[From Manx Soc vol 10]

Notes to Manx Soc Volume X - #1-55

Note 1 & Note 2

NOTE 3.— " THE INHABITANTS CALL IT MANNING. (Page 5.)

Or rather "Ellen Vannin." " Ellan" signifying Island; and "Vannin" constructed from " Mannin," by the softening of the first mutable consonant, according to this Grammar of the Manx language — See vol. ii., Manx Society, pp. 6, 11, 26. A favorite expression of the natives is, " Ellan Vannin veg veen "; i.e., " Dear little Isle of Man," literally ' Isle of Man, little dear'
For the various names given to the Isle of Man, see vol. i. of Manx Society, note 23, P. 10.

NOTE 4.— "ABOUT THIRTY MILES. ' (Page 6.)

The centre of the Island is in latitude 54 deg. 15 min. north, and longitude 4 deg. 30 min. west. Its length in a direction N.E. by N., and S.W. by S., from the Point of Ayre to the Sound of the Calf, is 33.4 miles. The greatest breadth, at right-angles to this direction, is from Bank's Howe, near Douglas, to Ballanayre, north of Peel, 12.4 miles.

NOTE 5.— " THEN RAINSWAY." (Page 6.)

Rainsway, Ronaldsway, or Derbyhaven, is in the south-east of the Island. In early times it had the names Rogavald's-Vag (Reginald's Bay), Rognalwath, Rannesway, and Ramsway; and it was regarded as the most important harbour in the island, on account of its proximity to Castletown. It was the scene of some of the most celebrated and stirring events in Manx History. Here, in 1260, John Dugalson, who had declared himself King of the Isles, was defeated in an engagement with the Manx. Here, too, the Manx themselves were defeated by the Scotch, under John Comyn and Alexander Stewart, in 1270; and again, in 1316, by a band of Irish freebooters, under Richard Mandeville. In this bay, James, Seventh Earl of Derby (the " Great Stanlagh"), almost miraculously escaped assassination in 1650; a piece of ordnance, loaded with shot, being fired at him as he was returning in a boat from a Parliamentary ship which he had visited; on which occasion, Colonel Snaid, Colonel Richard Preston, and Philip Lucas, master of the boat, were shot dead on either side of him. See Registers of Parishes of Malew and of Marown, under date 1660.

NOTE 6.— " A LEE SHORE." (Page 6.)

Chaloner appears to use the phrase " Lee Shore," in a wrong sense, both in this passage and on page 31, when he speaks of ships not anchoring in the roads, unless the same be a Lee shore. In each of these cases he evidently means that the shore is " to windward."

NOTE 7.— " OR THE ENGLISH COAST." (Page 6.)

Great improvements have recently been made in the Harbours of the Isle of Man, and more important ones are in progress. The attention of Government was earnestly evoked to the great importance of establishing Harbours of Refuge here, for the northern area of the Irish Sea., by the late Sir William Hilary, as far back as 1830.

NOTE 8.— " ARE MOUNTAINS." (Page 6.)

The total surface of the Isle of Man is about 130,000 acres, of which 29,393 acres are mountainous. The sum total of cultivated lands paying tithes, is 80,458 acres ; the commons, now in course of being enclosed, 30,788 acres. The Ayre of Bride and the Ayre of Andreas (fen lands), 2,396 acres; and the waste lands, rocks, and islets, about 10,000 acres.

NOTE 9.— " MAROUN AND CUBGREVE." (Page 6.)

It is not easy to determine what mountains are here referred to by Chaloner. There are no mountains of importance within the boundaries of Marown Parish; the high ground of Archollogan is hardly more than 700 feet above the level of the sea; and Mount Murray and Lord's Seat, just out of Marown Parish, are not much higher. Possibly by Cubgreve, the Mountain Greebah (the top of which is 1,591 feet above the sea level), is intended.

NOTE 10.— " SNAWFELE." (Page 6.)

Snawfell (Snaefell or Sncefell, according to the orthography of Professor Munch, snow mountain), in the north of the Island, has a height of 2,024 feet above the level of the sea.

NOTE 11.— " LAWTON SWEEP." (Page 7.)

For an account of the Lawton sheep, or rather Loaghtyn or Lugh-dhoan, i.e. mouse-brown sheep (lugh a " mouse," dhoan " brown "). See vol. i. Manx Society, note 31, P. 13.

NOTE 12.— " HERRINGS ONELY." (Page 7.)

The vast improvement, which has lately taken place in the agriculture and fisheries of the Isle of Man, will be seen on reference to note 68, infra.
Either Chaloner must have been misinformed as to the time of the migration of the herring and its appearance on the shores of the Isle of Man; or a change has taken place in the habits of the fish, which would prove interesting to Naturalists, could it be substantiated.
In the year 1827, a Committee of the House of Keys (the Manx Parliament) inquired into, and reported on the subject of the herring fishery, to the following effect :-

" It would appear that, contrary to the general received opinion, a shoal or shoals of herrings enter St. George's Channel from the south, in the month of May, when the fishery commences near Arklow, on the Coast of Ireland, and that the progress of the fish to the northward is slow, Arklow, Ardglass, and the Isle of Man, being the successive fishing grounds frequented by the Cornish boats; that the fish seldom reaches the Isle of Man before the middle of June, or later; that two coral-banks, situated to the east and west of the island, and chiefly the former, would seem to be the ultimate annual destination of this shoal or shoals, these spots being uniformly frequented by them, for the purpose of therein depositing their spawn; that after the completion of this process, in the months of October and November, the shoals again return southward with greater expedition than they had advanced, and furnish a second, or winter fishing at Arklow, in November. In the summer fishery, the herrings are always caught with their heads to the north, i.e. on the south side of the net; and in the winter, they mesh with their heads to the south, i.e. on the north side of the net "

NOTE 13.— " CALLED PUFFINES. (Page 7.)

Sacheverell, in his short survey of the Isle of Man (see vol. i. Manx Society,P.13), has repeated this story of the puffin. He also states that William, Ninth Earl of Derby, stocked the Calf of Man with fallow-deer.— See also vol. i. Manx Society, note 33, P.13.

NOTE 14.— " OAKS DIGGED UP OFTEN FROM UNDERGROUND. " (Page 8.)

Sacheverell refers to the same fact. See vol. i. Manx Society, p. 14. The drainage of the Great Curragh, in the north of the Isle of Man, which was anciently occupied by several lakes, as seen in the map accompanying this volume, commenced about the close of the 16th century. At a depth of from 18 to 20 feet in this Curragh, under the peat, were discovered the remains of trees, chiefly oak and fir, with their roots still firm in the ground, but their heads broken off, and lying towards the N.E. Bishop Wilson, in his History of the Isle of Man, p. 341, says:— " Some large trees of oak and fir have been found, some two feet and a half in diameter; they do not lie promiscuously, but where there is plenty of one sort, there are generally few or none of the other." These trees were probably contemporaneous with those forests which we find now submerged around the shores of the Isle of Man (more particularly at Strandhall, in Poolvash Bay), and which grew upon that drift-gravel terrace which once connected the Isle of Man with the surrounding coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. The basins containing the shell-marl, in which are found the remains of the Cervus Megaceros, lie underneath the turf beds and trees, in the gravel itself. They point to the period when the drift gravel was a wide treeless plain, roamed over by the herds of deer whose remains we now find in the marl, lying at the bottom of them. See plate viii. of my Isle of Man: Its History Physical, Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Legendary. EDIT.

NOTE 15.— "OF WHICH STONE, CASTLE RUSHEN WAS BUILT. (Page 8 )

Castle Rushen is not built of limestone from the Balladoole quarries, which is of a later age; but from the limestone of the same age as that on which the castle itself stands, either having been raised on the shore close by, or brought from the neighbourhood of the Stack of Scarlet. It is not improbable that under the name of quarries at Balladoole, our author refers to the quarries of black Posidonia-Schist generally known as " Poolvash black marble," which are situated on the shore of Poolvash Bay, near Balladoole. It was from these quarries that the stone was procured which was presented by Bishop Thomas Wilson, for the steps of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, and also for the Parish Church of St. Peter's, in Lord Street, Liverpool, when built.- (See the Chetham Society's Works.) Many hundred tons per annum of the limestone of Ballahot and Port St. Mary, are now burnt into lime. Nearly 2,000 tons of the same kind of limestone are raised at Scarlet; about 100 tons of black marble from Poolvash ; and the same quantity of Clay-Schist at Spanish Head; to which we have to add granite from Foxdale, and flagstones from S. Barrule.

