, provisions affecting the internal interests of this island, without the consent of our own legislature being first obtained. If this course had been invariably pursued in such legislation, as it ought in justice to have been, we should have escaped much inconvenience, not to say annoyance. Might is, beyond all doubt, a great force in nature; yet, nevertheless, in these days it is expected that right shall be respected in all civilised communities.

I have yet to learn that the Manx nation are so ill-conducted as to require the Parliaments of two countries to establish and keep order among them, and to harass them by excessive legislation, or by the dread of it, which is almost as annoying. On the contrary, I believe that there are not a more loyal and well conducted people on the face of the globe. This island has a history of its own by no means contemptible. It has not disgraced itself in the past; and we may rest assured that, as it will become better known, and appreciated as it ought to be, it may look forward, if it be wisely governed, to a prosperous future, and--small though it be-I look upon it as one of the brightest jewels in our Sovereign's Crown.

Now to return to the subject more immediately under consideration, viz. the coinage of the Isle of Man pence and halfpence of 1733-the second coinage issued by the Earls of Derby. Of the first such coinage I am sorry to say that, as far as consists with my knowledge, we have no record beyond what is mentioned in the Act of Tynwald authorising its issue. This coinage, bearing the date 1709, was probably cast in England; as I find, by referring to the Act, which was " proclaimed and published in due forme of law," on October 20, 1710, that " our honourable Lord," at " the generall request and desire," " sent over a considerable quantity of copper pence and halfpence." Of the second such coinage we have fortunately the original, and to me very interesting, record still in existence. The Act authorising its circulation within this Isle was promulgated on June 25, 1733. The amount of this coinage consisted, according to the last mentioned Act of Tynwald, of " three hundred pounds in copper pence, and two hundred pounds in copper halfpence."

Curiously enough, though we have in the latter case positive proof to the contrary, the same words " hath sent over," are used in both Acts. In the Act of 1710 the words are, " and forasmuch as his Lordship hath been graciously pleased to comply with the said request, and hath sent over a considerable quantity of copper pence and halfpence." In the Act of 1733, the words are exactly similar, with the exception that the amount sent over was-as before, stated " three hundred pounds in copper pence and two hundred pounds in copper halfpence." How can the words " sent over," used in the Act of Tynwald with respect to the coinage of 1733, be, by any possibility, reconciled with the " Book of Disbursements on the Coynage of new pence and halfpence, anno 1733" ? I confess that I cannot see my way out of this difficulty by any means other than by supposing that the pence and halfpence which were sent over were what are styled, in the item of July 8, 1733, blank pence. In this item a charge is made for the freight of 11 casks of such pence, and is as follows: "July 8th, Pad to Mr. Garner for fraugrht of "Cask of Blank pence," etc.; or by supposing that people and customs do not, in some respects, change much, and that legislators can make mistakes, as it was, is now, and very likely shall continue to be, so long as human nature shall retain its present feeble and imperfect form. Having the evidence of the " Book of Disbursments " to rely upon, I cannot believe the wording of the Act of Tynwald to be correct. How the error has arisen in the Act is not for me further to explain, and I shall leave it to those who may not be satisfied by the above endeavours of an explanation, and who may be more competent than I, to settle this question. Of one thing, however, I feel convinced, and that is, that the Derby pence and halfpence of 1733 were struck in the Isle of Man, and consequently they could not have been sent over; and I am by no means satisfied that the coinage of 1709 was not cast in this island. I have certainly heard a tradition, to the effect that there were coins made, I do not know whether cast or struck, at Ballasalla. The great majority of persons not being able to discriminate the difference between a cast and a struck coin, may account for the tradition being. incomplete as regards this matter.

The coinage of 1733, may, with propriety, I think, be called " Brass Money." My maternal grandfather having, on more than one occasion, informed me that his grandfather told him that he remembered brass guns on the top of Castle Rushen, and that these guns were removed thence, and were used for the purpose of this coinage.

The question now arises, where was this coinage executed was there a mint in this island ? To the latter question, which I shall answer first, I give the reply that there was; and, from all that I can learn, I believe that it stood on the ground at present occupied by the Castletown branch of the Bank of Mona. At all events, the old house which was in existence upon that site about forty years back, went by the name of The Mint." This house was pulled down by the late Mr. Jefferson of Ballahot, Malew, who purchased the site from the Crown, and erected upon it the existing building, which was for many years after its erection occupied by the Messrs. Cubbon, who carried on there the business of drapers.

