[From Manx Soc vols 25+28 - Blundell's History]
THOSE islands and petty provinces are justly accounted un fortunate yt are overpowered and overawed by the most potent princes and states yt near adjoin unto them. Such hath been the state of Salamina,' in old times the Athenians and Magarians; so was ye Island of Sicily, afterwards the Grecians and Romans; and almost in our days, the kingdom of Naples hath suffered by ye Spaniards, French men, and Venetians. This Island of Man is so unfortunately scituate as to be the object of the ambition of the kings of its neighbouring nations,2 for the Irish, British, English, Scots, Danes, and Norwegians have every one of them in their several turns possessed it; yea, the greatest and most glorious of our monarchs have not only affected the conquest, but gloried in its subjection. But all these things seem to me really to resemble falkiners and huntsmen yt took more plea sure in the pursuit and chase of their game, than in taking or killing of the bird or beast they pursued. For though the island was ever accounted an ancient and absolute kingdom,' yet none of those kings held it any augmentation of their honour to urgent their titles by ye addition of King of Man, preferring it, as it seems, as a favour for a favour, for all our kings themselves have so disesteemed this title as that, it hath been observed, it was always convey'd in all letters patents by the name of an island, but never of a kingdom.' I confess this island is of no great dimension, and there fore of no extraordinary great concernment. Yet I shall de monstrate that it neither is nor ever was reputed to be ignoble much less despicable. For of all ye islands yt yield homage to the monarchy of Great Britain (Ireland only excepted), Man is not only the greatest, but hath ever been the most famed and the most respectively honoured above them all. There are but two which, to some, may stand in competition with it, which are the islands of White and Anglisey, but neither of these have anything whereinto they can glory but only of their fertility.
Wherein the latter far exceedeth the former, and is con fessed in that to come short of either. For Anglisey was (and worthily) much esteemed by the T~omans in times past for breeding of cattle. Insomuch as Columella did not only comend it, but preferred before those of Liguria. Yea, the emperors themselves caused their provision to be for note out of Anglisey to feed upon at their own tables as of the most excellent beef.
Concerning the greatness of these islands, Man for mag nitude exceedeth them both.2 For if Mr. Harrison may be credited, he will tell you that Man is by a third part greater than Anglisey, and the Isle of Wight to be of the same mag nitude with Anglisey. To him John Speed seems to assent, saying the Isle of Wight is in its circumference 60 miles and Anglisey to be 70 miles ;5 but the Isle of Man is 82 miles.
Arthur Hopton saith the circumference of the Isle of \Vight is 57 miles, of Anglisey 85, but of Man 91 miles, so as it is easy to observe yt though these three several writers (all English) have their several opinions differing one from an other, yet all consent in one to give the greatest magnitude to ye Isle of Man. But neither of these in their greatest lustre did ever at any time come near to the glory of the Isle of Man either in the spirituality or temporality.
For ye Island of Anglisey (the greater of the two) never had the honour to have a bishop, or any spiritual jurisdiction within itself, but in all spiritual cases hath ever been under the Bishop of Bangor. As concerning the temporality, it belongeth, saith Humphrey Loid, even from all antiquity, unto the kingdom of Guinheath, yt is North Wales, whose residence was commonly on the south-west of the Island of Anglisey, at a place call'd Aberfraw, which gave occasion for a long time to stile the kings of North Wales, kings of Aber fraw; as the kings, by the Welch, were named Kings of London, till better instruction, saith Harrison, did bring them to better knowledge.
The Island of Wight hath had kings heretofore (at least so were they called) before Vespasian (the first of the Romans yt conquered it), ye last king it had, who was called Arvald, or Arvand as some do write him, being vanquished and killed by Ceadwalla, King of the West Saxons.' He adjoined the island unto his own dominion, and since it had never any king; only in ye 23 year of the reign of King Henry ye 6th, Henry Beauchamp had an ambition to wear a crown and bear the title of King of Wight 2 but he enjoy'd it not long, for the next year he deposed himself,3 and chose rather to bear the title of the first Earle of England than to be King of Wight. As for the spirituality, the Island of Wight hath ever been under the Bishop of Winchester, and did yield obedience to ye See of Chichester, whereof it is a deanry only.