NOTE 16.— " NOTE 16.-" CAPTAIN EDWARD CHRISTIAN." (Page 8.)

Captain Edward Christain is one of the characters described in no very complimentary terms in Sir Walter Scott's Peveril of the Peak. He is sometimes called Edward, and sometimes Edmund Christian. He was one of the Christians of Ballakilley in Kirk Maughold, and of one of the oldest and most important families in the Isle of Man. The family was established in the Isle of Man so early as 1422 (see Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. iii., p. 146). They had previously been established in Wigtownsbire. There is apparently some error in Hutchinson's genealogy of the family of this Edward Christian, who is mentioned by Chaloner. He says: " 1st brother, John, born 1602; 2nd, died young; 3rd, William, born 1608; 4th, Edward, Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Man, in 1629 " (according to Sacheverell, Manx Society, vol. i., p. 78, in 1628). Now as the birth of the Edward, mentioned by Hutchinson, cannot be placed earlier than 1609; he could not well have made a fortune in the Indies, have frequented the court of Charles the First, and have been selected as a fit person to be a Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Man, in 1628, when he was only at the age of 19 or 20. It is probable that Hutchinson has confounded Edward Christian, with the Deemster, Edward Christian, of Ronaldsway, Deputy-Governor, in 1634. The person mentioned in the text, and in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, was obviously of mature age. He appears to have been the brother of the William Christian, who married the heiress of Knock Rushen, near Castletown; and who, as well as Edward, was imprisoned in Peel Castle, in 1643. The mention of him by the Earl of Derby, in his letter to his son, contained in Peck's Desiderata Czcriosa (given in vol. iii. Manx Society), is in the following terms: " I was newly got acquainted with Captain Christian, whom I perceived to have abilities enough to do me service ; I was told he had made a good fortune in the Indies and that he was a Manxman born. He is exeellent good company; as rude as a sea captain should be; but refined as one that had civilized himself half a year at Court, when he served the Duke of Buckingham. While he governed here some few years, he pleased me very well But such is the condition of Man, that most will have some fault or other to blur all their best virtues; his was of that condition which is reckoned with drunkenness, viz., covetousness, both marked with age to increase and grow in man. When a prince has given all, and the favourite can desire no more, they both grow weary of one another."

From various documents we gather that Edmund or Edward Christian or Christin, was sentenced in 1643, by the Earl of Derby, to be imprisoned and pay a fine of 1000 marks. His true offence is presumed to have been the imprisonment of the Lord's Steward of the Abbey Lands, for an unlawful exaction of tithe. But it is evident from the Earl of Derby's letter to his son, that he was regarded as a person disaffected towards the Government, and a fomenter of treason, whom it was desirable to put out of the way. The family of the Christians (the Earl observes " Christins, for that is the true name,") had made themselves chief in the Isle of Man, and oc-cupied the most important posts; they were evidently Puritanically affected, and probably were the parties to whom the Earl alludes in the following terms (see vol. iii., Manx Society, p. 35) : " They were the principal disturbers of the peace, and such as we could prove to have incited others, and given them that dangerous oath and covenant after the manner of some other countries, which hath got us dear experience." It was a dangerous experiment, however, to lay upon Edward Christian so heavy a fine as 1000 marks, more especially as the Earl points to covetousness as the besetting sin of the family. Herein we are forced to admit that he lacked his ordinary discretion, and acted contrary to the advice he has given his son. " I remember one said it was safer much to take men's lives than their estates; for, their children will sooner much forget the death of their father, than the loss of their patrimony."

Probably the Earl would have taken Christian's life, if he could have done so on legal grounds; for he complains that the "judges did pretend that they wanted precedents" for his so doing. " God willing," writes he, "I will have laws declared for treason, and the like."

He continued in prison till 1651, when he was released by Colonel Duckenfield. In 1660, after the Restoration, he was remanded to Peel Castle, but was permitted, as an indulgence, to plead to a suit relative to property, in September, 1660 ; after which, he was sent back to prison, where he died at the beginning of the following year. [A copy of two of his autographs, in the years 1628 and 1632, taken from documents in Rushen Castle, are given in my story of Rushen Castle and Rushen Abbey.-EDIT.] For a general account of his proceedings, reference must be made to vol. iii., Manx Society,-" Earl of Derby's Letter to his son." The following entry occurs in the register of Kirk Maughold, in the Isle of Man; the date, however, should be read 1660-61. "Edmund Christian sum time Captain at ye sea, and afterwards for a time Governour of ye Isle of Man, departed this life in ye Peel Castle, being a prisoner there for sum words spoken concerning ye king (Charles the First), when the great difference was betwixt King and Parliament. He was committed by James, Earl of Derby, being then in this Isle, and John Greenhalgh, Governour ; and afterwards buried in Kirk Maughold Church, where he was baptised. Was buried January ye 22nd, 1660."-(See Feltham's MS. Inscriptions.)

NOTE 17.— "POSSIBLY MAY ENSUE THEREOF." (Page 8.)

The Isle of Man is one of the richest, if not the richest, mining districts in the British Isles; yielding as much as 2,600 tons of lead ore, 3,181 tons of blend (sulphuret of zinc), 360 tons of copper, and 1,650 tons of hematite iron ore, in the year. The lead ore of Foxdale contains a very large per centage of silver, said to amount in some parts to upwards of 100 oz. per ton of lead ore: the total produce of silver from the Isle of Man, is now as much as 67,000 oz. per annum.— (See reports of the Mining Record Office.) The chief mining districts for lead, are Foxdale and Laxey. Lead and copper are both found at Laxey and Brada (the fine-hough, of the text). The latter district is that to which earliest attention was drawn; before the present century the former two were hardly worked. John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, obtained from Edward the First, in 1292, a licence to dig for lead in the Calf of Man (which may be regarded as part of the Brada district), to cover eight towers of his castle at Cruggleton, in Galloway.— (See The Galedfonia, vol. ini.,p. 372.) In the statute book of the Isle of Man, various notices of mining operations occur, under the dates A.D. 1422, 1613, 1618, 1630. See also General View of the Agriculture of the Isle of Man, by Thos. Quayle, Esq., 1812. In the workings at Brada, have been found a description of wedge, called feather-wedges, which were used before the introduction of gunpowder, indicating the earlier character of the works there carried on. Alevel appears to have been driven in near high-watermark, in the north-western face of Brada Head, for a distance of about 200 yards;and 36 feet above this a second edit was made, inclining downwards upon the vein whence a considerable quantity of lead ore was obtained. The present works are very much further inland, and go by the name of the " South Manx " Mines. But they are on part of the same system of veins as those which were earlier worked at Brada, or the " Mine-hough " of Chaloner.

NOTE 18.— "EXTRAORDINARY HIGH WINDS." (Page 8.)

Sacheverell, as well as Chaloner, notes the violent winds of times occurring in the Isle of Man. But though the climate is windy, the annual amount of rain-fall is not excessive. In point of temperature, the Isle of Man is more equable than the Isle of Wight. Observations taken four times daily at Ballasalla, near Castletown, by J. Burman, Esq., F.R.A.S., for a period of seven years, give a difference of hardly more than 16 deg. Farenheit between the mean summer and winter temperatures.
The difference between the mean summer and winter temperatures of the Isle of Wight is 24 deg. At the same time, we observe that the mean annual temperature of the Isle of Man is the highest, for the same latitude, of any place in Europe, being, according to the tables of Professor Dove of Berlin, 49·84 deg., or nearly 50 Farenheit. These remarks apply to the towns on the coast, and to the inland vallies. On the tops of the mountains, the cold is necessarily more severe; but even there, frost and snow are of comparatively rare occurrence.