I think also that we have sufficient evidence in the Book of Disbursments," in item dated March 3, 1733, that the coinage was executed in or near Castletown. This item, which is as follows, is probably misplaced, as it comes in a long way after that of March 26,

"Mar. 3, Pa" Ambrose Place for fetching mettle from Peele sand from Douglas and Clay for the furnas," etc.

The above shows conclusively that the mint was not in Douglas, neither was it in Peel.

The item, dated March 8, 1733, runs thus.-

" Mar. 8th, Pad to M'- W' Jackson for Twenty-two Tun of Coales, Deliv'l into the Castle for the use of Coyning,", etc.

This item establishes the fact that, as there were two castles one-Rushen Castle and Peel Castle-on the island, the coinage must have been executed if not in, at all events not far distant from one of them. I have already disposed of the claim of Peel being the seat of the mint, and I must therefore give the honour, if honour it be, to Castletown which, as being the capital of the island, and also containing the residence of James, then Earl of Derby, was-devoid of any other consideration whatever-most likely to contain the Royal Mint of the Isle of Man. -

To the former question I think that there can be but one reply. The presence of the "Book of Disbursments," etc., in the Seneschal's office, would be in itself pretty conclusive; but when we come to examine the contents of this manuscript, all uncertainty, if any previously existed on this subject, must vanish. By referring to item, dated March 26, we find the following.--" Pad Mr. Garner for Mr. Topping and Mr. Dyall, their Chests and other Instruments for Coyning, from Liverpoole to Isle of Man, as passingers, as p. Rect.-What kind of " instruments for coyning " their " chests " were, I shall not stop to enquire. I shall leave this to those who may be curious in such matters. Here we have, however, the plain statement that certain persons came and brought their " instruments for coyning " from Liverpool to the Isle of Man.



Christmas 1876.

NOTE-I have six or seven various types of this coinage, from which fact I come to the conclusion that several dies were used.

NOTE,-The smelt-house was, in my younger days-and may still be, for anything that I know to the contrary-at the Langness end of the village of Derby Haven.

NOTE.-" His Lopp's Silver Medals " alluded to, -are, I conceive, beyond a doubt, the proofs in silver of this coinage.-See Bp. Wilson's letter, page 95 of Dr. Clay's work Some persons, who ought to know better, have got into their heads the idea that the proofs in silver of these halfpence are "Manx shilling's" and therefore speak of them as such. This island never, I have good reason to believe, possessed a silver coinage of its own, though there doubtless were. silver coins of many other countries circulating in it. The numerous English silver coins found here from time to time indicate that the coinage of England, at least, was in pretty extensive circulation here; and we are aware that Spanish silver coins, called duccatoons, were introduced, from an Act of Tynwald having been passed to prohibit their introduction into the island. The reason assigned in the Act for passing it is, that forgeries of some of these coins were detected. These spurious coins were doubtless destroyed by the authorities at the time, and it would be a vain and useless task to seek for one; but I have in my possession a genuine coin of the kind, viz. a dollar, of Philip IV. of Spain, bearing date 1633.

My time was so fully occupied during the year 1877, and I have been so ill during the last two years, that I have not been able to complete this paper,-not even to revise and correct it; so that, if it be published, it must go forth with all its "imperfections on its head." J. F. C.


December 29, 1879.

P.S.-I am aware that silver pieces, viz. crowns, halfcrowns, and shillings, were issued in the year 1811 by Messrs. Littler and Dove, bankers, Douglas, who also issued pence and halfpence in copper. All of these, however, were tokens, and not coins; and were and are commonly known by the name of " Peel Castle tokens," from the fact of their bearing a representation of Peel Castle on the obverse. Coins were and are issued by Government; tokens were issued by subjects, and this usually, if not always, at a time when there was a scarcity of the coin of the realm; such, for instance, as existed in this island a year or two beyond a century back, when eggs were sometimes sold in these northern parts-so I was informed about forty years since, by very good authority -at the rate of sixteen for a penny

1 Sir Charles G. Young, Garter King of Arms, says, " The Isle of Man, an ancient and independent kingdom, was granted with sovereign rights to Sir John Stanley, Lord Steward and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, by King Henry IV. in 1406, to hold to him and his heirs." By an Act 6th George IV. chap. 39 (10th June 1825), the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury purchased any sovereign rights in the said island reserved to John, Duke of Atholl, and the heirs general of the 7th Earl of Derby, under the Act of 5th George III. - Vide., Chetham Society series, vol. xcviii. pp. 9 and 11.