But ye Island of Man far surpasseth both these in spiri tuality and temporality. It hath had (without any interrup tion) a succession of famous bishops (some of them canonised saints ever since their conversion) for about 1400 years to gether.
St. Maughauld, the fourth Bishop of Man, of whom you may read more in ye 3d book of this history, c. 3d, ye renown of his sanctity was so great, yt it was divulged of him as yt ye famous St. Bridget, one of ye 3 patrons of Ireland, left her native country of Ireland,' then comonly called the Island of Saints, yet was she not veiled by St. Patrick, altho' very familiar with him, and made the shroud wherein he died, but it may be by his comand yt she came into the Island of Man,2 with 3 virgins more in her company, all which received the white veil of virginity at ye hands of ye venerable Bishop St. Maughauld,3 as her own nephew, Cogi tosus (who lived in her time and wrote her life), and after it seems she wou'd not part from yt house wherein so holy a man lived, and he had given her such satisfaction and builded a monastery there for herself and ye 3 virgins yt accompanied her in this Isle of Man. And there lived, died, and was buried, and after was translated into Duno in Ire land, to be put into ye same tomb where was buried St. Patrick and St. Columbus. St. Lawrence, Archbishop of Canterbury, and ye successor of St. Augustin, the Apostle of England,4 held this island as the first place to hold a council in both with the Scottish and Irish divines yt were entangled with the British errors. But, moreover after their kings had conquered, as it seemeth, most of the islands, their bishop's jurisdiction was much enlarged, for all the islands were called Insulae Eubonie, of the name of the Island of Man, which was then called Eubonia, as I shall after shew. Yea after yt, about ye year 1099, the Bishoprick of Sodor was joined unto the Bishop of Man, and the Bishop of Man bore the title both of Sodor and Man, at which time, for the space of 235 years, ye Bishop of Man had entire jurisdiction of all ye Western Isles, being almost 300 in number, and all the islands, Man being included, were called at yt time Insuhe Sodorences.See Lib. 3, c. 6.
Now, concerning the temporality, the Island of Man hath ever been accounted for an ancient and absolute kingdom, as I have shewed you before, and for such acknowledged by all writers, not one opposing, which neither to the islands of Wight or Anglisey was ever conceded, yea, it was so adjudged in Trin. 40 Queen Eliz.'
Besides, the kings of Man are very antient, their succes sion for about 1400 years, as I shall demonstrate unto you here after in ye 2d part of this history, and who can doubt, much less deny it yt hath read of St. Joseph of Arimathea, who not long after his arrival in England, he fell in some trouble, and was imprisoned in Venedotia2 (now North Wales), but was delivered and set at liberty by the power and means of one Mordraius, a king of Man whom he had converted, and dwelt in a city of Man called &tractct. And, in all ages, their kings were never accounted of the inferior classis, or of mean repute, for I truly may say, in the words of ye royal prophet, God hath prevented the kings of Man with his bless ings, and hath set a crown of gold upon their heads, yea, the Island of Man is enobled with one royal prerogative not given or granted to any other, yt we hear of, yt whosoever is but Ld of Man of right, saith Walsingham, one of our best Chrono clers (and out of lilin ye Lord Cook), may not only call himself king, but may cause himself to be crown'd with a crown of gold.
Besides, antiquity hath honoured the Isle of Man with a rich coat of arms, as I shall shew you hereafter, which was never permitted to the isle of Wight or Anglisey.
Now, to shew you in what esteem the kings of Man were reputed by the neighbouring kings and princes, observe, first, how they renown'd King Arthur (accounted one of the nine worthy, and of the Christian Triplicity ye Prince Person) after the Conquest of the Isle of Man were admitted into the society and fellowship of the Knights of his Round Table.'