NOTE 19.— " AND ALTHOUGH THE SAME.... (Page 9)

An anacolouthon: the text of this long sentence is extremely complicated; the drift of it being that the "Learned, Hospitable, Painful, and Pious Prelate Dr. Philips," was the better able to preach in Manx, and translate the Bible and Prayer Book into that language, from its great affinity with his native Welsh. Reference is made to these labours of Bishop Philips, in the report of the " Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," 1764; and it is stated that his translations never appeared in print. A " narrative of the origin, progress, and completion of the Manx version of the Holy Scriptures, and other religious books, for the use of the native inhabitants of the Isle of Man," is given in the appendix to the memoirs of Bishop Hildesley, by the Rev. Weedon Butler, 1799, pp. 211-360. The Manx Prayer Book was first printed in 1765; and the Bible in 1772.
For the points of resemblance between the Manx and the Welsh languages, reference may be made to the " Practical Grammar of the Antient Gaelic or language of the Isle of Man, usually called Manx," by the Rev. John Kelly, LL.D., originally printed in quarto, in 1804, and re-printed by the Manx Society, in their second volume, under the able editorship of the Rev. W. Gill, Vicar of Malew.— (See note 32 infra.)

NOTE 20.— " SIR.' (Page 9 )

On page 16 infra, Chaloner states " The Ministers who are Natives have alwaies this addition of Sir, unless they be Parsons of their parish." In Brydson's Heraldry,p. 176, it is said that when the Clergy Priests bore the title of " Sir," it was as " the Pope's knights." A title thus employed judicially, and declared as characterising the Pope's knights, appears to have had some other foundation than mere courtesy. It was about the same period in like manner applied to the Monks, the proprietors of Cross-Ragwell Abbey. Sir Adam Fergusson (1796), had in his possession a copy of a testamentary deed, dated MDXXX, wherein a number of Monks, to whom it relates, have the title Sir (dominus) prefixed to their names. We also find in Heraldic Anomalies, vol. i., p. 77, that in ancient times " Sir " was a common title of the Clergy, at least of the inferior order, being the regular translation of Dominus, the designation of those who had taken their first degree in the University. Hence, we have in Shakespear, Sir Hugh, in the " Merry Wives of Windsor "; Sir Topas, in " Twelfth Night "; Sir Oliver, in " As you like it "; and Sir Nathaniel, in " Love's Labour Lost." But that this title was quite distinct from Knighthood, is plain from what Viola says in " Twelfth Night " - "I am one that had rather go with Sir Priest than Sir Knight." .
It would appear from some old writings, that Sir John was often used as a soubriquet for an illiterate priest: apposite instances are cited by Mr. Albert Way, in his notes on the name John, in the Prompter Parsed, vol, i., p. 264. (P.B.)
Sir may, however, be a translation of the older form Magister. We read in the charter of Harald, King of Man, in 1246, " Magister Thomas de Mann "; " Magistor Maurice elerieus domini Regis de Mann."

NOTE 21.— " SIR HUGH CAVOLL,.' (Page 9.)

This is no doubt a misprint in the original text, for Sir Hugh Cannell, mentioned on page 17 infra, as assistant to Bishop Philips, in translating the Bible into Manx.He was many years Vicar of Michael Parish, having been appointed thereto about 1609; and died in 1670. Along with Sir W. Norris, Vicar-General, and his official Sir Wm. Crow, he was nominated by Bishop Philips in a commission for managing the ecclesiastical affairs of the diocese, during the Bishop's absence, on the 10th May, 1626. In May, 1610, he was present at a Convocation held in the Church of St. Patick, in Holme (the Islet on which the Cathedral at Peel is situated), by the above Bishop. He was the father of that Deemster John Cannell (appointed in 1646), who is supposed to have connived at the Earl of Derby's proceedings in the matter of the " tenure of the straw." His grandson, Hugh Cannell, was Water-Bailiff of the Isle of Man, (whose mother was a daughter of Thos. Heskett, Esq., of North Wales,) who married Margaret, only daughter of Robert Calcott, Esq., of the Nunnery, near Douglas. The daughter and sole heiress of this latter Hugh Cannell,married Peter Heywood, Esq., Attorney-General of the Isle of Man, and so conveyed the Nunnery estate into that family. (P.B.) The first connection of the Heywoods with the Isle of Man, appears to have arisen from the circumstance that Alice, the daughter of the celebrated John Greenalgh, of Brandesome, who maintained tranquility in the Isle of Man, as Governor, under James, Seventh Earl of Derby, from 1640 to 1651, becoming the widow of Theophilus Holt, of Grizzlehurst (by whom she was progenetrix on one side of the family of the Garretts, of Ballabroie, in Lezayre), married Peter Heywood, of Heywood, Lancashire; by whom she had issue two sons, Robert and Peter, and five daughters, Margaret, Martha, Jane, Elizabeth, and Dorothy. Robert, the eldest, became Governor of the Isle of Man, in 1678, and died January, 1690. He was interred in St. Mary's Church, Castletown; and removed in July, 1699, to the Parish Church of Malew: aged 57 years.Margaret married John Garrett, of Ballabroie, the third of that name in possession of Ballabroie, through whom, in another line, the Garretts trace their pedigree to the Heywoods and Greenhalghs. The youngest son, Peter, became connected with the Cannells in the way we have seen above.
On a brass, in the chancel of Lezayre Church, we read the following inscription:-" Here lyeth interred the body of Mrs Margaret, daughter to Peter Heywood, of Heywood, in the Countie of Lancaster, Esq., by his wife Alice, daughter of John Greenalgh of Brandelsom, in the same Countie, Esq., and Governor of this Isle of Man many years; She was wife to Captain John Garrett, of Sulby, and left issue by him one sonne and three daughters, viz., John, Mary, Alice, Elizabeth; and died Jan. 16, and buried the 19th, A.D. 1669."
Annexed to this is another brass plate, bearing the inscription:-" The above John Garrett, Captain of Sulby, died 1692, aged 29 years; also his grand-daughter-in-law Elizabeth, daughter of William Sutcliffe, of Stansfield Hall, within Halifax vicarage,by his wife, Grace Gibson, of Briggoyd, wife of John Garrett, the fifth of Ballabroie;died 13th March, 1745, aged 40 years; with four of her children, who died in their minority; and left issue Elizabeth, Ann, Margaret, Philip, William, Evan, and Alice."

NOTE 22.— " LATINE AND GREEK. (Page 10.)

Of the words which seem to have been derived from Latin and Greek, some are Ecclesiastical terms, as agglish, "the church"; corpus annym'"body and soul."
Others may, like many words in the Welsh, have come from the Sanscrit, the corresponding Greek words having a like derivation. Sacheverell, (see vol. i., Manx Society, p. 15,) observes the resemblance of many Manx expressions to Latin, instancing Qui fer a tye, for Qui vir tecti. But Qui fer a tye as written by Sacheverell, is not Manx. Probably he meant Quoi fer y thie, which, however, is hardly grammatical. With respect to thie, " a house," we may doubt whether itbe derived from the Latin tectum (tego, " I cover"); seeing that in the cognate Celtic languages, we have the same word in various shapes, as ty, " a house," in Welsh,sigh, in Gaelic; and the old British still seems preserved in the modern English pigsty, which is pig's thie, " the pig's house."

NOTE 23.— " FEW SPEAK THE ENGLISH TONGUE. (Page 10.)

The Manx, as a spoken language, now seems likely to share the fate of the Cornish,and in a few years it may perhaps be written " Few speak the Manx Tongue," as the Rev. W. Gill observes, (Manx Society, vol. ii., p. 9,) " It is a doomed language— an iceberg floating in southern latitudes." The good service done to literature, by the Manx Society, in the re-publication of Dr. Kelly's Manx grammar, in the contemplation of this event, becomes more and more evident, It is much to be hoped that the work of the Society, in printing also Dr. Kelly's Triglott Dictionary, may meet with sufficient encouragement, in order that philologists of future ages, may have within easy reach the means of investigating and comparing the extinct languages of the British Isles.

NOTE 24.— " AND PLACED A BISHOP THERE. (Page 13.)

