[From Proc IoMNHAS vol 1]
Eighty-five members of the Irish Society, with Mr. Robert Cochrane, LL.D., F.S.A., President, and Mr. J. McEnery, Secretary, crossed on Monday, July 4, by the ordinary steamer from Belfast and a special steamer courteously provided by the Isle of Man Steampacket Company, from Dublin, arriving in Douglas at 9-15 and 10 p.m. respectively. The greater number made their head-quarters at the Sefton Hotel.
On Tuesday, July 5th, train was taken for S. John's, to witness the ceremony at the Tynwald. Unfortunately, heavy rain began to fall before the Chapel was left, and continued all day. Abstracts of the laws promulgated, translated by Mr. Kelly, were delivered by Mr. Wm. Cashen, the well-known custodian of Peel Castle.
In the afternoon at 2-30, the members assembled for their meeting in the Douglas Town Hall, which was placed at their disposal by the Mayor and Corporation. Dr. Cochrane, the President of the Society, occupied the chair, and there was a full attendance of members.
The Mayor (Councillor A. H. Marsden, J. P.) proceeded to extend a hearty welcome to the Society on behalf of the community of Douglas and the Island, and said it was with great pleasure that the Corporation placed the Council Chamber at their disposal for their meetings.
Deemster Callow, President of the local Society, said :" I can assure you that, on behalf of the Manx Antiquarian Society, I give you a most hearty welcome, and can promise you that no effort on our part shall be wanting to render your stay amongst us pleasant and interesting. We are always delighted to welcome any Society of Antiquaries to our Island, but we specially welcome your Society, because whether St. Patrick did or did not introduce Christianity into Man, there is no doubt that we are indebted to Irish missionaries both for the introduction of religion and art. I must warn you not to expect to find in this small country the glorious abbeys or the beautiful crosses which abound throughout the length and breadth of Ireland ; but to those who delight to study the antiquarian remains left by a primitive and rude people, we have much that is of interest. Thanks to Mr. Kermode, Canon Quine, and Mr. Rigby, we have been enabled to provide a description of those remains which we hope to show you, and we invite your criticism, and look forward to obtaining much information from you ladies and gentlemen derived from the close study of similar but more important remains. Mrs. Callow and I regret that we cannot have the pleasure of inviting you to our house, but Mr. Kermode, who drew up the programme for your visit, found it impossible to give another afternoon in Douglas, so we hope to see you all at the Bay Hotel, Ramsey, on the Friday next. Again offering you a hearty welcome, let me express a hope that when you return to Ireland you may carry with you pleasant recollections of your visit to Manxland."
*Extracted for the most part from " The Isle of Man Times," July 9. 1910.
The President, who was cordially received, said It is a difficult matter adequately to convey the thanks of such a large number of members as are present, for the very cordial invitation given and the warmth of the reception accorded to them, on and since their arrival. Immediately on landing last night, we were welcomed in person by Deemster Callow, the Worshipful the Mayor of Douglas, Mr. Marsden, and other representative men. The difficulty is not lessened, while the pleasure is enhanced, by the terms of the letter addressed to our secretaries, wherein it is said that we were 'welcomed by every man, woman, and child on the Island.' This is true Manx hospitality, and highly gratifying to us as visitors. We have experienced in a marked manner this morning a privilege prompted by the thoughtful consideration and courtesy of His Excellency Lord Raglan, the Governor, to be present at one of the most interesting ceremonies in which we have ever been permitted to take part. I refer to the promulgation of the laws on Tynwald, the Manx hill of liberty ; and it is, I believe rightly, regarded as the last surviving instance in Europe of such an open-air assembly. In Dublin there is still pointed out the site of a mound, or Thing Mote, said to have been used for similar purposes, but it is only the memory of a by-gone time ; while with you it is a living reality, and it is the hope of all antiquaries that long may the custom be preserved. We are indebted to Mr. Kermode for a valuable contribution to our "Guide Book," which gives a full account of the Tynwald and the ceremonies connected therewith. We have before us this afternoon the honour and pleasure of participating in the hospitality of Lord and Lady Raglan at Government House; while at eight o'clock the shall be entertained by the Mayor and Mrs. Marsden Our friends in Douglas have formed a very high estimate of our capacity for enjoyment, and we are realising to the full what the have so often heard before, that the Island is the most enjoyable of all places where the English language is spoken. His Excellency and Lady Raglan have also prepared an archaeological treat for us on Wednesday morning, at Castle Rushen, in the examination of the fine collection of Manx antiquities and the casts of sculptured and inscribed stones found in the Isle of Man. The building itself is of the greatest interest; and though the present structure may not date further back than the thirteenth century, there is little doubt that it occupies the site of a building three centuries earlier. On Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, we are to be the guests of other distinguished hosts - on the latter of the Deemster and Mrs. Cheslyn Callow. Deemster Callow is president of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, founded in 1879. The title of Deemster is new to some of us ; but it is not the fault of a distinguished Manxman if it is not known the world over. The office of Deemster appeals to antiquaries, as it is one which has existed since the time of the Norse rule in Manxland ; and the Deemster is the direct successor of the old law-givers. He is a judge of the High Court and also an ex-officio member of the Legislature. All the Manx Acts commence with the formula, "We, the Lieut.-Governor, Council, Deemsters, and Keys, in Tynwald assembled."
Ethnology shows us that there is more vigour of body and mind in countries where there has been an admixture of different races of mankind. This no doubt accounts for the superior qualities of Manxmen; for the early history of the country shows a succession of dominating races in occupation of the Island. It does not appear that the Romans ever established a footing here ; and it is, perhaps, as well ; for while it would have conferred advantages, their grievous yoke would have utterly extinguished the self-governing aspirations of a people whose just pride is that they rule themselves and make their own laws.