Our glorious King Edgar2 who styled himself Omnium Regnum Insularum circumjacentium Imperator et Dom., yet admitted none of the kings of the islands into that royal boat wherein eight kings rowed and himself steered the helm (to express the supremacy he had over them), rowed in this manner to shew himself to be rex soli and sali. But he saith out of Malmsbury,5 there were only 5 kings yt rowed, but only Macon, king of Man, whom King Edgar preferred to ye 3d oar, and therefore he gave him precedency over 5 of the other kings.
But you may observe in Sr H. Spelman another note of the great respect this King Edgar shewed unto this Macon, King of Man, whom Sr H. Spelman, turning his name into Latin, calleth him Macusius, and in some places Macati, for in the famous charter King Edgar made unto the Abbey of Glassenbury, in ye 12th year of his reign4 there subscribed after the king the queen and her son, then the king of Scots, next to him King Macon, after him the archbishop of Canterbury and York, and after them 21 bishops, abbots, dukes, etc.
But King Macon received yet a greater honour from King Edgar, for King Edgar had 3600 ships of war to sail round every year about this whole island, and to free every part of his dominions from rovers and pirates. Of all these King Edgar made King Macon his admiral; and therefore, in ye charter above mentioned, and wheresoever 5r H. Spelman hath in any place made mention of him, he giveth him the title of Archiperata to King Edgar; but let not the reader be abused by the ignorance of Rider, who maketh the word Archiperata to signify an arch-pirate, for he was the persecutor of pirates. But 5r H. Spelman more truly and more particu larly saith, it signifieth a Prince of Seamen,' and one that is perfect of all the sea, and therefore it may be Macon was the first king of Man yt bear in a shield of gold a ship in her ruff-sables, the antient arms of the Isle of Man, to express his employment as Admiral at Sea for King Edgar. Mr. Cambden saith, he hath seen a seal of King of Man, which was a ship with sails hoised up, and this title in ye. circumference, Rex Manae et Insularum.2 Wherefore, in every respect this seal was the seal of Macon, for, saith Stow, and others also, yt Macon was not only King of Man, but of many other islands also; and so saith Cambden, Britannia, p. 605. About ye 24th year of our king Henry ye 2d, Pope Alexander ye 3d, who succeeded Pope Adrian the fourth, an English man, whose name was Shakespear and not Breakspeare (as John Speed writeth), sent ye Cardinal Vivianus, cardinal of St. Stephen, in Mount Calms, his legate a latere, into Scotland, and thence taking his journey into Ireland, he landed in the Isle of Man, where he was honourably entertained by Guthred, King of Man.
Yea, saith J. Brompton, most hononrably of the King, Clergy, and People of Man, and abode there from the nativity of our Saviour untill after his Epiphany.
Neither did the neighbouring kings or princes disdain their alliance, for ye aforesaid Godred, whom Roger Hoveden called Guthred, the son of Olave, married Phingola, the daughter of Maclothen, the son of Macartac, King of Ireland, and a daughter of his called Africa was married to ye re nowned John Cursy, Earle of Ulster, that Sampson of Ireland, of whose stupendous and valorous acts the histories of Ireland do make ample relations.
Harrold, King of Man, the grandchild of the 5d Guthred, anno 1242, as saith the Chronocle of Man, but more truly saith Holinghead, ano 1247, married the daughter of Hacco, King of Norway5 for he stayed only two years with ye king; and in ano 1249, Harrold and his wife with others were un fortunately shipwrack'd and drown'd upon the coast of SCOTLAND in their return homewards. All antiquity speak hon ourably of this island and testify their valour, and therefore Mercator and Philip Cluverius had good warrant to say yt Man was Incolis quondam validessima, and for the repute of their prowess they have been always respected and courted by all ye adjacent neighbourhood. Vaodicia (by Dion Cas sius called Bundusia or Bonducia, and by some Branducia, by Tacitus Boaditia), daughter to the famous Arviragus (a mas culine virgin), to return her deflaration by the Romans being overpowered by them. In Britanny she recruited herself with soldiers in the Isle of Man,' and by their assistance took and burnt Epiake in Galloway, and had like to have routed Petilius and his Roman legions by night.
