[From Manx Soc vol 1 Sacheverell's Survey c.1692]



SANCTISSIMO Patri et Domino Honorio Dei Gratia summo Pontifici, Reginaldus Rex Insularam, commendationem cum osculo pedum. Noverit sancta paternitas vestra, quod Nos, ut participes simus bonomm quae flunt in Ecelesia Rom.; juxta admonitionem et exhortationem dilecti patris Domini P. Norwicen electi, Cameraii et Legati vestri, dedimus et obtulimus nomine Ecelesiae Romanae, et vestro, et Catholicorum vestrorum successorum, Insulam nostram de Man, quae ad nos jure haereditario pertinet, et de qua nulli tenemur aliquod servitium facere, et deinceps nos, et haeredes nostri in perpetuum tenebimus in feudum, dietam Insulam ab Ecelesia Romana., et faciemus ei per hoe homagium et fidelitatem, et in recognitionem Dominii, nomine census, nos et haeredes nostri in perpetuum annuatim solvemus Ecelesiae Romanae, duodecim Marcas Sterlingorum, in Anglia, apud Abbatiam de Furnes Cistertiensis Ordinis in festo Purificationis B. Mariae. Et si non esset ibi aliquis ex parte vestra vel successorum vestrorum, deponentur dictae duodecim Marcae per nos et haeredes nostros penes Abbatem et Conventum, Ecelesiae Romanae nomine. Hanc donationem, et oblationem dictus Dominus Legatus recipit ad voluntatem et bene placitum vestrum, et post receptionem factam ab eo sic ipse Dominus Legatus dietam Insulam dedit mihi, et haeredibus meis in feudum perpetuo possidendam et tenendam nomine Ecelesiae Romanae. Et me inde per annulum aureum investivit, etc. Actum Lond., in domo Militiae Templi, 10 cal. Octob., Anno Dom. Millesimo ducentesimo decimo nono. Et ne super his aliquando possit dubitari, has literas fieri fecimus et sigiro nostro muniri.Codeo juris Gentium Diplomaticus per Godefridum Gulielmum, Liebnitzium, impressus Hannoverae ,1693, fol. prodromus, pag.5.

Whilst Reginald, by this infamous surrender, was endeavouring to recover his lost estate, his brother Olave for above two years enjoyed an undisturbed possession of the Government of the Isles; till at last compelled, by the disorder of a:ffairs, to visit the remote parts of his scattered kingdom, being well attended by the nobility and soldiery, he left the, Isle of Man exposed to the fury of his brother Reginald, who, about this time, returning from London after his submission to the Pope, embraced the opportunity, and, by the assistance of Allen, Lord of Galloway, and Thomas, Earl of Athol, landed a great army, with which he laid the whole south side waste, murdering all the men they met, burning all, even to the very churches, and committing an the inhumanities a tyrant, heated by resentment and revenge, could invent, or the brutality of an army execute. Till at last, glutted with so much barbarity, or perhaps apprehending his brother Olave's return, he drew out his forces, and Allen, Lord of Galloway, left his bailiffs to collect the revenue; but Olave speedily returning drove away these collectors, and by all possible means endeavoured to recall such as had escaped the fury of Reginald, so that the country began to be repeopled, and the natives to settle themselves in peace and security. But the same year, in the midst of winter, in the dead of the night, Reginald (watching all opportunities to revenge himself) accompanied by the Lord of Galloway, with five ships only, came and burnt all the shipping belonging to his brother and the nobility of the Isles, then at anchor under St. Patrick's Isle (I suppose Peel Castle) ; after that, falling into Rannesway, now Derby Haven, he stayed there forty days, under pretence of seeking peace of his brother Olave, but, by all plausible insinuations and kind persuasions, debauched the whole south division to his service. Of so mutable a nature is the vulgar, that those very people he had so harassed, by burning their houses, murdering their kindred and relations, now publicly take arms in his defence, and declare they will die by him, if he is not restored to his moiety of the Kingdom of the Isles. Olave flies for protection to the men of the northern division, who resolutely defended his cause. The battle was fought at a place called the Tynwald, the public field of counsel and of arms; Reginald lost the day, and was himself slain in the heat of that action, though unknown to his brother, as all their histories testify. Thus fell this restless and ambitious soul, who for above thirty years had disquieted himself and his people. And as if fortune designed to double their miseries, during the very battle, certain freebooters utterly wasted all the south parts, as if his death were to complete all the calamities he had brought on them in his life. His body was carried by the monks' of Rushen to the Abbey of Furness, and buried in a place formerly chosen by himself.