A good deal of speculation has been indulged in about the origin of the name of the Island. It is generally regarded as derived from Manannan, who was King before the Christran era. There is every reason to believe that in the fifth century the language was common to both Man and Ireland. The name of St. Patrick is of very frequent occurrence in the Island. Jocelyn, writing in the twelfth century, says he did visit the Island, and there are a great number of early-churches which were dedicated to him, or to saints who were known to be associated with him, and there are two churches named Kirk Patrick. The prevalence of the names of other Irish saints in the dedication of your most ancient churches, such as St. Bridget, St. Cairbre, St. Columba, and many more, is a further indication of the religious connexion, Germanus, to whom is dedicated the cathedral church of St. German's, which we visit on Thursday, is now generally believed to have been commonly known in the Irish Martyrologies as Mocbaernog, a disciple of St. Patrick. The place-names on the Island are found to be of Irish origin to the extent of about 60 per cent., while in the personal names there is a still greater majority of similar origin. The intercourse seems to have been more or less of a friendly character from the time of the introduction of Christianity until the invasion of both countries by the Norsemen. It is believed tribute was paid to the King of Ireland about the tenth century, and in the Annals of the Four Masters it is recorded that in A.D. 1060 the King of Dublin went to Manann and carried tribute thence. A few years later the Danes were installed as a conquering race in both countries; but the Celtic rule in the Island seems to have been revived shortly after. An ancient record is quoted in the publications of the Manx Society, vol. xxii., that the King of Ireland, in 1096, was requested to appoint some competent person of the Royal race in Manxland to be their King. In 1113, there was at, alliance on equal terms between the Kings of both countries; but soon the English influence began to be felt, and in the twelfth century, when the English came, they obtained a permanent footing in both Islands. The relations between Ireland and the Isle of Man would form the subject of a lengthened paper, too long to notice on the present occasion. There is an interesting article on "The Connexion of the Isle of Man with Ireland," in the Celtic Review, by Mr. A. W. Moore, your late Speaker.1 Sir Henry Howorth, to his address to the Cambrian Archæological Association, delivered at Chester, in August last year, puts in a plea for a Welsh colonization of the Island, and says:2 "The fact is that the Manx people who speak Gaelic were brought there not earlier than the beginning of the ninth century, when they went under the leadership of Norwegian chiefs, just as similar colonies were similarly led at the same time to Galloway and the Hebrides, and became the ancestors of the Highland clans. . . . It thus appears that during the later occupation of England by the Romans not only a large part of the east coast of Ireland was occupied by Welshmen, but also the Isle of Man, and it is probable that a considerable number of then were victims of the Roman method of government who had fled thither to escape the Roman task-masters, and this, perhaps, accounts for the vindictive and cruel raids on the Roman settlement beyond St. George's Channel made by the Picts-Irish-in later times."
To the antiquary the symbol of the Island, the Triskele, or "Legs of Man," is of peculiar interest as a present-day representation of a form of the Swastika, one of the earliest-known symbols of the solar system, dating further back than Roman civilization; and even at that remote period, in Eastern countries and in Aryan times, it was considered an ancient device.
The Island is especially rich in the number and variety of crosses with Runic inscriptions and ornament. It is generally accepted that the ornament on our Irish crosses, and the decoration of our metal-work were inspired by the work in our illuminated manuscripts. The absence of similar MSS. on the Island has led to a discussion as to the source from which the ornament was derived ; and it has been argued 3 that it is to ancient Gaul we owe both the Irish MSS. and the ornament of the crosses. This is an interesting subject of inquiry, and we believe it has been pursued by our distinguished friend, Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, in his valuable work on Manx Crosses.
The great number of primitive churches, of which there are about too, called Keeills in the Island, are well worthy of very careful examination. In Ireland the prefix "Kil" in place-names is taken as meaning a church (though sometimes it is derived from "Coill," which indicates a wood), and it may be assumed that the Irish "Kill' is equivalent for the Manx "Keeill." In some of these structures the workmanship is of a rude type, somewhat like what may be seen in some of the Scottish islands, and indicating the work of a sea-faring people who could more readily undertake the construction of a ship than the erection of a stone house. The examination of the stone circles, cairns, and barrows, and, particularly, the earthworks, will greatly interest our members. From what we have heard of the Round Tower at Peel, it appears to be akin to the typical structures in Ireland, from which it does not differ in any important point, such as the tapering of the masonry and general proportions, after making allowance for the modern changes made in the entrance doorway and in the later addition to the top. The tapering is so slight as to be scarcely noticeable.
Our visit to-day marks the first occasion on which you have received a body of Irish Antiquaries; but it is not the first time you have entertained archæologists of other nationalities. The Cambrian Archæological Association, which has the advantage of a seniority over our Society of three years (the Welsh Society having been founded in 1849) was received in a most friendly and hospitable manner in Douglas, in 1865, when Lord Loch, a former Governor, was president for that year. Dr Oliver acted as a most efficient local secretary and conductor of excursions, with a local committee, of which the Lord Bishop, the venerable Arch-deacon, the Speaker of the House of Keys, the two Deemsters, fourteen members of the House of Keys, the Vicar-General, and the Receiver-General were amongst the members.
You will not, of course, be surprised to know that amongst the Welsh archaeologists on that occasion were several Irishmen. the most prominent of whom at the time was one of our own members, the late Richard Rolt Brash, the author of valuable works on "The Ogam-Inscribed Monuments of the British Islands," and the "Ancient Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland." Brash at that time was disappointed in not finding any Ogam-writing in the Island ; but, as indicating the progressive nature of your work since then, four important Ogam inscriptions have been discovered, and it is highly probable more will be found and described to add to our knowledge of this early and most interesting form of epigraphy. The report of that meeting referring to your reception of the Association says that, either as regards the beauty and variety of the scenery, the interest of its various antiquities, and the cordial kindness with which the members were everywhere received, it yielded to no previous meeting of the Cambrian Archæological Association-a sentiment which the members of this Society feel they can heartily endorse.