They assisted Corbred and ye Picts against the Romans under Ostorius. So did they assist the widow of Prasitagus, king of ye Icons, and Brennius, whom Buchanan calleth Brem, and saith he was Regulus Eubonhe,' tho' Hector Boethis2 pleaseth only to call him Thane of Man.
With a band of soldiers out of the Isle of Man, assisted Aydan, King of Scotland, against King Brude and his Picts, altho' himself was killed in the battle, yet Aydan, the King of Scotland, got ye victory of the Picts. The aforenamed Gutlired, King of Man, in the 3d year of his reign, was crowned king in Dublin, and overthrew Osibeley, the half- brother to Murcard, King of Ireland, with his 3000 men, and they also subdued a great part of Leinster.
The same Guthred was likewise sent for by Lawrence,3 the Archbishop of Dublin, and Rodorick, King of Conaught, to assist 'em against the Earl of Pembroke and ye English men who besieged them, unto whose aid he brought 30 ships full of fraught, saith Stanihurst, with warlike soldiers, and blocked up the haven of Dublin. I shoud too much press upon the reader's patience to speak of their acts in Anglisey,4 against the King of North Wales, or their conquests, of their con quests of their neighbouring islands called Hebrides or Wes tern Islands,5 and yt long before ye coming of the North wegians, and therefore I remit you to read them in their several places in ye 2nd Book of this History.
Yea, yt regard of this island's situation hath only been ye object of ye enemies and ye solicitous care of one of our o~reatest and politest kings. For Don John de Austria had ye Isle of Man, if it were surprised, the fittest place from
thence to invade ye west and south borders of Scotland, yea, into England, to make inroads either into Cumberland, Lan cashire, Cheshire, or any part of North Wales. As also the north-east parts of Ireland, and Terrerius Pedemontanus
Which our king, Henry ye 8th, seriously and with great jealousy reflected upon, for in ye League he made with Charles in y 5th, ye '7th Article agreed upon, both parts hath these words, yt if ye enemy, the French king, shou'd fall on any of his islands, or ye Isle of Man in particular, etc., the Emperor shall send aid for such a number of foot as can be paid for '700 crowns a day.2 This setteth forth the constant loyalty of the Manksmen in an eminent degree, yt we read not in any age that ever they attempted to infest or to make any depredations upon any part of England. Yea, their loyalty hath much demonstrated itself in its dutiful perseverance to the late King Charles 1st, for when all his three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland had cast off their allegiance and openly rebelled against him, this Island of Man not only persisted in its obedience unto him, but, with its loyal lord in person, assisted his son, our now sacred Sovereign, with a considerable supply.
This Island of Man as it hath been observed to have as sisted, so have they, in like manner, sheltered, fostered, and courteously entertained both kings and princes from all neighbouring parts yt were distressed or any way necessi tated, yet never were they found to betray or faulter in the trust yt any of them had reposed in them. Octavius,5 ye son of Octavius, King of ye Britons, being driven out by ye Romans, fled into ye Isle of Man, and remained concealed by them certain years; from thence he was conveyed into France,4 and after returned into Britany, and was by ye Britons received for their king.
After ye death of Fethelmacus, King of Scotland, Romacus succeeded. He had an intention to make away Eugenius and Ethodius (some write him Enodius), the sons of Fincormacus, being the right heirs to the crown. Some of their trusty friends secretly convey'd them into Westmoreland, and from thence into the Isle of Man, where they remained (expecting better times) for the space of nine years during ye reigns of 3 kings Romacus, Augustianus, Fethelmacus. After the death of these,' the nobles and comons of the Scotish nation sent into the Isle of Man for Eugenius, and they crownd him king. But yt learning and liberal arts were there professed and taught, and which from all antiquity have there emin ently flourished, no man can deny. Hector Boetius saith "Man was the fountain of all honesty, erudition, and learning;" others of the Scotish nation held it the mansion of ye muses, and ye royal academy for the bringing up of the heirs appa rent of the Scottish Crown (as I shall shew presently), and let not seem to any to be hyperbolically spoken.