The following is the title on the brown paper cover of the Manuscript:-

ANNO 1733."

The title on the front of the first leaf is,-



Mr TOPPING Apr. 30, this day
began to coyne.
Mr. DYALL Apr. 30,at Do. . Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
GEOR WILKS. . Apr. 30 ,Do. Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
JO SLATER . .Aprl.30,at Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
THOS CHRISTIAN Aprl 30 ,Do. Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
RICHD SLATER . Apl 30at Do. Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
EDWD CAINE May 1st. this day
begn. at the press.


Mr TOPPING . . NOVr. 12,
at the Press. '
Mr. DYALL . .Turning.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
GEOR. WILKS . .at the Furnas.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
THos CHRISTIANFiling.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
RICHDSLATER . at the Furnas.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
EDW" CAINE. .at the Press.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
CAESAR BREWat the Press.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
DANL. CHRISTIANCasting.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.


30th. Munday. Tuesday.Wednesday.Thursday.Friday.Saturday.
Mr TOPPING Novr 19, at the press.Filing Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
Mr DYALL . . Filing Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
GEOR. WILKS .At the Furnas.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
JON SLATER . . Moulding Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
THOS CHRISTIAN Filing Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
RICHD SLATER . At the Furnas.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
EDWD CAINE . At the Press.
CAESAR BREW .At the Press.Casting Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
DAN. CHRISTIANCasting Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.


Mr. TOPPING . April 6th.
at the press.
Do.Do. JDo.Do.Do.
Mr. DYALL Turning Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
EDWD. CAINE .At the Press.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.
CAESAR BREW .At the Press.Do.Do.Do.Do.Do.