Just as in 186 the Welsh Society contained representatives of our own body, it seems in accordance with precedent that the Irish Society should have in its party representatives of that most vigorous and important Association ; and it is a great pleasure to us, as I have no doubt it is a source of gratification to you to know, that we have with us to-day the Rev. Canon Rupert Morris, D.D., F.S.A., one of the chief executive officers of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, with other members of that body. The intimate connexion between the Isle of Man, Wales, and Ireland existed from the earliest times, though the visits were not always of a friendly nature. We are now engaged in keeping up the historical sequence, with this difference, that the modern "invasions" are of an eminently cordial character, and we shall take back with us rich stores of most valuable antiquarian knowledge and experience.
Another important body to which you have extended hospitality was the British Association excursion, to the number of eighty, from the 10th to 13th September, 1887, in charge of Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.S.A., who has been a member of our Society for many years. The invitation was given then, as now, by the Governor and the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society. I am aware that there are other Societies from which you have had visits ; the two I have mentioned are those with which I have had personal acquaintance. There is just one possible drawback to a friendly intercourse of our people with the Isle of Man-it might tend to increase the depopulation of Ireland. The Rev. P. Moore, writing in 1773, on the advantages of a residence in this Island, says :-" Is it not amazing that, while there is so general a complaint all over England of the cost of living, people of easy fortunes don't retire to the Isle of Man, where all the necessaries and even luxuries of life are cheap and in great abundance, where a small family or single person can live better on £6o or £70 a year than in England for £150, and so in proportion ?" After enumerating the freedom from crimes of violence and robbery, and facility for intercourse with the rest of the United Kingdom, he adds that the growing "advantage peculiar to this part of His Majesty's dominions is that no person, having no visible effects, can be imprisoned for debt." With a budget of a taxing capacity of nearly two hundred millions, those observations are in many, respects as forcible to-day as when they were written. The suggestion as to receiving persons of easy fortune is admirable ; but I hope that not many of those without means, or persons escaping from their creditors, have claimed your hospitality.
One of the many things we desire to become better acquainted with is the practical working of your Museum and Ancient Monuments Act of 1886, the inception of which is a memorial to the genius of the men who produced it. There are a good many Acts for the preservation of ancient monuments in force for the United Kingdom ; but they are of a very detached and incomplete character, and, though their provisions were gladly accepted by archaeologists at the time, that legislation cannot now be regarded as meeting the requirements of the present day. An examination of the reports of the "Manx Museum and Ancient Monuments Trustees" shows the careful and liberal-minded manner in which the Trust is managed. "The reproduction of photographs in the report of the principal objects taken into the Museum each year is a practice which ought, and no doubt will, eventually, be followed elsewhere. Also all the objects are described, including those not illustrated. The descriptions and illustrations of the principal structures taken over as ancient monuments by the "Trustees, and the issuing of a reprint at the nominal price of sixpence, is a practice that has everything to commend it, and for the past few years it has been followed in Ireland by the Board of Works with great acceptance and approval by that class of the public which is interested in such work. In the fifteen sections of your Act there are many clauses identical with the Act of 1882, which is in operation in the United Kingdom; but there are additions of importance which, coupled with the liberal and sympathetic administration of your Act, make it of the greatest advantage to the Island. I observe with the greatest pleasure that the Trustees are able to take cognizance of isolated objects such as crosses, sculptured stones, and structures, even though they may not have been actually vested or offered to the Museum. Your late Speaker of the House of Keys, Mr. A. W. Moore, in February, 1893, then a member of the Manx Legislature, and one of the trustees under the said Act, who was so greatly interested in the preservation of antiquities, and took such an important part in obtaining the Act, said, in a letter to me at the time :--"Unfortunately we are dependent on a very unsympathetic Legislature (our own) for funds." It is pleasing to know that this position no longer exists, and that the attitude is friendly and liberal ; indeed, seeing the progress in archaeological work in all civilised countries, and the growing public interest that is manifested, it would be strange if such an enlightened and patriotic assembly as your House of Keys were in any way behind in giving the needful assistance. Another interesting feature in your work is your practical appreciation of what is a self-evident proposition, though strangely misconceived by the authorities elsewhere, that the first step towards protecting monuments is to have a careful and exhaustive list made of them, and I am happy to find you have accomplished this, and the work is again undergoing revision and extension. That you should be the first in the British Dominions to have undertaken such an important work reflects the greatest credit on the. community and the Manx antiquaries.
After many years of effort by leading archaeologists in pressing on Government the necessity for preparing such lists, in 1908 separate Royal Commissions for Scotland, Wales, and England have been appointed to make inventories of the ancient and historical monuments and constructions connected with or illustra-tive of the contemporary culture, civilization, and conditions of the life of the people front the earliest tunes, and to specify those most worthy of preservation.. Last year the Scottish Commission, the first appointed, produced a list for the county of Berwick-an octavo of fifty-nine pages. The other two Commissions are engaged in the preparation of their first reports, the Welsh Commission having taken up Montgomeryshire for consideration and in England Hertfordshire will be dealt with. It seems that ' it will take a year for each county, and the time for completion may, therefore, be taken as the same number of years as there are counties. This rate of progress is much too slow, and it requires to be greatly accelerated.
It will, no doubt, astonish many that no Commission for compiling a list of the antiquities of the country has been appointed for Ireland, nor has one been asked for ; but it is to be hoped that, when obtained, the time of completion will be arranged so as to occur within a more reasonable period. Royal Commissions in recent years have become remarkable for being ineffectual in promoting any practical legislative work. In this matter, however, the mere preparation of the lists of monuments in the country is of great value ; but unless followed up by well-considered legislation much of the benefit arising from this expenditure would be lost. If we wait until all the lists are completed, many of the monuments, more particularly the earthworks, castles, and churches in grave-yards, will have disappeared. It, therefore, follows as an absolutely necessary corollary that, as each county is finished, every item considered of sufficient importance to be preserved should be regarded as "scheduled " for protection against injury somewhat as provided for under the Act of 1882. This, while at once placing the monument under protection, would not interfere with the rights of the owner, who would have an opportunity at his leisure to consider the advisability of vesting it in the State or County, in the event of his not having already decided to do so. In this way the preparation of the list of the monuments and their protection would go on concurrently. An opportunity would be afforded of dealing with the highly important question of classification or allocation as between the State and the County. In the present unsatisfactory division of responsibility, many interesting structures well worthy of preservation are rapidly going to decay. If the preparation of the lists of monuments in Ireland is approached on some such broad and comprehensive basis, we would profit by the experience gained elsewhere, and turn the delay into an advantage.