To me they seem to be irrational, yt yield not their assent, for not sceptically but confidently I hold it, not as a verisimilitude only, but for an absolute verity, that these famous learned Druids were here from the same antiquity, and as numerous as ever they were in Anglisey, the distance betwixt this and yt Island being only at yt day but half a day's sailing by sea, but if you have faith enough to believe Polydore Virgil in those days, you needed not say above half an hour, as I shall shew you in the sequel; but, besides, Man being the more remote Island of the two, was much more solitary seated, and therefore was much more fit for such contemplatives. Modern writers,2 therefore, style it Insula Druidum and Sedes Druidum, not that they had no other residence in any other part elsewhere as our Vitru vms misconstrued. Hector Boetius averreth yt Man was the principal Mansion Seat of ye Druids, where their chief Bishop had his residence, and had his Ball of Fire there carried before him; and Cambden calleth it ye Most Noble and Antient Seat of ye Druids; whom Harrison saith it was ye prime Seat of ye Druids; Raphael Holinshead affirmeth the Druids to have been in Man even from ye beginning. The Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain saith it was ye chief seat of ye Druids. Let not the reader figure to himself yt ye Learned Druids were only and meerly divines; Pliny, and our grand Architect' do stile them ye Bishops and Clergy of yt Age, for they not only exerted themselves but taught others both Divine and human Learning, yea even all Arts and Sciences; they acknowledged and adored one God in a Trinity, altho' mixt with many superstitions. By the names of Tautates, Hesus, and Tamires, they held the soul of man to be immortal; but, besides configurations of the planets, and by consequence of whatsoever belonged to any part of astronomy, Cicero and Tacitus tell us that they likewise taught the proprieties and natures of things, which includeth animals, vegetables, and minerals, and therefore what soever also belonging is unto natural magick. But, moreover, these Druids were practised in civil government, executed judicature, decided controversies, interdicting persons and cor porations, yt wou'd not acquiesce in any sentence they gave, etc., as shall be farther insisted on hereafter. What marvel, then, if to such gifted men, and their scholars after them, were sent ye sons of ye neighbouring Nations to be brought up both in Religion and all Arts and Sciences, and not only before our Bless'd Savr's Incarnation, but for many ages after. But before I demonstrate this, I desire ye reader not to be misled by the Scottish writers, for it is a meer fiction yt Finanus, their 10th King of Scotland, should send these Druids into ye Island of Man, which Bucanon doth not acknowledge, and therefore with reason he taxeth Hector Boetius for his much credulity in reciting many stories out of incredulous authors, but more absurdly in ye incogitancy and assertion of Ralph Holinshead, who will needs give ye honour to this Finanus, to have sent these Druids at first into Anglisey, whereas all antiquity acknowledgeth them to have been in both ye Islands long beforeyea, himself confessed in another place yt they had been in Man from ye beginning, as I noted before. Moreover this Finanus, ye Son of Josina, reigned in Scotland Anno Mundi 3834, and before our Saviour's Birth 13'7 years. But the Druids' institution we are showed by Privitus was about An. Mun. 3322, full four hundred and twelve years before Finanus began to reign.'