See note 87, p. 83, vol. i., Manx Society. Chaloner has wisely avoided the legend of Capgrave (alluded to by Sacheverell), of one Mordaius, King of Man, said to have been converted to Christianity in the first century, and the statement of HectorBoetius, followed by Bishop Spotiswood, that " Cratilinth, the Scottish hing (A.D.277), was very earnest in the overthrow of Druidism in the Isle of Man and elsewhere; and upon the occasion of Dioeletian's persecution, when many Christians' deaf to him for refuge, he gave them the Isle of Man for their residence, and erectedthere for them a stately temple, called 'Sodorense Fanum,' and wherein Amphibalus, a Briton, sat first Bishop." The story of the Sodorense Fanum is further improved upon in Gibson's Camden, 1695, p. 1051, where it is said "The chief town [of the Isle of Man.— EDIT.] is Russin, situated towards the north side [really the south side.— EDIT.] of the Island, which, from a castle and garrison in it, is commonly called Castletown; where, within a little Isle, Pope Gregory the Fourth erected an Episcopal See, the Bishop whereof, named Sodorensis (from the Island as it is believed), had formerly jurisdiction over all the Hebrides." Hence, also,some have presumed that St. Michael's Isle, a little Isle adjoining the Promontory of Langness, near Castletown, was the ancient Sodor. The error has probably originated from the circumstance that the little Isle near Peel, on the north side, onwhich was built a castle and cathedral, was in later years called Sodor. The Bishoplic of Sodor, (Norse Sudoer, i.e., the " Southern Islands," thirty in number; the Orkneys and Shetland Islands being the Nordoer, or " Northern Islands,") of which the Episoopal Seat was in Iona, was not constituted by Pope Gregory the Fourth till 838; i.e., 391 years after the institution of the Bishopric of Man, by St. Patrick. TheBishoprics of Man and Sodor were united at the beginning of the 11th century, and so continued till near the close of the 14th— about 300 years— when the Bishopricswere again separated; the Bishop of Man still claiming his ancient title of Bishop of Sodor and Man. It seems most improbable that if the conversion of the Manx toChristianity had ocourred in the first century, they, themselves, should have notradition of so remarkable an event. On the other hand, their conversion by St.Patrick is interwoven with all their earliest records and traditions.

NOTE 25.— " ONE MACUL, ALIAS MAGUIE or MACPHAEILUS." (Page 13.)

The name of this early Bishop of Man has been variously written Machutus,Maefield, Machilda, Machaldus, Magharde, and Maughold. The derivation of the name will perhaps be found in " Machaldus," contrasted with Malew (St. Lupus),and Ma-rown (St. Rooney), both parishes in the Isle of Man where Ma signifies" Saint ": Was Ma-chaldus a " Culdee Saint " ? The old legend is that he was an Irish robber or freebooter, converted by St. Patrick, by whose advice he committed himself manacled, in a coracle (or small wicker boat covered with hides),upon the waters of the Irish Sea, and was driven by the winds and currents upon the shores of the Isle of Man, near the promontory which still bears his name. The Church erected there in his honor, was ever held in great repute; and its precincts were a sanctuary for the Island. St. Maughold was chosen Bishop in 498.

NOTE 26.— " OF THE ANCIENT BISHOPS." (Page 14.)

On the death of St. Maughold, A.D. 518, St. Lomanus, a nephew of St. Patrick,succeeded to the Bishopric. After him were St. Conaghan and St. Rooney. From the above four Bishops, the following Manx Parishes received their names: Kirk Maughold, Kirk Lonnan (anciently Loman), Kirk Conchan, and Kirk Marown.

NOTE 27.- THE REST OF THE WESTERN ISLES., (Page 14.)

It will be seen that whilst Chaloner adopts the idea of a town Sodor, placing it not in Man but in Iona, he nearly hits the truth by saying that in St. Columb's Isle" there had been anciently a Bishop's Seat, for that and the rest of the Western Isles," (or Hebrides, which the Norwegians included under the name of the Sudoer.)— (See above, note 24.)

NOTE 28.— " AND HAD HIS EYES PUT OUT. (Page 14.)

Chaloner appears to have been led astray here by Matthew Paris, who has confounded Hamond, son of Jole, a Manxman, and first Bishop of Sodor and Man,with the atrocious Wymond, a Monk of Sais or Sees, in Normandy; who, in his own person, united the characters of a " Bishop, warrior, and freebooter "; and who was mutilated and deprived of his eyes, " not for the kingdom of heaven's sake,"but for the peace of Scotland.— (See Oliver s Monumenta, Manx Society, vol. iv.,p 227.)

NOTE 29.— "JOHN, A MONK OF SAIS.(Page 14.)

the place, (Sais, in Normandy,) is not printed in the original copy of Chaloner.John was consecrated in 1151, by Henry Mc Murdock, Archbishop of York; but asthe date of Hamond's death is not given in the Chronicon Mannite, there is roomfor believing that John may not have immediately succeeded Hamond; but that one, if not more Bishops intervened. There is also good reason for concluding that Eudo de Sourdeval, who was Abbot of Furness, between 1134 and 1145, became Bishop of Sodor and Man, between Hamond and John. Documents are preserved (Harl. MSS., 1808 p. 57), printed in vol. v;u., Manx; Society, p. 7, one entitled" Recognitio Olavi Regis Mannie et Insularum," the other entitled " Littera Regis Insularum " (Chartae Miscellaniae and Ex Registro de Ecclesia Ebor, office of Duchy of Lancaster, Manx Society, vol. vii., p. 4), in which Olave Kleining (Olave the Dwarf), by the Grace of God King of the Isles, entreats Thurstan, Archbishop of York, to consecrate the Bishop who had been elected from amongst the inmates of Furness Abbey, and the Lord Abbot Eudo declares that he "neither would nor could go to any other person than the Archbishop of York."
Should it be the case that this Eudo was Bishop of Sodor and Man, between Hamond and John, the difficulty in reconciling dates, expressed by myself in vol. i.,Manx Society, note 90, p. 87, will be removed.
Bishop John of Sais was buried 1160, in the Isle of St. Patrick, near Peel, where the Cathedral of St. German was afterwards built, of which Simon, who was Bishop of Sodor and Man from 1236 to 1247, erected the choir, and himself was buried there in 1247, having died on Feb. 23 of that year, according to the Chronicon Manniae.

NOTE 30.— " CONSECRATION IN NORWAY. (Page 14.)

There was a constant struggle between York and Drontheim for the consecration of the Bishops of Sodor and Man, arising doubtless from the peculiar union of the two Sees, originally separated. At the beginning, the Bishops of Man appear to have been consecrated by the Archbishop of York. Shortly after the union of the two Sees, Olave, King of Man, granted in A.D. 1134, by a charter (see Oliver's Monurnenta Manx Society, vol. vii., p. l) to " the Church of the blessed Mary of Furness " the liberty of electing a " Bishop of the Isles." . We have seen (note 29 above), that Eudo (the Bishop whom we have presumed to have been then elected),states that he would not go to any other than the Archbishop of York for consecration. His immediate successors, John and Gamaliel, were consecrated at York;but in 1181, Reginald, who was a Norwegian, of the royal family of Man, was consecrated by the Archbishop of Drontheim. Also, Nicholas de Meaux, Abbot of Furness (who was nominated by Olave the Black, whilst his illegitimate brother Reginald was usurping the throne of Man), was consecrated in 1193, at Drontheim Yet, in the first instance, application appears to have been made on his behalf, in 1193, to the Archbishopric of York.— (See Littera Regis Insularum Directa Capoitulo Eborum pro Electo suo: Cott. MSS., printed in Oliver's Monumenta, Manx Society, vol. vii., p. 49.) And Nicholas calls himself Bishop of the Isles, A.D. 1193, in a document addressed "Omnibus sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis salutem," printed in vol. vii., Manx Society, p. 19, from the Chartra Miscellaniae,, Duchy Office,-(see also Cott. MSS., Claudius, book iii., p. 131 b.), and states that his election had taken place at the hands of the Monks of the Church of Holy Mary, of Furness, to whom the right of election belonged, and who had unanimously agreed to the election of this person. Through the opposition of Reginald, it would seem that the consecration sought for at York, was not obtained; and even after Nicholas's consecration at Drontheim, he could not get possession of his diocese, in consequence of which, in a letter addressed by Pope Honorius the Third, in 1224, to the Archbishop of York, we learn that he applied to the Pope, to be permitted to relinquish his charge.

Again, we know that Simon was consecrated in 1236, by Peter, Archbishop of Drontheim, at Bergen, in Norway. His successor, Lawrence, was also consecrated in Norway, in 1249. Richard, who followed him, was consecrated at Rome, in 1235, by the Archbishop of Drontheim. After the Scottish conquest of Man, during their occupation of it, all the Bishops were consecrated in Norway; but after the English, under Sir William Montacute, in 1343, finally got possession of the Isle, the intercourse with Norway was cut off. William Russel, in 1348, was consecrated by the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia ; and John Donkan, a Manxman, Archdeacon of Down, Collector of Papal Revenues, and last true Bishop of Sodor and Man, was elected by the Clergy of Man, at Peel Cathedral, on the Feast of Corpus Christi, 1374, confirmed by Pope Gregory the Eleventh, October 15, and was consecrated at Avignon, Nov. 15, of the same year, by Simon Langham, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. It is somewhat singular that the first and last Bishop of the true Diocese of Sodor and Man, was a native of the Isle of Man; and there has been no Manxman Bishop, since John Donkan.