Olave, at last hoping to enjoy the fruits of so many labours and so much justice, resolves on a voyage into Norway, Anno 1221, where it is probable, during the contention betwixt the brothers, the accustomed respect had not been paid. But before his arrival there the King of Norway had made a nobleman named Heusback King of the Isles, and gave him his own name, Haco, who was slain as he was storming a certain castle in the Isle of Bute, and never reached this Island. Olave, therefore, returning into Man with Goddard, son of his brother Reginald., by consent of the people, the Kingdom of the Isles was divided betwixt them. Olave had Man allotted to him, and Goddard, going to his share, was slain in the Lewis. So that, at last, the whole Kingdom of the Isles devolved on Olave. Anno 1236 Henry the Third (68) granted safe conduct to Olave, King of Man, and the same year gives him his commission, with forty marks, 100 quarters of corn, and five tuns of wine, for his homage and defence of the sea-coast, as long as he shall faithfully perform that service, which he enjoyed until the year 1237. He died on the 18th of June, in Peel Castle, lamented by his people, in a just old age, a Prince worthy of better times, a better kingdom, and better subjects. He lies buried in the Abbey of Rushen, and was succeeded by his son

Harrald, aged about fourteen years, of great hopes, and rare endowments, both of body and mind; but before he was well settled in his new Government Ged either by the necessity of his altairs, or a youthful curiosity), he resolves on a progress through his whole Kingdom, which consisted of nearly three hundred island-s, but dispersed, and many degrees remote. He left Logland, his cousin, Custos Manniae, who, it is probable, did not execute the trust with that fidelity as was expected; the King, therefore, the autumn following, sent three sons of Nell(69), viz., Dufgaall, Thorquell, and Malemore, with his friend Joseph, to consult about his affairs. A general meeting was appointed the five-and-twentieth day following, at the Tynwald, their usual place of assembling for public affairs; but, instead of counsel, they fell to arms, the shortest way of ending controversies in those days. Dufgall, Malemore, and Joseph fell in the quarrel; at which the King, greatly incensed, returned into Man the spring following; but Logland, apprehending his just displeasure, attempted to fly into Wales with Goddard, a younger son of Olave, but suffered shipwreck in his passage, with the young Prince and all his retinue. The power of the Kings of Norway had, to this time, been the terror of the northern parts of Europe; Harrald had not paid that personal attendance at his Court, as had been expected. He, therefore, in the year 1238, sent Gospatrick, and Gilles-Christ, the son of MacKerthack, to seize the revenue of the Island for his own use; but Harrald the year following took a voyage into Norway, where he carried himself with that discretion that, after more than two years' stay, he was restored to all the islands enjoyed by his ancestors, to him, his heirs, and successors, under the Broad Seal of Norway.

Harrald, now secure of the inheritance of his predecessors, in the year 1242 returned into Man, where he was received by the universal applause and good wishes of the people, which he endeavoured to improve by all those public diversions which render youthful princes agreeable to their subjects. But, considering that nothing secures a lasting happiness like peace abroad, he entered into strict alliances with all the neighbouring Princes of Scotland and Ireland; and to secure himself of the good affection of the monarchy of England, he procured letters patent, dated the 31st of Henry the Third, by which he was permitted to come into England, where he was welcomed with all the public compliments due to his character. He received the order of knighthood from the King (which in those days was never offered but to persons of great birth and merit), and in all places was entertained with a generosity which is natural to the English, and at last nobly presented. In the same year he returned into his own country, where, as if his good fortune was at once showering down all the blessings of this life upon his head, he received an invitation into Norway, whither he went, attended by Lawrence, late Archdeacon, now Bishop Elect of Man, with a numerous train of nobility and ladies, and married the King's daughter. But, after a long and noble entertainment, with all the festivity usual on such public occasions, returning into Man, he was unhappily driven upon the coast of Radland, where he suffered shipwreck, and perished with his beautiful young Queen, his bishop, and almost all his nobility, and the ladies. A sad conviction, that the highest felicities this world affords are too often but a more solemn introduction to our ruin, which was unhappily verified in his brother and successor,