Now these Druids were so antiently seated in Brittany, as Cesar and Bucanan say it is doubted whether the Gauls had their Instructions from ye Druids in Britain or ye Britons from ye Gauls, but Vitus is confident that the Gauls were fought by the Britons, and so doth Rhelin in ye history of the World. Now to demonstrate ye great repute this Island had but their Learning and Discipline to be esteemed by the Scottish Kings in all ages (as I observed before), I shall here insert some few of many particulars, least this chapter grow too great, which I have collected out of their own historgraphers both before and since our Saviour's Birth. Gillus Hespurius,2 son of Eurnus, ye first usurping yt crown, having, by treachery, caused the two sons of Durstius (being twins and contending wch of 'em shou'd reign), the one to kill ye other,3 but not conceiving himself to be safe so long as ye three sons of Dothan (one of the twins were living), and at yt time, saith Hector Boetius, residing in ye Isle of Man, to be brought up and taught there. Gillus himself, therefore, undertook a voyage thither, feigning affection, and pretending their more court-like education. By these means he got Lismore, the eldest, being but twelve years of age, and Cormacus, two years younger, into his hands. Ederus, the youngest, being sick, and but seven years old, escaped. The two eldest, in Scotland, were murthered in their tutor's armes. Ederus, the youngest, was after crownd king of Scotland. Dardanus, for his tall stature called ye Great (nephew to King Mecel lan), for three years had ye repute of a good king, after became odious for his tyranny. He sent a servant of his, called Carmonach, to murther the three sons of Corbredus (Corbaid, Tulcan, and Breck), remaining in ye Isle of Man under discipline. Corbaid was after crowned king, and sur named Gald,' because he had been brought up with Voada, the Queen of ye Britons, for, saith Hector, ye Scots unto this day give ye name of Cald unto those of their own Country yt have travailed and learned many languages, and courtliness, and the manners of other countries. Eugenius ye 4th, the son of Aydanus sent three of his own sons, Fergard or Fer card, Fiacre, and Donald, into ye Isle of Man, to be brought up by Conanus, Bishop of Man, whom ye Scottish historio graphers and our Holinshead ignorantly stile Bishop of Sodor. Two of these, Fergard and Donald, were crowned kings, one succeeding the other; but Fiacre refused the crown, and became an ermit.2
Conranus (of some called Gonranus)3 took order yt ye 3 sonns of his brother Congal (Eugenius ye 3d, Congallus ye 2d, and Kennacelus ye first) should be brought up in the Isle of Man (saith Hector) under ye governance of certain wise in structors and schoolmasters, to be trained in learning and virtuous discipline, according to an antient ordinance thereof made and enacted of these let this suffice.
Wherefore, let not this sister of ours be esteemed because she is little, in est sua gratia parvis, yea, so antiently ours, so often purchased by us, and so caressed by our kings, as a kingdom immediate spectans ad, coronam Anglhe, as saith one of our best historians,' and therefore, as he much resented it, conceiv'd it as an injury offered unto this Island by King Edward ye 2d in undervaluing it so much as to pass it by letters-patents as a lordship only (it being an antient kingdom), and to be conferred upon so mean a man as Piers Gaveston to be. But ours he is, tho' not as a part of the body of England, because separated by ye sea, and is a kingdom of itself, and the king's writ2 runs not thither, to speak in our law language, yet is it ours in ye same manner as was Normand, ye Gascoigne, Anjon, etc., which were as a part of the realm by tenure, yea, parcel of ye demesnes of the Crown of England, so as howsoever the Manksmen be born in another climate and kingdom, yet are they natural subjects born within the sea of England, and for yt cause it is adjudged by our laws yt they are capable and inheritable of lands in England as freely as ourselves,3 for by the statute 24th of King Edwd ye 3d, comonly called the Statute de natis ultra mare, a man born out of England, so as it be within the limits of ye king's obedience beyond ye seas, is no alien in account, but a subject to the king.
Wherefore, let me intreat and impetrate thus much favour of these yt have not seen, yet censured this Island, yt they won' d vouchsafe the perusal of yt which is here written of it, whereby their own judgment, I doubt not, will be enabled to take ye true altitude and degree of this Island's merits and worth, and then I perceive they will soon recant, and acknow ledge the errors and misconceit which ignorance, as a prejudi cate opinion, had begotten in them, and at length approve of
Magnus, king of Norway's judgment, who, being threaten'd by a vision of St. Olave, relinquished his kingdom and betook himself to a sea voyage; and having conquered the Orcades' and Hebrides, at last arriv'd in ye worst (being so much north ward) part of Man, called the Island of St. Patrick, which to him seemed so goodly and beautiful, yt disesteeming all ye rest y in regard of that, he there seated himself, and builded divers fortresses, and compelled the neighbouring Galloways to cut down wood to furnish him with materials for the building of them, which the monks of Russin say did bear his name to their times.
What I have hitherto said of this Island hath been only in general; there are other particulars much more taking, and do set her forth to bemore considerable and deserving, and which invited all ye neighbouring kings, besides her title, to court her.