s. d.
April 28th, 1733. Pad Mr. Amos Topping from the timehe came from London till they began work all togeather which was 11 weeks at 15s. p. Week but at that time he Was puting things in order Casting his Lopps. Silver Meddals Amos TOPPING
8 5 0
April 17th", 1734. Pad Mr. Amos Topping for 50 weekes Work when all togeatr at the Coyning at 15s. p. in full till this day Amos TOPPING
37 10 0
April 24, 1734. Pad Mr. Topping one Weeks wages Amos TOPPING
0 15 0
Apl. 28th, 1733. Pad Mr. Samuel Dyall from the time he came from London till they began work all togeather Which was 11 Weeks at 15s. p. week but in that time he was puting things in order, & casting & finishing his Lopp.'s Silver Meddals SAMUEL DYALL
8 5 0
Apll. 17, 1734. Paid Mr. Samuel Dyall for' 50 weeks work When all togeather at the Coyning at 15s. p. week in full till this day SAMUEL DYALL
37 10 0
Apll. 24, 1734. Pad Mr. Dyall one weeks wages SAMUEL DYALL
0 15 0
93 00 0
in Manx
£108 10 0
Brougt. further
108 10 0
Jan. 15th, 1733. Pad Mr: George Wilkes since Jany. 15th 1733 till March 23th 1734 being Sixty-two weekes at 10s- British p. week as p. Agreement is 31 British
36 3 4
Mar. 2311, 1734. Pad John Slater fr. 215 days Work at the Coyning as p. Book at Sixteen pence Manks p. Day as p. Agreement
14 6 8
Mar. 2311, 17 34. Pall Thos Christian fr. 251 days Work at the Coyning as p. Book at Sixteen pence Manks p. Day as p. Agreement
16 14 8
Mar. 2311, 1734. Pad John Slater for 267 Days Work of his man Richard Slater at the Coyning as p. Book at fourteen pence Manks p. day as p. Agreement
15 11 6
Mar. 2311, 1734. Pad Edwd Caine for 148 Days Work at the Fly at foureteen - Pence Manx p. Day as p. Agreement
8 12 8
£199 18 10
Brougt over
199 18 10
Apl. 6th, 1734. Pad Csar Brew for 215 Days Work at the Coyning as p. Book at foure- teen pence Manx p. Day as p. Agreement
12 10 10
Apl. 6, 1734. Pad to Daniel Christian for 238 Days Work at the Coyning, at Ten pence 2 p. Day as p. Agreet
10 8 3
April 6, 1734. Pad Jon Slater for 69 Days Work of his man James Harrison at the Coyning at Six pence p. Day as p. Agreement
1 14 6
£224 12 5
Jan. 13, 1733. Pad Mr. Charles Killey fr. six flat files as p. Bill in Manks
0 3 0
Febr. 3d. Pad Jon Gill for fetching a Pair of Bellows from the Smelt bows as p.
0 0 8
Do. 3d. Pad Jon Norris for making screws nuts & washers for the Flasks Timber his own as p. Bill
1 15 4
Do. 18th- Pad Mr. Oliver Gamar Mr. Winstauley Rect for three Dozn & three files & a Rasp 1 :6:10 British, in Manx
1 11 4
Mar. 8th. Pad to Mr.. Wm Jackson for Twenty-two Tun of Coales Delivd into the Castle for the use of Coyning at 135. p. Tun British as p. Bill
16 13 8
in Manx
£244 16 05
Brought Further
244 16 5
Mar. 11. Pad Wm Daugherdy, Mason, for setting up three ffurnaces and other work don by him, as p. Bill in par
1 7 0
Do. 26th. Pad Mr. Garner for Mr- Topping & Mr. Dyall their Chests and other Instruments for Coyning, from Liverpoole to Isle Man as passingers as p. Rect
0 11 8
Apr,. 19. Pad Jon Wilks for six small melting Pots for melting of Silver as p. Rect
0 1 9
Do. 30th. Pad Ambrose Place for fetching Sand and Clay him selfe and two horses, severall times as p. Bill
0 5 5
Pad Natthanall Molleneux, Mason, for one day's work at the Forge
0 1 0
May 8th. Pad Mr. Garner for one Thousand of Bricks for the use of the ffurnace, at 17s- British p. Thousand in Max
0 19 10
Do. 9t". Pad Jon Moore for turning the wheel for Mr. Wilks three days and one Day going to Douglas as p. Bill
0 2 0
Do. 15th Pad Mr. W- Daugherdy, Mason, for moore work Done at the fffurnas, as p. Bill in particulare
0 13 0
June 2nd. Pad to Jon Slater Thos Christian and Richd Slater, Smithes, While they was making Tooles and puting things in order for Coyning as p. Bill in particular
3 4 0
Do. 12th Pad Jon Hutchin for Nine Days Work at sevenpence p. day as p. Bill
0 5 3
in Manx
252 7 4
Brougt- over
252 7 4
June 13, 1733. Pad Ricd Quirk fr. six Melting Pots at sixteen pence Irish p. Pot as p. Rect
0 8 8
Do. 13th. Pad Edward Caine for Timber that was wanting for the press, as p. Bill
0 4 2
Do. 21St Pad Mr. Robt Csar for Thirty pound and three quarters of Strong for makeing leather a new paire of Bellows as p. Bill
1 15 101
July 8th. Pad to Mr. Garner for fraught of 11 Cask of Blank pence, at 28- p. Cask, and s. d, som files. British 1 : 2 : 6 Manx
1 6 3
Augt. 23. Pad Henry Curren for Dressing the Leather that belongs to the old Bellowsas p. Bill
0 2 0
Febr 9th. Pad Jon Redfern & Thos Redfern, Carpen- ters, for work Don at Sev, times as p. Bill in particular
6 19 3
Mar. 3d. Pad Ambrose Place for fetching mettle from Peele sand from Douglas & Clay for the furnas, sevrl times as p. bill in particular
0 12 6
Mar. 28th Pad. Robt Quirk for Leather for the Leathers and Mending When Broke as p. Bill
0 15 0
Pad Mr. Taubman, Phillp Christian, Dan, Looney, Jol Woods and Mr. Alin Skinley for severall particulars as p. Bill
4 19 0
June 27. Pad Ricd Halsall for makeing of five Dozn of Leather Bags at 75- p. Dozn and other Work don by him as p. Bill
1 16 1
for Rum for Cleaning the Dyes and Screws duering the Whole time of Coyning is 12s. British. in Manx
0 14 0
- £272 00 1½
Caryd- Further
272 00 12
For other Liquor given the Coyners on Extraordinary occasions
0 12 10
Sum total of the Disbursments on the Coinage is
£272 12 11½


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