Reginald, who assumed the Government Anno 1249, on the 6th of May(70), and the 30th of the same month was slain in the meadows near the Church of the Holy Trinity, commonly called Kirk Christ Rushen, with all his party, by a knight called Ivar; whether the cause of their quarrel was love or revenge, is not mentioned, or whether he had assumed the Government without the consent of the people. Reginald left one daughter, very young, named Mary, who in the year 1292 claimed the Kingdom of the Isles, and did homage to our King Edward the First in Perth, or St. John's Town. Though we do not find in the whole Norwegian line any pretence to a female succession, yet this gave ground for a plea near four hundred years after, upon which sentence was pronounced in favour of the heirs general of Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, against his brother, Earl William; but it was afterwards settled by Parliament in favour of the males, for during the race of Goddard Crownan three qualifications seemed requisite for the descent of the Government-a male succession, the consent of the people, and the approbation of the King of Norway, who was then acknowledged for sovereign; and where either of these was wanting, it generally proved fatal to the prince and people. Olave had left a third son, named Magnus, who probably was not in the island at his brother's death, so that Harrald,, the son of Goddaxd Don, grandson of Reginald, for a time usurped the name of King, and dispossessed all the nobility depending on the successors of Olave, of their employments and commands; but the King of Norway sent for him, and made him prisoner for his unjust intrusion. The same year John, the son of Dufgall, took the name of King, and brought with him Magnus, the lawffil heir; but the people taking it ill that Magnus was not named (for it is probable John came by the appointment, or connivance at least of the King of Norway), drove him and his followers from their coast, of whom the greater part perished by shipwreck.

Magnus, therefore, the year following, 1252, came into Man, and was chosen King by the universal consent of the people; but finding it unsafe to trtist to that title only, he the next year(71) went into Norway, where, after two years' attendance, he was declared King of the Isles, and the title confirmed unto him, his heirs, and successors, Anno 1254. These little Princes had a nice game to play, as they lay surrounded with so many potent states. The power of the Kings of Norway began to decline, and the Scottish, from whom these islands had been taken, to recover strength; so that during the last vacancy they designed to recover them, had not the King died in the midst of the preparation. The monarchy of England was now almost their only refuge; therefore, in the year 1256 Magnus resolved on a voyage to that Court, where he was honourably received by King Henry the Third(72), as his brother Harrald had been some years before, and knighted by him, as the greatest compliment which could be paid to strangers by our monarchs in those days of chivalry. The year following Richard, Bishop of the Isles, consecrated the Abbey Church of St. Mary Rushen, which, though begun one hundred and thirty years before, and in that time had been the repository of many of their kings, it is probable was not finished till this time. In the yeax 1263 Aquinus, King of Norway, resolving to avenge the afront the Scottish nation had designed, made a descent upon that kingdom; but was so warmly received by their new King, Alexander, a generous and active prince, that he was forced to take shelter in the Oreades, where he died at Kirkwall This was the last feeble effort of that nation, which had spread its arms over all Europe for five hundred years past; it had given kings to England and Sicily, dukes to Normandy, and held the sovereignty of these isles for near two hundred years; but by continual throwing out such vast numbers of the natives, had so weakened itself, that some time after it became subject to the more potent Kingdom of Denmark. Thus nations have their periods as well as persons and families, and the most enterprizing generally destroy themselves soonest by their own ambition. This little Kingdom, deprived of the protection of Norway, could not support itself much longer, for Magnus dying Anno 1265, in his Castle of Rushen, was buried in the Abbey Church he had lately caused to be dedicated, and left no child behind him. He was the ninth and last of the race of Goddard Crownan, who for 200 years had enjoyed the name of kings, but were, in truth, little better than lieutenants to the Crown of Norway; and their inheritance became an insensible addition to the Kingdom of Scotland, and rather took away an evil than conferred a good; as may be affirmed with greater justice of the accession of that whole nation to the monarchy of England: for though the addition of neighbouring countries may increase a territory, yet diferent laws, interests, and religions rarely cement themselves into a well compacted or united state.


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