NOTE 31.— " THE FIRST BISHOP THAT WAS CONSECRATED AND CONFIRMED BY THE POPE." (Page 15.)

See the end of previous note. The Papal power culminated in the Isle of Man under John Donkan. After the separation of the Dioceses, the liberties of the Church were greatly curtailed, more particularly under the Lordship of Sir John Stanley the Second, who anticipated in Man, by 100 years, the assertion of the supremacy of the crown, made by Henry the Eighth.

Henceforth, the Bishops of Man became the mere nominees of the Lord of the Isle ; and in their election, the clergy and people took no part. At the present time, there is not even a Dean and Chapter to whom, as in England, the crown makes the sham of a choice in the appointment of a Bishop.

The Bishops, succeeding John Donkan, up to the time of Bishop Philips, next mentioned by our author, were:-

Robert Welby or Waldby, of Aire, in Gascony..

A.D. 1380

John Sprotton

1400

John Burgelin, a Franciscan

1425

Richard Pulley

A.D. 1429

John Greene

1449

Thomas Burton, a Franciscan

1455

Thomas of Kirkham

1459

Richard Oldham, Abbot of Chester

1480

Huan, or John Hesketh (probably Bishop till 1542)

1487

Thomas Stanley (son of Sir Ed. Stanley), deprived 1545

1542

Robert Ferrar or Ferrier (translated to St. David's)

1545

Henry Mann (Dean of Chester)

1546

Thomas Stanley restored (Sword Bishop)

1556

John Salisbury, Dean of Norwich

1569

James Stanley, (?) son of Lord Monteagle,,

1673

John Merrick (Sword Bishop)

1677

George Lloyd (translated to Chester, in 1604)

1600

John Philips, Dean of Cleveland. Philips died in 1633, and was buried in Peel Cathedral

1605

After Philips, came William Foster, in 1633, who died in 1635; to whom succeeded Richard Parr, in the same year. On his death, which took place in 1643, the See was kept open for 17 years, when Samuel Rutter was installed in Peel Cathedral, Oct. 8th, 1660.

In my notes to Sacheverell's Short Survey of the Isle of Man, (Manx Society, vol. i.,) on p. 181, I alluded to a remarkable silver bracelet, which was dug up in 1855, in a garden near Rathmines, Dublin, and at that time, 1859, in possession of Captain Edward Hoare, of the Cork Rifles, and bearing an inscription which indicated that it once belonged to a Thomas, Bishop of Man. The legend, on this remarkable relic, is " S. Thome Dei Gratis Episcopi Mannensis." But the question is, to which of the Thomases, Bishops of Man (for there were several), it belonged. My reference to it was given under the name of Thomas, consecrated at Drontheim, Norway, A.D. 1334. In the above list of Manx Bishops, we have two Thomases, the latter of whom immediately succeeded the former; viz., Thomas Burton, Bishop in 1465, and Thomas of Kirkham, Bishop in 1459; to one of whom, from the character and style of workmanship, the bracelet seems rather to have belonged, than to the Thomas of 1334.

Miss Wilks, of Douglas, grand-daughter of Vicar-General Wilks, who has devoted herself much to the study of Manx antiquities, in a remarkable memoir upon this relic, with a sight of which she has favored me, has pointed out several facts tending to the conclusion that Thomas Burton was its original owner. She says, " Bishop Burton was a near connection of Sir Edward Burton, of York, the personal friend of Edward the Fourth, fighting with him 15 battles, and made a Knight Banneret on the field of battle at St. Alban's, A.D. 1460. Two brothers, Burton, of the Long-nor family, emigrated to Dublin in 1610, probably in reduced circumstances, for we find one of them a Banker, and afterwards advanced to the Corporation honor of Lord Mayor — as were also his sons, one of them, the ancestor of Sir William Burton, of Burton Hall, and of Pollarton, county Carlow. The noble house of Conyngham, now also claims descent through them, from the valiant soldier, Sir Edward Burton. In 1855, this silver bracelet was dug up at Rathmines ; of which place, all that concerns this matter is, that there never was a monastery there, but several castles, and that of Rathmines was formerly the country residence of the Lords Lieutenants of Ireland ; the ground is still called the bloody field, being the site of a battle fought between the Duke of Ormond's forces and the army of Cromwell, commanded by General Jones, in 1649."

From the connection of the Burton family with Dublin, Miss Wilks argues that this bracelet, an heir loom of the family, may have been conveyed thither on the emigration of the two brothers from Longnor, in 1610. The bracelet (if it be such in reality), was described in the Journal of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, in No. 56, 1857, vol xiv., pp. 355-6, and in No. 59, 1858, vol. xv., p. 289. It was purchased at the sale of the collection of Captain Edward Hoare, in 1861, and was exhibited by Mr. W. H. Forman, at a Meeting of the British Archaological Institute, in 1861, of which the following notice occurs in the Athenceum for May:-" Mr. W. H. Forman exhibited a silver bracelet, with the impress of the seal of Thomas Burton, Bishop of Sodor and Man, 1452-1480, (1455-1480,-EDIT.,) found in a garden at Rathmines, near Dublin, Nov., 1855. This unique relic weighs 4 ozs. 7 dwts. The seal forming its front represents the mitred prelate giving the benediction with the right hand, and holding the pastoral staff in his left. He stands within a tabernacle, below which is an arch and a second representation of the Bishop, with hands uplifted in prayer, On the verge, is the legend 'S. Thome Dei : Gratia : Episcopi : Mannensis." It has an elegant foliated border ; and the hooping has prominent scrolls and armlets, once probably set with jewels, or decorated with colored enamels."

NOTE 32.— " THE FIRST WAS DR. PHILIPS." (Page 15.)

Dr. John Philips was a native of North Wales. Wood says (Athen. Ox., vol, i., p. 629), that he received his academical education in Oxford; became afterwards Parson of Thorpe Basset and Slingsby, in Yorkshire, obtaining this latter in March, 1591. He is the first Archdeacon mentioned in the Archdeacon of the Isle of Man's books, as appointed to the Archdeaconry of Man, in 1587. About 1590, he became Chaplain to Henry, Earl of Derby. In April, 1601, he was made Archdeacon of Cleveland. He was also Rector of Harwarden, in Flintshire. On the translation of Dr. Lloyd, Bishop of Sodor and Man, to the Bishopric of Chester, in 1605 (ac-cording to Willis 1604), Dr. Philips became his successor in Man: Wood says not till 1614. He is supposed to have held the Archdeaconry of Cleveland and the Rectory of Slingsby in commendam. He died August 7th, 1633; and was interred in the Cathedral Church of St. German, at Peel. According to Sacheverell, he translated, or caused to be translated into Manx, not only the Bible, but also the Prayer Book. The latter though not printed, is noted by Sacheverell as being extant in MS., in his day, but not the Bible.-(See vol. i., Manx Society, p. 91.) This identical MS. is now in the possession of Mrs. Newton, of Westham, Castletown, who is the grand-daughter of Vicar-General Wilks ; and was exhibited by the Rev. W. Gill, the Vicar of Malew, at a Meeting of the Manx Society, September 1st, 1863. Appended to it is the following note, by the late John McHutchin, Esq., Clerk of the Rolls, in the Isle of Man:-" It appears to have been written at an early period of the reign of Charles the First; see the Litany, where interlineations are made to suit the reign of Charles the Second." In a letter from the Rev. W. Gill, Vicar of Malew, to Paul Bridson, Esq., Honorary Secretary of the Manx Society, he states that "on further examination of the MS., the date may be assigned to it between 1625 and 1630, as it contains a prayer for Charles the First and his Queen Maria, but not for their son; the son's name (Prince Charles, i.e. Charles the Second), has been interlined; therefore, Charles the First coming to the throne in 1625, and Charles the Second being born in 1630, the Prayer Book must date between these two periods." It is worth remarking that this Prayer Book does not contain the clause in the Litany as dy chug er ash as dy hannaghtyn dooin bannaghtyn ny marrey, i.e., "and to restore and continue to us the blessings of the sea; " and this circumstance gives good colour to the tradition that the clause was inserted in the Manx Prayer Book by Bishop Wilson.