1. For abounding in cattle, fish, and corn,2 her soil is not surcharged, is sufficiently enabled to afford her inhabitants all what is requisitely necessary for the maintenance of man, within Man itself, either for meat, drink, or clothing; yea, if Wm. Harrison's testimony3 may be credited, Man is very near equal to Anglisey in all comodities.
2. It is so strongly fortified, both by nature, art politick, vigilancy, as yt I am persuaded, if yt son4 and sun of Man had not set so soon, or had been there in person to oppose, I say, had not ye Fall of the great Oak incussed a precedent Terror, which caus'd ye under shrubs to tremble, the then state of ye Coffion Wealth of England had not entered this Island so calmly, and easily possess'd it, without noise.
3. It hath divers havens, situated commodiously on both sides of the Island, for trade and traffick.
4. It hath a most civil government, with speedy justice without delay, or any, the least expense.
5. Besides, it hath most laudable Laws and Customs,' yea such as our best and greatest Justinian of our times hath publicly given this encomium of them, yt the Island of Man hath such laws, ye like whereof are not to be found in any other places.
1 An Isle of Cyprus, now called Constantia.
2 Kings Artliur, Edgar, and Edwin.
~ cook's Reports, calvin's Case.
About anno 610. ilect. Boet., 1. 4, p. 50.
'About the year 1171.
' About anno 1577.
'The Hist. of ye Death of Mary, Queen of Scotland, by Mr. Strangnage. apprehended strongly in his appendix to the History of Scot land, p. 394.
1 Anno 1541. 2 History of King Henry VIII., p. 491.
~ Holinshead's Cron. of Scotland, p. 85, c. 93. '~ H. Boetius, 1. 6, 103.
'About anno 357. 2 Sir Inigo Jones his Stoneheng restored, p. 6
1. Sir Inigo Jones, Descr. of Stoneheng, p. 3.
1 Cook's Institutes, part 4, chap. 69, p. 283.[Edn. 1671.Editor.]
2 Capton, Desc. of England, chap. 6, saith they are all 3 almost
of a like bigness. ~
Deserc. of Briton, lib. 1, chap. 5, p. 16.
1 About anno 680.
2 Camb. Brit., p. 276.
'Stow's Cron., p. 382.
'Joselinus, chap. 52.
2 The Eng. Martirologue, printed 1608.
~ John Capgrave in her Life.
Ecc. Hist. of Great Britain, chap. 4, p. 28.
Cook, Instit. pt. 4.
2 Antiq. of Glastonbury, cited in ye Ecc. Hist. of Great Britain, cap. 25.
~ The Charter of ye Abbey of Malmsbury, Camden, page 605.
~ But Sr. H. Spelman out of win. of Malmsbury, saith he was Orbis
' About anno 520. Hardinge Chron. chap. 72, p. 54.
Britanii Dominus. This was, saith Cambden, about the year 960.
~ Anno 971.
1 Princeps Nautarum Marium prefectus.
2 [A copy of the seal of Harald, King of Man, 1245, with this bearing, is given in Oswald's "Vestigia," Manx Society, Vol. v.Editor.]
1 Hect. Boetius, History of Scot., 4, p. 59.
' Hist. Brit. Insul., nota 21, anno Christi 1013. See ye Ecclesiastical Hist. of Great Britain, Age 1, c. 12, 11, 1, p. 241, who affirmeth ye same.
2 Bucanan de Rebus Scoticis, 1. 4, p. 107. ~ Aiino ante
1 Cor. Tacitus calleth him Galgacus. See ye Additions of Polycron. c. 26, yt Gald came of Gacels, yt spake many languages.
2 Hect. Boet., 1. 9, p. 173. ~ Anno 501, Hect. Boet. 515, R. Holinshead.
' walsingham, p. 360. 2 Calvin's Case, Cook's Reports.
~ Holin. Hist. of Scot., p. 50.
1 Cron. of Man, p. 84. 2 Holinshead's History of ye world, p. 316.
~ Description of Brit., p. i. c. 5, p. 16.
~ James, Earl of Derby, late Lord of Man.
' Cook's Institute, part iv. c. 69, p. 284.