The legislation for the preservation of antiquities in the United Kingdom has been of a very makeshift character ; but, such as it is, we archæologists are thankful for it. The more thoughtful minds have long felt that enough has been done in this disjointed way, and the time has come that in any amendment and extension to be promoted it would be advantageous to consider the possible co-ordination of antiquarian work under a central authority. For the structural antiquities we have three or four distinct departments working independently--county councils without expert advice, in the absence of which their activity, if awakened, might become mischievous; local societies working intermittently, and sometimes aimlessly ; and private uninformed effort ; with the result that there is a great deal of misdirected energy and overlapping. The most prominent met) in the archaeological world are unanimous as to the necessity for the formation of a properly constituted advisory board, council, or commission, not to supersede any existing department or authority ; but it should be placed in a position to assist and advise the different departments, organizations, and societies already engaged in the various phases of the work of preserving the antiquities of the country.
It is not necessary to go into any detail here as to the constitution of such an authority, which, however, should be composed of antiquaries of business aptitude and administrative ability, for work of co-ordination and decentralization. My object is to indicate the pressing necessity for it, in the systematic development and complete use of scientific antiquarian knowledge and activity in the most advantageous direction to which such effort could be turned-viz., the preservation of the remains of our national antiquities ; a subject on which more enlightened views are rapidly gaining ground.
The importance of education, not only of 'the people, but " the masters as well as the masses," as a means to the proper appreciation of the scientific value of our ancient buildings and their protection, as well as the utilization of our museums of antiquities for educational purposes, demand urgent attention ; while the development of open-air museums in preserving ancient structures, the removal of which from the original site has become unavoidable, are all matters of the highest moment ; and for the co-ordination of this work there is no single existing department with powers capable of exercising a controlling and uniting influence and jurisdiction.
The urgent necessity for a new authority, with powers of co-ordination, organization, and control, is abundantly manifest ; and in its absence there is nothing to look forward to but a continuance of fruitless and wasteful effort, with the growing decay and ultimate disappearance of many of those relics which the Legislature intended to be preserved.
Your cross-houses at Kirk Maughold and Kirk Michael, where at the former are preserved and exhibited 38 crosses dating from'` the sixth to the thirteenth centuries, are the earliest and most admirable examples of open-air museums in the British Islands, though not on so extensive a scale as one at Lyngby, near Copenhagen. An approximation to the idea has been attempted at Lewes and Aylesbury.
I have only taken this opportunity in this brief manner of referring to such a subject, chiefly because we find that here, in your Island State, you have not only adopted the principle, but in your "Museum and Ancient Monuments Act" you have put into practical operation ideas similar to those which at present occupy the minds of all interested in the study and preservation of our national monuments. The consensus of opinion points to having for the United Kingdom a Trust or Advisory Council, to be known by whatever name is most convenient, corresponding in some respects with your Manx Museum and Ancient Monuments Trustees; with, of course, more extended powers and duties, as they would have to deal with the difficulty involved in distinguishing between " State" and " local" objects--a difficulty which does not arise in your administration. That such a body will be constituted for the United Kingdom sometime there can be little doubt; whether sooner or later remains to be seen. The recognised necessity for utilizing the labours of the Royal Commissions by further legislation should tend to bring about early action."4
Our visitors then attended a Reception at Government House, where members of the local Society had been invited to meet them. In the evening, the Mayor and Mayoress (Mr. and Mrs. Marsden), gave a Reception at the Town Hall, which was attended also by the Governor and Lady Raglan, the Lord Bishop and Mrs. Drury, members of the Isle of Man Society, and many others.
On Wednesday, July 6, an Excursion was made to the South. The bright sunny weather was all the more welcome after the bitter experiences of the previous day at St. John's, and was the theme of general congratulation as the party assembled at the railway station to take the train for Castletown. Many Manx friends belonging to the Insular Society joined either at Douglas or en route, and the day was spent in very pleasant fashion. Canon Quine was a host, when it came to the showing or explaining of buildings, or the discussion of historic questions ; Mr. Rigby knows his Castle Rushen, in all its architectural details ; and Mr. Kermode, the learned secretary, was ready to dilate at any length on Manx crosses, or, for the matter of that, on any other topic of antiquarian interest. In addition, his Excellency the Lieut.-Governor, who has conferred a boon on the Island by the restorations which he has carried out at Castle Rushen, was present, with Lady Raglan, and acted as cicerone in chief, as the visitors explored the venerable pile.