The Manx Prayer Book properly contains no prayer for the High Court of Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland; but instead of it, is a prayer for the members of the House of Keys (the Insular Legislature), together with a prayer for the Lord and Lady of the Isle, as clauses in the Litany and in the prayer for the Royal Family; viz., As maroosyn yn Chiarn, yn Lady, as Fir-reill yn Ellan shah, i.e., "And with them the Lord, the Lady, and Rulers of this Isle." These clauses were so printed in the Manx Prayer Book of 1765; their omission in the edition of 1840, is without authority. The clause in the Litany for the blessings of the sea, though not printed, is still always used in Manx or English, in the churches of the Isle of Man. It is one of the few remaining evidences of the independence of the Manx Church, unfettered by an " Act of Uniformity."

NOTE 33.— " THE OTHER WAS DR. PARR, A LANCASHIRE MAN." (Page 15.)

In the Registry of Burials, in the Parish of Ballaugh, Isle of Man, under date 1644, is the following entry:-" Richard Parr, Parson of Eccleston, in Lancashire, Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, departed this life the 23a of March, att Bishop's Court, and was buried in Bishop Phillips' grave, in the Cathedral Church within the Castle of Peele, the 26th March."

The following account of him is gathered from Baines's History of Lancashire, vol. iii., p. 475; Wood's Athencv Oxonienses, vol. ii., p. 6 ; and the xxii. vol. of the Cheetham Society's Works, entitled Notitia Cestriensis, part 3, p. 372.

Richard Parr, D.D., was born at Eccleston, Lancashire, in the year 1592. He entered as a Student at Brazen-nose College, Oxford, on the 2nd September, 1609.

He was elected Fellow of his College in 1614, being then B.A. Afterwards proceeding in the same faculty, he entered into the Sacred Function, and became a frequent Preacher. In 1626, he was admitted to the reading of the sentences; and two years after, became Rector of Ludbrook, in Warwickshire, but resigning that living on being instituted to the Rectory of Eccleston, his native place, in 1628. He proceeded to the degree of D.D., in 1634; and in the subsequent year, 1635, was consecrated Bishop of Sodor and Man, holding Eccleston in commendam. The living of Eccleston was put under sequestration by the Parliament, and then it was given to Mr. Edward Gee, " an orthodox preaching Minister," together with a corn-mill, valued at 30 per annum. and also other tithes. He died in 1644.

He published several sermons, all very scarce. His nephew, Edward Parr, of Parr's Wood, in Eccleston, married Margaret, daughter of Edward, and grand-daughter of Richard Robinson, of Euxton, gent., and of his wife Margaret, daughter of Mr. Adam Holland, of Newton, near Manchester, a very near connection of Humfrey Chetham, of Turton, in Bolton-le-Moors, Esq. In a MS. in the possession of Paul Bridson, Esq., written in 1765, it is stated that Bishop Parr rebuilt the Chapel at Ramsey, anciently called the Trine of Ballure, and dedicated it to St. Catherine. (P. B.)

NOTE 34-" CHAPPELS IN THIS ISLE." (Page 16.)

These Chapels (called Treen Chapels, and said to have been instituted by St. German), were originally 193 in number ; i.e., one to each four quarter-lands, or about 11 for each parish. For the origin and name of these Chapels, see vol. i., Manx Society, note 121, p. 93.

NOTE 35,-" MR. THOMSON, AN ENGLISHMAN." (Page 16.)

A Mr. John Thompson appears Vicar of Kirk Christ Lezayre and Rushen, in 1660 ; and was succeeded in the latter living by a Richard Thompson, in 1680. (P. B.)

NOTE 36.— " A RUSHY BOG." (Page 16.)

Chaloner is not fortunate in his derivations, though assisted, as he says, by " Mr. Robert Parr, Parson." Sacheverell, in many instances, has copied him. " Kirk Christ Rushen," or "the Church of the Holy Trinity in Rushen," was so called from its being situated in the Sheading of Rushen, in distinction from " Kirk Christ Lezayre, ' the Church of the Holy Trinity, in the Sheading of Ayre. A Castle, an Abbey, and a Sheading, are named after St. Russin, who was one of the twelve Missionary fathers, who settled with St. Columba, in Iona in 563. Again, Kirk Arbory is a corruption of Kirk Kerebre or Kirk Cairbre. In the old map accom-panying this volume of Chaloner's, the parish is given under its true name, "Kirk Kerebrey." St. Cairbre was a disciple of St. Patrick : and in the Rotuli Scotiæ, temp. Edward the First, we read of the "Church of St. Cairber, in Man."-(See Manx Society, vol. i., note 34, p. 14.) So also, in the Bull of Pope Eugenius the Third, to Furness Abbey, A.D. 1153, amongst the confirmation of grants in Man, to that Abbey, we read of " Terram sancti Carebrie."-(See vol. Vii., Manx society, p. 11.) Sacheverell and others state that the Parish Church of Arbory was dedicated in honor of St. Columba. It is somewhat singular, that in the declaration of the Bishop, Abbot, and Clergy in Man, against the claims of Sir Stephen Lestrop, (see vol. vii., Manx Society, p. 247,) the Church of Kirk Christ Rushen is called the Church of " the Holy Trinity in the fields " (" Michaelis canonicus vicarius ecclesie sancti Trinitatis de Ayre, Willielmus vicarius ecclesie sancti Trinitatis inter prata"). It is evident from its juxtaposition with Kirk Christ's Lezayre, that Kirk Christ's Rushen, is here intended; and the "inter prata" certainly looks very much like Chaloner's derivation " because built on the side of a Rushy bog " ; and it is further countenanced by the fact that the lowlands about the Parish Church are Intack, not Quarterlands, from which we may infer that they were formerly not in a state of cultivation.

Kirk Braddan is derived from St. Brandanus or Brendinus, one of the early Bishops of Man; and Kirk Conchan, from St. Conaghan, also an early Bishop of the Isle. Kirk Malew is from St. Lupus, as appears by the inscription on an ancient paten, still preserved in that Church: "Sanete Lupe ors pro nobis." Kirk Marown is named from St. Rooney, an early Bishop of Man.

NOTE 37.— " SIR JOHN CRELLING." (Page 16.)

In the Episcopal Registry (without date), is a petition from this Parish, signed by Richard Stevenson, Thos. Norris, Wm. Tyldesley, Charles Stanley, and sixty other subscribers, praying that Mr. Crelling, who has been with them eight years, may be presented with the said Vicarage. It is addressed to Richard Sherlock, B.D., and Samuel Hinds, B.D., " delegates for ecclesiastical affairs in the Isle." These two clergymen were appointed during the vacancy in the Bishopric, by Charles, Eighth Earl of Derby, who succeeded to the title in 1651, on the execution of his father at Bolton, for settling the ecclesiastical affairs of the Island. Mr. Crelling is set down as Vicar in 1650; but it is plain from the foregoing document, taken in connection with the time of appointment of the delegates, that such a date is too early. Probably the presentation was in 1658. (P. B.)

NOTE 38-"SIR THOMAS PARR, MINISTER." (Page 16.)

He was instituted to this Vicarage in 1641, on the removal of Mr. Robert Parr to the Rectory of Ballaugh, and continued Vicar to 1691 ; and died in 1695. He was also a Surrogate. As Vicar of Malew, he appears as present at the festivities held in Castle Rushen, at Christmas, 1643-4, from the following singular document, which is signed by him:-" A.D. 1643. The Right Honble. James, Earle of Derbie, and his Right Honble. Countess, invited all the Officers, Temporall and Spiritual, the Cleargie, the 24 Keyes of the Isle, the Crowners with all their wives, and likewise the best sort of the rest of the Inhabitants of the Isle, to a great majke (mask ?), when the right honble. Charles, Lord Strange, with his trains, the right honble. Ladies wth their attendance, were most gloriously decked." (P. B.)

NOTE 39.— " OLD SIR JOHN COSHENHAM." (Page 16.)

