[From Manx Soc vol 2, Kelly's Manx Grammar]



The pronoun relative is generally understood in Manks, as cheayll mee coraa nagh hoig mee, I heard a voice (that) I understood not; ayns y vriwnys t'ou er harey, in the judgment (which) thou hast commanded.

The pronouns possessive, aym's, mine, ayd's, thine, echey, his, and their plurals, are ever placed after their substantives; the articles y or yn being put before their substantives, as yn thie aym's, my house; yn cabbyl ayd's, thy horse; yn thie echey, ain, eu, eck, oc.

All the other possessive pronouns are placed before their respective substantives, the radical initial letter of their substantives being changed into its soft: as my ven, dty ven, e ven. Nyn, our, your, their, is always placed before its substantives, and before the verbs with which it is used in a reflective sense: as va shin er nyn livrey, we were (ourselves) delivered; va shiu er nyn livrey, ye were (yourselves) delivered. But as nyn changes the mutable consonants in a manner peculiar to itself, viz., into their liquids, I shall give it in all its variations:--

English Noun.

Manx Noun.

Nyn Noun.


a town,

nyn malley.


a castle,

nyn gashtal.


a country,

nyn jeer.



nyn ghooghys.



nyn voays.



nyn ghiastyllys.



nyn Yee.


a head,

nyn gione.


a pain,

nyn bian.


a pin,

nyn vreeney.


a yoke,

nyn guing.



nyn doilchinys.

The vowels and liquids suffer no change.

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions, thus:--



Er, upon.--Orrym, upon me; ort, upon thee; er, upon him; and urree, upon her.

Orrirn, upon us; erriu, upon you; orroo, upon them.

Da, to.--Dou, to me; dhyt., to thee; da, to him; and dee, or jee, to her.

Dooin, to us; diu, to you; daue, to them.

Rish, to.--Rhym, to me; rhyt, to thee; rish, to him; ree, to her.

Rooin, to us; riu, to you; roo, to them.

Marish, with.--Marym, with me; mayrt, with thee; marish, with him.

Marin, with us; meriu, with you; maroo, with them.

Harrish, over.--Harrym, over me; harryd, over thee; harrish, over him; harree, over her.

Harrin, over us; harrystiu, over you; harrystoo, over them.

Voish, from.--Voym, from me; void, from thee; voish, from him; voee, from her.

Voin, from us; veue, from you; voue, from them.

Fo, under.--Foym, under me; foyd, under thee; fo, under him; foee, under her.

Foin, under us; feue, under you; foue, under them.

Liorish, by.--Liorym, by me; liort, by thee; liorish, by him; lioree, by her.

Liorin, by us; lieriu, by you; lioroo, by them.

Ayns, in.--Aynym, in me; aynyd, in thee; ayn, in him; aynjee, in her.

Aynin, in us; ayndiu, in you; ayndoo, in them.

Lesh, with.--Lhiam, with me; lhiat, with thee; lesh, with him.

Lhien, with us; lhiu, with you; lhieu, with them.

Roish, before--Roym, before me; royd, before thee; roish, before him; roee, before her.

Roin, before us; reue, before you; roue, before them.

Mastey, among.--Masteymee; mast'ayd; mast'echey; and mast'eck.

Mast'ain, among us; mast'eu, among you; mast'oc, among them.

Jeh, of.--Jee'm, of me; jeed, of thee; jeh, of him; and j'ee, of her.

J'in, of us; j'iu, of you; j'eu, of them.

Ass, out of.--Assym, out of me; assyd, out of thee; ass, out of him; assjee, out of her.

Ass shin, out of us; assdiu, out of you; assad, out of them.

Erskyn, above--Ermyskyn, above me; er dty skyn, above thee; er e skyn, above him.

Er-nyn skyn, above us, you, them.

Fegooish, without.--M'egooish, without me; dt'egooish, ny'gooish.

These pronouns are contracted thus:--Ym, from mee or my, I and my; yt, from dty, thy, and sometimes t is changed into d, as harryd, over thee, &c.; in, from shin, we; iu, from shiu, ye; oo, from roo, them.

The interrogative and its answer shall agree in case: as Quoi voish haink eh? from whom did he come? Voym's, from me.


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