On quitting the train, the party drove to the Castle in carriages which were waiting, and at once proceeded to make a tour of the building, under the guidance of the gentlemen whose names have been given, assisted by the custodian, Mr. McLaughlin, and Mr. Connock. Castle Rushen is a fine example of the Edwardian fortress, and the restorations which have been recently carried out, and the removal of modern excresences and defacements, have immensely enhanced its value from the antiquarian point of view. The gate-house and portcullis were pointed out, and the rooms underneath were penetrated. Here there were recently unearthed a moat, or trench, with sluices for admitting the tidal water. The purpose of this arrangement is not certain, but it is surmised that the water was used for providing power for a mill for grinding corn for the inmates of the Castle. The living-room and kitchen for the guard were shown. The visitors then passed over the causeway and drawbridge into the Castle proper, examining the mechanism for raising and lowering the bridge, the heavy spiked portcullis, and the defences of the entrance. It was explained that, origin-ally, there was a network of walls between the inner and outer gates to impede unwelcome intruders. Arrived at the inner court-yard, the structure of the Castle itself and the general arrangement of the rooms was indicated. The dining-hall, the banquetting-room, and the other principal apartments were visited ; the arms of the kings and lords of Man were inspected as they hung on the walls. In the museum the skeleton of the great elk was seen, and a large collection of implements, weapons, cinerary urns, and other antique things were shown and explained. Mr. P. M. C. Kermode gave a long, but interesting, exposition of the Manx crosses, casts of which are on view in one of the larger rooms of the Castle. The view from the top of the Castle walls was admired, and the clock presented by Queen E lizabeth vas pointed out. Outside the Castle walls several features of interest w ere noticed, such as the remains of the brewery, the well, the mint- (from which Manx coinage was once produced) ; the chapel, built in the seventeenth century, near the causeway at the entrance to the Castle ; and other items. At the close of a somewhat exhaustive inspection, lasting a couple of hours, Canon Hogg proposed, on behalf of the Irish visitors, a vote of thanks to Lord Raglan for his graciousness and extreme kindness in explaining to them the Castle. He remarked on the splendid manner in which the Castle was kept ; also, on the great pains and expert knowledge which his Excellency had shown, and the urbane and genial way in which he had explained everything that required explanation. The vote was seconded by the Rev. Canon Morris, carried with acclamation, and presented by Dr. Cochrane, the President, to his Excellency, who replied in a few genial words. Dr. Cochrane afterwards replied appreciatively to the valuable services of Mr. Rigby, Mr. Kermode, and Canon Quine. The party then proceeded to the George Hotel for luncheon. S. Mary's Church, converted into a Grammar School, was visited, and the roof and arches examined which are thought to have been brought from Rushen Abbey. Dr. Cochrane. however, would not accept this explanation and considered this might have been an original building.
From Castletown, the party drove to Balladoole, where they were met by Mr. and Miss Stevenson. On the top of a little knoll, a few hundred yards in the rear of the mansion, there are the remains of an old chapel or keeill, described by Canon Quine as a perfect example of the old Keltic keeills found in various parts of the Island. The] keeill, with its precincts, was enclosed by a wall, generally of oval shape, and also an outer line of fortification for the Keltic settlement or village. Canon Quine referred to ancient records, which connected the re grant, by Olaf II., of Rushen Abbey and the Abbey lands with a chief named jol, whose father had been guardian ot' Man while he was endeavouring to hold the Western islands against Magnus. The lands which Olaf gave, and the charter which he signed, were identified as the Abbey meadows, and were described as frageriol, believed to be "prater Jol," or Jol's meadow, adjoining Balladoole. The land and keeill were, therefore, associated with the foundations of the diocese of Sodor and Man in the first half of the 13th century.
The visitors were next conducted to the old parish church of Malew (Saint Lua). The nave is the most ancient part of the building ; there has been a comparatively recent extension east-wards, and a transept on the north side ; at the west end is the bell turret. The lev. J. M. Spicer, vicar of the parish, exhibited almost the only example in the Manx churches of pre-Reformation plate, in the form of a small silver chalice and paten, bearing the legend---" Sancte Lupe ora pro nobis." A bronze crucifix, assigned to the thirteenth century, and one or two other relics, were also examined. The romanesque font is preserved, and two early crosses brought from outlying keeills in the parish. The old parish register dates back, as regards burials, to the year 1649. William Christian, of Ronaldsway, who was shot at Hango Hill by order of the Countess of Derby, was buried in Malew Church, and the fact is recorded on a brass memorial plate. Mr. Kermode showed and explained a broken Scandinavian slab (94) found in the churchyard in 1854. It appears to have been originally about 80 inches by 21 inches. Each face shows the broken shaft of a cross. On one we have illustrations of Sigurd the Volsung. In a panel below the circle which surrounded the head of the cross is to be seen a figure of Sigurd, with high cap and kirtle, his sword by his side ; in his right hand a wand, on which is the heart of Fafni, the dragon, roasting over flames of fire. In the lower panel, Sigurd again appears, concealed in the pit, piercing the passing dragon with his sword. The space to the left shows, above, the remains of the steed Grani. The shaft itself is decorated with link-twist and figure-of-eight knot work. The other face shows a dragon figure of a different character, with irregular interlacing at either side of the shaft.
Canon Quine explained the derivation of Malew as being Ma-lua, or Saint Lua. There was also found the suffix " oc," used as a diminutive, and, in some cases, both prefix and suffix, as "Ma-lua-oc," as in the island of Lismore and elsewhere. He pointed out that Rushen Abbey, a mile distant, was founded, or rather, re-founded and dedicated to S. Mary as a Cistercian house, but, on the basis of an early Columban establishment, dedicated to Leoc. When the Cistercians obtained that grant of land, it was a re-grant of lands belonging to the monastery of S Lua. They had the old church of S. Lua and the old Columban foundation of St. Lua, and they could assume that they were both parts of one foundation. There was a parallel instance in the case of Kirk Braddan and the old nunnery foundation of S. Bridget's. The Canon went on to suggest that " Braddan " was derived, by etymological rule from " Bridget," confirming his view by examples.
From Malew Church the party proceeded to Billown, the beautiful residence of Mr. Thomas Moore, C.P., who received them very hospitably. Tea and other refreshments were dispensed on the terrace in front of the mansion, and the visitors were charmed with the courtesy of their host and the beauty of the house and grounds. In the rear of the house, a little-known stone circle was explored. It has suffered some injury, and is much over-grown by weeds and timber, but it is apparently a burial circle of pre-historic times. The huge quartz boulders which compose it have apparently been brought a distance from the mountain above, and . some of the Irish gentlemen re-called instances in Ireland-notably at Dowth and Newgrange in the Boyne valley-where tumuli were surrounded by stones, brought from a distance to form the cromlechs.