This " Sir John Cosnahan, Vicar of Kirk Santon, being Minister of the said parish 38 years, departed this life the 24th June, 1656, and was buried the next day following, in the yard under the Great Broad Stone, for he left in his last will that he should be buried there."-(Parochial Register; see also Flildesley's Life, p. 298.) (P. B.) The Great Broad Stone, as it is called, covers the remains of six clergymen of the name of Cosnahan, four of whom were Vicars of Santon. The following notice of the family of the Cosnahans is given in the handwriting of Bishop Thomas Wilson, in 1739. Referring to a John Cosnahan, who was Vicar-General, and died in 1749, he says:-" Above 200 years ago, one Cosnahan, supposed to have come from Scotland, arrived at Peel town, and settled there. He had issue three sons, for one of whom he bought an estate near Peel aforesaid, called Balla Moar. The other son he educated a Clergyman; the descendants of whom settled in Kirk Santon, and have been Vicars of that Parish successively. The purchase of Balla Kelly made by them, is at present in the possession of John Cosnahan, who was heir to his father Hugh, who was heir to his father John, Vicar of the said Parish, the first purchaser of the estate of Balla Kelly."

The first Clergyman on record of the name of Cosnahan, is a John Cosnahan (written Quislahan), who was Vicar of Jurby, in 1575. (P. B)

NOTE 40.— " SIR WILLIAM COSHENHAM." (Page 17.)

He was Vicar of Kirk German, in 1621, and also within Peel Castle in 1653, when he was succeeded by Sir Thomas Harrison. (P. B.)

NOTE 41.— " MR. ROBERT PARR, PARSON." (Page 17.)

There were three or four Robert Parrs, Ministers about this period: viz., Robert Parr- Vicar of Arbory, in 1713 ; a Vicar of Malew, in 1653 ; a Rector of Ballaugb, in 1640 (the one mentioned in the text) ; a Robert Parr, Vicar-General, and also Vicar of Lezayre, in 1680, and still Vicar when the Church was rebuilt, in 1704; there was a Robert Parr, Rector of Kirk Bride, in 1723, where he was succeeded in 1729, by the Rev. W. Bridson. (P. B.)

NOTE 42-"SIR. JOHN HUDDLESTONE, THE PRESENT CURATE,' (Page 17.)

In the Church Registry of Andreas, 1677, is the following entry: "Sir John Christian was Curate after the death of Sir John Huddlestone, under Archdeacon Fletcher : " and at the head of the marriages, A.D. 1677, and amongst the baptisms of the same year, thus, " Sir John Huddlestone died this year (1677), and Sir John Christian succeeded as Curate in this Parish, under the Rev. Dr. W. Urquart, Archdeacon of this Isle, and Vicar of a Parish in Kent, near London." See also in Baines's Lancashire, a Latin epitaph, commemorative of Fletcher, Archdeacon of Sodor and Man, who died 24th March, 1688, aged 73. (P. B.)

NOTE 43.— " SIR EDWARD CROW, MINISTER. (Page 17.)

The testimony which Chaloner bears to the piety and talents of the Manx Clergy as a body, in his day, is extremely valuable. It is, however, somewhat singular, that though giving the names of all the other Clergy, he does not give that of Archdeacon Rutter; who, by virtue of his office, was also Rector of Andreas. He may have been absent from the Island in attendance on the Derby family. When he mentions above, the Clergy of the different Parishes, giving the title of Minister to the Vicars, and Parson to the Rectors, under the head of Kirk Andreas, he puts down Sir John Huddlestone, Curate. For the character of Archdeacon Rutter, see Earl of Derby's letter to his son, Manx Society, vol. iii., pp. 41-42. "He was a man," wrote the Earl, "for whom you and I may both thank God." How entirely the son agreed with the Father in this opinion of Rutter may be learnt from the circumstance that at the Restoration he nominated him to the Bishopric : Rutter was installed Bishop of Man, at his Cathedral ofPeel, October 8th, 1660, and occupied the See till his death, in 1668.

The title Sir, prefixed to the names of Vicars and Curates, but not of Rectors, by Chaloner, has been explained in note 20.

NOTE 44.— " PRIORY OF RUSHEN." (Page 17.)

For an account of the foundation of the Abbey of Rushen, see Oliver's Monumenta, in the iv. and vii. voll., Manx Society, where several charters and papers connected with this Abbey, as an offshoot from Furness, are given. Also see the Story of Rushen Castle and Rushen Abbey, by the Editor: Bell and Daldy, London.

NOTE 45.— " FRIERS MINORS AT BIMAKEN." (Page 17.)

The Friary of Bimaken, Bemaken, or Bechmaken, in Kirk Arbory, belonged to the Order of Grey Friars, and was founded in 1373. The only portion of it which now remains is the Chapel, converted into a barn ; the door and windows of which have a Third Pointed character. A short account of its effects and appurtenances (as well as those at the Nunnery at Douglas), at the period of its dissolution, 34, 35, 36 Henry the Eighth, is given in the Rolls at the Augmentation Office, Carlton Ride. -See Story of Rushen Castle and Rushen Abbey, p. 52; in the appendix to which work is given the " Computus" of the possessions of Rushen Abbey, made in the year 1541. In the original text of Chaloner, the name is misprinted Brinnaken.

NOTE 46.— " REVENUE UPON THE MINISTERS." (Page 18.)

The character of Lord Fairfax in this respect, stands out in the highest colours, and seems to have given rise to the present position of the Clergy of the Isle of Man. Prior to 1839, the value of the Vicarages of the Isle of Man was miserably small; the large tithes being talåen by the Bishop and the Crown, which had purchased them along with his remaining rights in the Island, from John, Fourth Duke of Athol, the Lord of the Isle in 1825. In the year 1839, the Crown, the Bishops, and the Clergy agreed to commute the several tithes payable to them, for the sum of 5,575 (regulated from year to year by the price of corn) ; and a re-distribution of the sum total was made in the following proportions: -

The Incumbents of Parishes.

32921 2 0

The Lord Bishop

1515 0 0

The Crown

525 0 0

Chaplain of St. Jude's, Andreas

101 0 0

Trustees of the Clergy Widows' Fund, , . .

141 8 0

 

£5575 0 0

The incomes of the Vicars were thus raised to 141. 8s. 0d. each, exclusive of their glebes. The Rectors of Ballaugh and Bride, 303. 0s. 0d. each; and the Archdeacon, 707. 0s. 0d.

NOTE 47.— " THE BISHOPS HAVE BEEN PERSONS OF SINGULAR PIETY." (Page 19.)

This testimony is particularly worthy of note, as showing the discernment of the Earls of Derby in their choice of Bishops, and the deep interest which they took in the spiritual welfare of the Isle, committed to their trust. "Have this in your thoughts first," says James, Seventh Earl of Derby, in his famous letter to his son, preserved in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, "to choose a reverend and holy man to your Bishop, who may carefully see the whole Clergy do their duties." The injunction was attended to by this son and grandson, so that the Bishops of the next 50 years and more, were not in any way inferior to those of the previous 50, commended by Chaloner. To the names of Philips, Foster, and Parr, of the 50 years before Chaloner's eulogium, must be added those of Rutter,1660 ; Dr. Isaac Barrow, 1668 (the true founder of King William's College, Castletown) ; Henry Bridgman, 1671 ; Dr. Lake (afterwards translated to Chester, and one of the seven Bishops confined n the Tower by James the Second), 1682; Baptist Levinz, 1685; and last, but not least, the Apostolic Thomas Wilson, 1698, who was Bishop of Sodor and Man for 57 years.

NOTE 48.— " THE PROVING OF WILLS." (Page 18.)

During the Commonwealth, the proving of wills was vested in the Civil Magistrates, who instituted a Court called the Willer's Court, which ceased to exist in 1660 The following is a true copy of a summons served by Chaloner himself, who received his appointment as Governor under Lord Fairfax, in 1659:-

" Duglas, ye 23d July, 1659.

You are hereby required to meet at St. John's Chappell, on ye 26th day of this instant Month, about the proving of Mrs. Parr, late deceased, her will, without fail.

JAMES CHALONER."

To CAPT. STEVENSON and MR. WILLIAM QUAYLE, Judges of the Will Court. ~~
TO CAPT. STEVENSON, of Balladoole, These."