Rushen Abbey, the last rendezvous in connection with the day's excursion, was reached at quarter past five, and the party spent some time in examining the refectory and the fragment of the monastery building which still stands. The original establishment appears to have consisted of an abbot and twelve monks, who followed the Cistercian rule, one of whom was Hamund or Wimund, a native of Man, who became the first bishop of Sodor and Man, about the year 1100. Canon Quine related the story of Jocelyn, Abbot of Furness, who is responsible fur the legend that the Christianising of the Isle of Man was due to S. Patrick. The party were interested in a tomb slab on view in an old building, which formed part of the Abbey cloisters. It bears in low relief a representation of a sword and a cross, betokening that it lay over the tomb of a knight. Its date is assigned as the early part of the thirteenth century, and it is surmised that it was over the grave of Olaf II., King of Man, who died in 1237, and was buried in Rushen Abbey. Rushen Abbey was the last monastery dissolved in the British Isles, 1541.
The Irish antiquaries spent their fourth day (Thursday) in the Western part of the Island. Taking train from Douglas at 9-30, they first called at Kirk Braddan Church. Deemster Callow, President of the Manx Antiquarian Society ; Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, hon. sec ; and the Rev. Canon Quine, and several other members of the local Society, accompanied the visitors, and they were met at Braddan by the Rev. Canon Moore, vicar of the parish. The old church of Braddan, which came first under notice, was (as Canon Quine explained) re-erected, in 1773, on the site of one much older. A great deal of old material was evidently worked into this new building. The tower at the west end is square and battlemented, and evidently ancient. The arches of the west of the nave are of herring bone work, the doors tall and narrow. There is evidence of the existence of a church at Braddan in the thirteenth century, from the fact that Mark, Bishop of Sodor and Man. held a synod there on the 10th March, 1291, at which thirty-six canons were enacted, with the object of bringing Manx church usages into complete harmony with those of the Anglian Church.
The interesting collection of Runic Crosses was expounded by Mr. P. M. C. Kermode. Of the nine pieces found in this parish, four are Scandinavian, with inscriptions in runes. Of the rest, two, in relief, are perfectly plain, and show the cross of early form; in the first of them the limbs are at an angle with the shaft, suggesting that the " Celtic" form of cross had not yet been adopted ; the other is an early stage of the development of this form. An interesting slab seems to show Anglian influence, but has so many irregularities in the execution of the design, that it appears that the sculptor was not familiar with the decorative treatment he attempted. A large wheel-cross represents the favourite subject of " Daniel in the lions' den," the rest of the cross covered with loose intricate, but perfectly regular plait work. Mr. Kermode gave a detailed description of the Scandinavian crosses, distinguished by the purely geometrical designs, including the ring chain introduced into the Island by the sculptor Gaut. The inscriptions on the crosses are interesting : one, unfortunately mutilated, relates to some forgotten tragedy, as it says : " Hross-Kettil betrayed in a truce his own oath-fellow."
Before leaving the neighbourhood, the visitors viewed the remains of the fortified settlement in close proximity to the church. 'The line of defence, though much mutilated, is distinctly traced in a wide circuit by large stones along the line of the rampart, which follows the course of a small stream. The condition of the surface and its defensible location suggest a numerous pre-historic settle-ment, probably abutting on the margin of the sea, which then extended to Kirk Braddan. The name of the adjoining estate, Kirby (Kirkby), recalls the fortified village of a forgotten past.
At Peel Castle, the Lord Bishop of the diocese, and the Rev. W. A. Lewis, vicar of S. German's, welcomed the antiquaries, and after they had been photographed within the precincts by Mr. Geo. B. Cowen of Ramsey, they entered S. German's Cathedral, where the Lord Bishop conducted a brief service of prayer, reciting, with Mr. Cashen (the old Manx custodian), the Lord's Prayer in Manx, and afterwards pronouncing the Benediction in the same tongue.
Canon Quine gave an able exposition of the various buildings enclosed within the walls of S. Patrick's Isle, beginning with the venerable cathedral church of S. German. He pointed out that the first reference to the church was contained in Jocelyn's " Life of Patrick" (1183), and suggested that the exceedingly beautiful chancel of S. German's was to be associated rather with Jocelyn and his patron, Reginald, lord of Man, than with Bishop Symon, who was generally regarded as the founder. Canon Quine believed that Bishop Symon (1226-47) built the tower and transepts. He adduced arguments in favour of the theory that Reginald had been the donor of the church lands in the district, and had induced the Cistercian order in the Island to build a church and instal themselves there. He pointed out that the arrangement of the monastic buildings was similar to that at Iona, of which monastery Symon had been Abbot. Canon Quine pointed out the striking resemblance in design, style, mouldings, and stone used in the chancel of S. German's to the chancels of Inch Abbey and Grey Abbey, in County Down. He suggested that Jocelyn, who was working and writing under the patronage of the lord of Down, was the connecting link between the two. Reginald, Ding of Man, and his sister Aufrica, who married De Courcy, Lord of Down, were supporters of the Cistercian order. To Bishop Symon must be accredited not only the building of the tower and transept, but also the cluster of conventual buildings, and it was he who established the Chapter of Canons at S. German's. The other ecclesiastical buildings were examined and explained. Canon Quine pointed out that the round tower, or Piel, though built originally on the Irish model, had fallen into ruin, and had been re-built in its present form--cylindrical and battlemented at the top. The armoury, usually supposed to be a building of military significance, was surmised by the Canon to have been originally an ecclesiastical building. Canon Quine pointed out that the early bishops of Sodor and Man, from the time of Bishop Richard, had the right given them of erecting gallows and imprisoning offenders. He related many other interesting points of history and tradition connected with the sacred isle." The visiting party were extremely interested in the recital.
Crossing the harbour, the party went to the Creg Malin Hotel for luncheon.
Mr. Macmillan had kindly arranged that the railway carriages should go through to Kirk Michael without passengers having to change at S. John's.
The next object of the day's expedition was the magnificent series of crosses now assembled under the roof of the lych-gate at Kirk Michael. The district is more Norse in character than any other in the Island, and no Celtic pieces have been found there. Of the nine Scandinavian crosses discovered, all but two bear inscriptions in runes. But there is an earlier one also, which Mr. Kermode, who gave a particular description of the stones, thought might be Anglian ; it was discovered in a wall at Bishopscourt, after the fire there in 1892. On one cross the artist, " Gaut," declares that he made that and all in Man. On a large slab at Kirk Andreas he calls himself Gaut Bjornson, of Cooilley, a place identified with Ballacooilley, near Michael village.
After hearing the lecture on the crosses, many of the party visited the tombs of Bishop Wilson and Bishop Hildesley, in Michael churchyard.
At Bishopscourt, his Lordship and Mrs. Drury gave the travellers a most genial welcome. A number of Manx ladies and gentlemen here reinforced the party. Amongst them were noticed Deemster and Mrs. Moore, the High-Bailiff of Ramsey and Mrs. Cruickshank, the Mayor of Douglas and Mrs. Marsden, Mrs. J. T. Clucas, Mr. J. W. Cannan, H. K., and Mrs. Cannan, Mr. C. T. Hughes-Games, Vicar-General; Mrs. Ring, Mrs. Freeth, Mrs. Dr. Marshall, Mr. T. S. Keig, C.P., and others. The first care of the Bishop and his wife was to supply the visitors with needful refreshments of tea, cake, and strawberries. Subsequently, the party found a great deal to interest them, both within and without the walls of the episcopal palace. There were portraits of the former bishops of the Island, curios of all sorts, and especially mementos of Bishop Wilson, who died in 1755, after half a century of service for the Island. There were on view his watch and favourite teapot, and a walking-stick of Bishop Hildesley. The Bishop's own pastoral staff, or crozier, of Manx bog oak and Manx silver, was on view, and a number of interesting old books and manuscripts. The Rev. H. F. Shenton, vicar of Jurby, showed the pre-Reformation silver chalice, from his church.
Before the visit terminated, the party assembled on the lawn, and on the motion of Mr. Grove White, seconded by Mr. Gray (the oldest member of the Society), a hearty vote of thanks was passed to the Bishop and Mrs. Drury for their cordial welcome, and for the Bishop's presence and service at S. German's.
The Bishop, in acknowledging the vote, said they were never so happy as when they saw Bishopscourt well furnished with guests. He felt it to be a responsibility to be in care or trust of these beautiful grounds when he walked them alone, and he never enjoyed them so much as on occasions like the present. It was a very great pleasure to have the brief service at S. German's. He thought, going there as Bishop, it would not be out of place if, in at least one of their excursions, there should be a recognition of the Great Author of their blessings, and of these beautiful things, whether in Nature or Art.
On Friday the antiquaries had the most delightful weather of their visit, and their tour lay through the most picturesque scenery of which the Isle of Man can boast. At nine o'clock they took the electric cars to Ramsey. Many of the party had not visited the Isle of Man before, and they were both surprised and charmed by the magnificent scenes of cliff, and seascape, and wooded glen which were opened up in rapid succession as the cars sped along the line which skirts the coast. The party were accompanied, as before, by several local people who pointed out the various objects of interest passed on the way.
On arrival at Ramsey, they entered carriages and drove to Crook Sumark, overlooking Sulby Claddagh. While climbing the small isolated hill, Canon Quine mentioned that the adjoining lands, called "The Graingey," on the hillsides, originally belonged to the Abbey of Rushen. 'There was a farm where there was a settlement , of monks, where dues and tithes were collected, and corn stacked. There was reason to believe that there was a religious order there before the land was given to Rushen Abbey. Ballameanagh, "the farm of the monks," perpetuated this. The ancient structures had been turned into farm buildings.
On reaching the summit of Cronk Sumark, the party were struck by the magnificent view extending over the whole of the northern plain. The top of the hill is surrounded by a rampart, roughly circular and following the natural features ot the ground. A rocky knoll is separated from the main summit by a steep narrow declivity. Canon Quine said this double hill was called "Crook Sumark." " Sumark" might be equivalent to Primrose; at any rate, it was commonly called " Primrose Hill " by the Manx country people. They had, on this hill, a very good example of an earth fort of a very early period. He pointed out that at Ballachurry, near Andreas, there was a very fine fort, supposed to have been thrown up about 1643, when the troubles began in England between Charles l. and his Parliament. In 1651 the fort was occupied by a company of troops under Colonel Stanley. A scheme was on foot to seize all the forts in the Island, in order to treat direct with the Parliament. The Countess of Derby, whose husband had been beheaded at Bolton Moor, after the battle of Worcester, was holding Castle Rushen, and there was a simultaneous rising to seize all the forts. Ballachurry fort was summoned to surrender. The details of the surrender of that fort in 1651 were recorded. This fort (Crook Sumark) was of a totally different class, and there was no doubt it had been used from they earliest times by different successive races who had occupied the Island. it would, no doubt, play a prominent part in the eighth century, when the Danes invaded the Island. People would resort to this fort which they would be able to hold against a powerful enemy.
He then pointed out the boundaries of the Abbey Lands, extending from Sulby village to the Kella and Narradale, and also showed the course of the ancient high road from Ramsey to Douglas, along which Bruce proceeded on his way to reduce Castle Rushen.
Mr. Kermode called attention to the fact that the line of fortification took the shape of the summit of the hill, and was not rectangular, thus showing its ancient origin. He mentioned that the Archaeological Survey Committee were examining and classifying these earthworks, or forts, in the Island, and making excavations. In due course they would come to Cronk Sumark, and hoped that something might be discovered.