We find the following statement in some notes taken from the mouth of Vicar-General John Harrison, Dec. 12, 1678, in an inquiry by Bishop Henry Bridgman, in presence of his Registrar, Mr. Richard Fox, Clerk:- The Parliament Power made Lay Officers, which they named 'Willers,' one while Mr. Samuel Radcliffe and Captain John Teare, who had registers, William Christian, Mr. Patrick Connell, and Edward Brew, all perons of very mean judgment, who defaced much the records and kept them in very base order, which cannot yet be repayred. Within three years next after, succeeded Major Richard Stevenson (see above,) and Mr. W. Quayle, as Willers, and Mr. Thomas Norris, Registr, who kept their proceedings in very good order, and continued until the happy Restoration." (P. B.)

NOTE 49.— " THEIR SAID RESPECTIVE INTERESTS." (Page 19.)

The Priors and Abbots of these different foundations, who were Barons of the Isle, were summoned as such by Sir John Stanley, at the Hill of Rencurling, in 1422, to do fealty to him for their holdings; and not appearing, their possessions in the Isle were confiscated. These Ecclesastical Barons, holding lands in the Island but not living there, were the Prior of St. Ninians or St. Trinians, at Withorne, in Galloway; the Prior of St. Bede's, in Copeland (Cumberland) ; the Abbots of Banchor or Bangor and Sabal, in Ireland ; and the Abbot of Furness, in Lancashire. Separate Courts for the Baronies are still held by the officers of the crown.-(See Note 67, p. 40.)

NOTE 50.— " INHABITED BY THE ANCIENT SCOTS." (Page 20.)

It is the universal tradition that the earlier inhabitants of the Isle of Man were Scoto-Irish. The statement of Nennius is that '"the Scots came from the parts of Spain to Ireland; " and " this people coming from Spain, gradually possessed many regions of Britain; and one Buile, with his followers, occupied Eubonia, that is Man, and other Islands round about. 'Builc autem cum suis tenuit Euboniam Insulam et alla circiter.' " It seems very doubtful, however, what the original name in Nennius, (or the author passing under his name,) may have been. Camden states, edition 1637, "Nennius hath written that one Biule, a Scot, was Lord of it (i.e., Man)." On the other hand, Sacheverell writes (see vol. i., Manx Society, p. 24), " We are informed by Mr. Camden, out of Nennius, that the Island was conquered by one Binley, a Scot." It is very easy to see that such a name as Binle may be written so that a printer would be doubtful whether he should print it Builc, Biule, or Birle. Hence, may have originated the various names attributed in Nennius, Camden, Chaloner, and Sacheverell, to one and the same Manx Ruler. The Builc of Nennius, may be the same as the Birle of our author, mentioned just below line 5, from bottom of page 20.

NOTE 51.— " MANNANAN MAC BAR." (Page 20.)

The Manx have a legendary ballad of the beginning of the 16th century, referring to this ancient ruler; and the statute book of the Isle of Man also makes mention , of him in the following terms:- "Mannanan-Beg-Mac-y-their (i.e., Little Manuanan son of the sea), the first person who held Man, was the ruler thereof, after whom the land was named; he reigned many years, and was a paynim (i.e., a pajan), that kept the Island under a mist, by his necromancy. If he dreaded an enemy, he could cause one man to seem a hundred, and that by magic art." He is said to have been converted to Christianity by St. Patrick.-(See Oliver's Monumenta, Manx Society, vol. iv., p. 84.) Perhaps our author's " Mannauan Mac Bar," is a misprint for Mannannan Mac Lar or Mannanan Mac Leir.

NOTE 52-"MONA IN CÆSAR AND TACITUS." (Page 21.)

Chaloner differs from most writers in stating that the Mona of Caesar was Anglesea. Caesar's words (Comanentaries, book v.), are "In hoc medio Cursu est insula, quæ appellatur Mona; " i.e., midway between England and Ireland lies the Island called Mona. The expression " medio cursu," certainly seems more applicable to Man than to Anglesea. See the subject fully discussed in A short dissertation about the Mona of Cæsar and Tacitus, by Mr. Thomas Brown, originally attached to Sacheverell's Survey of the Isle of Man, and printed in vol. i., Manx Society.

NOTE 53.— " SOME ENCLOSED IN COFFINS OF STONE." (Page 21.)

The Isle of Man is remarkable for the large number of barrows, cairns, cists, stone circles, and bauta-stones (bauter steiner), tall uninscribed stones, such as the two called the "giant's quoiting stones," near Port St. Mary; these latter are probably remains of the Heathen Northmen ; the Christianised Northmen afterwards erected Runic monuments. The barrows and cairns may either be Norse or Celtic, the few remains found in them not being of a character sufficiently distinct to determine which.-(See vol. i., Manx Society, note 47, p. 19 ; and A Guide to the Isle of Man, by the Rev. J. G. Cumming, pp. 149, 150, 151 ; also see Worsaae's Antiquities, etc.)

NOTE 54-"WERE EXPULSED THENCE." (Page 21.)

Edwin, King of Northumbria, following up his successes against Cadwallon, A.D. 625, wrested the Isle of Man from the Scots, who then were in possession of it. On the death of Edwin, A.D. 633, in the battle of Heathfield, Cadwallon not only regained his own territories, but gained also the Isle of Man. It is stated by Bede, that when Cadwallon was slain at Denisbrook, A.D. 635, King Oswald, and after him, in 642, his brother Oswy, gained possession of the Nevanian Islands, i.e., Man and Anglesea.

NOTE 55.— " CAME UNDER THE SUBJECTION OF THE NORWEGIANS BY CONQUEST." (Page 22.)

Chaloner passes entirely over the Norwegian occupation of the Isle of Man, from 888 to 920 ; and its Danish Kings, from 920 to 1066. . The renowned Norwegian, Harald Haarfagr, invaded the Isle of Man in 888, and overthrew Anaraud, the last Welsh King; and left as his Viceroy, the Jarl Ketil Bjornson, called also Flatnefr. In A.D. 890, Ketil declared himself independent; and this line of rulers was con tinued in Helgi and Thorstein, his son and grandson. On the expulsion of Thorstein, in 894, according to the Egilla Saga, one Nial or Neil was set upon the throne, and his nephew Olave, succeeded him in 914. Then according to Manx tradition came Orry or Erik, a Dane, who landed at the Lhane River, in the north of the Isiård, from a strong fleet, about 920. He was gladly received by the Manxmen, and es tablished a line of Kings who have left permanent memorials of themselves. These were Guthred or Godred the First (who founded Rushen Castle, in 947), then Reginald the First; Olave the First; Olain ; Allan; Fingal the First; Godred the Second; Macon or Hacon, in 973, son of Harold, King of Dublin (who was constituted High Admiral, by our Anglo-Saxon Edgar, and whose name appears in the Charter of Glastonbury) ; then Godred the Third; Reginald the Second; Suibne ; Harold the First; Godred the Fourth; and Fingal the Second, in 1076. In Fingal the Second ended the Danish line ; for Godred Crovån (the son of Harold the Black, of Iceland), who had fled to the Isle of Man in 1066, (when Harold Haardrardr, the Norwegian, was beaten by the Anglo-Saxon Harold, at Stanford Bridge), and had been there hospitably entertained by Fingal, subsequently in the year 1077, invaded the Isle of Man, with a great fleet from Norway; and overthrowing and slaying Fingal, in the battle of Sky-Hill, near Ramsey, gained possession of the throne of Man, and divided the Island amongst his followers. This dynasty lasted nearly 200 years; i.e., till the conquest of the Island by the Scotch, in 1270. The conquest by Godred Crovan, was that conquest mentioned by Chaloner, in the text, as taking place in 1066. Godred Crovan reigned in Man 16 years; but in 1090, he was expelled from his kingdom by Magnus Nudipes, the Piratical King of Norway, and died in the Isle of Isla, in 1095. He left three sons-Lagman, Harold, and Olave : the first of whom, on the death of Magnus, in 1103, regained possession of his father's kingdom ; but after a reign of 7 years, on account of his tyranny and cruelty, he was expelled by his subjects; and going on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, died there. Olave, the youngest son of Godred Crovan, called also Olave Kleining, or the Dwarf, being then under age, a Regent was appointed for four years; but in 1114, Olave, who had married Afireca, a grand-daughter of Henry the First of England, was placed upon his father's throne, and reigned till 1154, when his son, Godred the Black, succeeded him. The table of the descendants of Godred the Black, is given in Appendix C.


 

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