As the party were descending the steep side of the Cronk, they were met by Lord Raglan and Mr. Thos. Moore, of Billown. They returned by a pleasant walk through the woods and meadows to their cars, which were waiting on Sulby Claddagh. In passing a cottage by the roadside, Canon Morris noticed a large slab 7 ft. gin. by about 2 ft. wide and 6 in. thick, on which were eight cup marks. They then drove back to Ramsey by the beautiful Lezayre road, over-arched by trees in their tull summer splendour.
Luncheon was taken at the Mitre Hotel, in Ramsey, and after-wards a large contingent adjourned to the Court House, where Mr. Kermode gave an interesting address on the more important Manx crosses to be seen, especially at Maughold Church. His remarks were illustrated by reference to some capital drawings The story of Sigurd, the Volsung, as figured on some of the crosses, particularly struck the fancy of those Irish visitors, who had not previously heard this Norse saga.
Deemster and Mrs. Callow entertained the visitors and their Manx friends to afternoon tea-which included an abundant supply of delicious Manx strawberries, and all were charmed with the kindness and affability of their hosts. The large and handsome dining-room of the Ramsey Bay Hotel was thronged with the gathering of happy tourists, and a pleasant hour was spent in a social manner. When crossing the Mooragh, Mir. Kermode had pointed out the Brassica Monensis - the only flowering plant named after the Isle of Man, which was first recognised as a distinct species by the celebrated botanist, Ray, when, to quote his words, he "crossed the Mooragh to the little town of Ramsey," over 200 years ago. The party were once more photographed, on the steps of the hotel.
Before leaving, Dr. Cochrane remarked that they had a duty to perform, namely, to give their very best thanks to the President and members of the Manx Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 'f hey had also to thank his Excellency and Lady Raglan, the Mayor and Mrs. Marsden, Mr. Thomas Moore, and last, but not least, Deemster Callow and Mrs. Callow, for their genial hospitality. They would also like to associate the names of Bishop and Mrs. Drury, and their most efficient guides-Canon Quire, Mr. P. M. C. Kermode, and Mr. Rigby.
Dr. Nolan proposed this vote of thanks in hearty terms, and said that such hospitality as they had enjoyed they had never before met with. They had been fascinated by the enthusiasm of their guides in their descriptions of the Manx memorials. It was particularly pleasant to find that their hostess that afternoon was a lady from Ireland, and when they had left, she would represent everything excellent in the Irish character.
Mr. Gray seconded the motion, and expressed appreciation of the steps taken by the local Society on their behalf. He congratulated them on securing the co-operation of the Governor, which had lent dignity and importance to the whole movement. It would be a very good thing if, as a result of this meeting in the Isle of Man, the Manx representatives of natural history and antiquities should go to Ireland and test thetas as to what they were able to do.
The vote was carried with enthusiasm, and acknowledged in a brief speech by his Excellency, Lord Raglan. He said he thought the Manx people took a great interest in their antiquities, and did not lag behind the other parts of the British Isles in the efforts they were making to preserve those things which had come down to them from their forefathers. He regarded the work which this and similar societies were doing as most important. It had been a very great pleasure to see so many distinguished members of the Royal Irish Society. He had to apologise for the weather of Tuesday. The fact was that he had been absent from the Island, but since he returned and put his mind to it, he had done what he could, and he thought they would acknowledge that the weather of the last few days had been a great improvement.
Seats in the cars were resumed for Maughold Church, where Canon Quine showed the remains of the extensive works of defence, and gave a brief account of its history. The Vicar, Mr. Pope, exhibited the old east window, which was of the same date as the cross standing at the gates ; with regard to this, Canon Morris thought the base and shaft were earlier than the head. The foundations of the two early Keeills, still visible in the churchyard, were examined, and Mr. Kermode was called upon for an account of the wonderful collection of early cross-slabs now gathered together and set up in the cross-house erected by the Manx Museum Trustees. They then drove to Ballajora where the Electric Tram Company had kindly provided special cars to take them to Douglas. On Saturday, July 9, the Royal Antiquarian Society of Ireland brought their Manx tours to a close by an excursion to the extreme south of the Island. Their numbers had been dwindling during the latter part of the week, and the excursionists only numbered between twenty and thirty for this final event. They left Douglas by the south-going train at 10-40, headed by Deemster and Mrs. Callow, who was to conduct them through the Fish Hatchery and Museum at Port Erin. Dr. Cochrane left the train at Ballasalla to make a second and more searching examination of the ruins of Rushen Abbey, of which no proper plan or sketch appears to be in existence. The main body of tourists, on arriving at Port Erin, were met by Mr. H. C. Chadwick, the Curator, who, with Deemster Callow, accompanied them to the Marine Biological Station, on the Breakwater Approach. The visitors spent some time in inspecting the fish and other marine creatures in the Aquarium. They found both the specimens of local fish in the tanks, and the hermit-crabs, star-fish, and other fauna, very interesting. Afterwards they proceeded to view the spawning ponds. The spawning season for plaice is now over. The parent fish had been turned out, and the large pond had been emptied for cleaning purposes. This year eight million young plaice were turned out from the Fish Hatchery into the neighbouring sea. The Curator has also been embarrassed by the illness of his right-hand man, Mr. Cregeen, at a critical time of the year. The problem of lobster culture is still being wrestled with. Two prime difficulties have been met with. One was that the spawn and young do not thrive in the ordinary conditions of water at the Hatchery, and it is difficult to provide the young creatures with food that they will eat. The other difficulty is that the young lobsters are intensely cannibalistic-like the Kilkenny cats, as soon as they reach a certain stage of maturity they are apt to fight and devour each other until nothing is left but their tails. In order to provide proper hatching conditions, Mr. Chadwick has this year provided a device recommended and used by Capt. Meade, of Nova Scotia, for keeping the water in which the young lobsters are placed in constant motion. The machine consists of a wheel fixed above the surface of the water on a shaft which has revolving blades like a propeller underneath. The water supply as it falls into the pond drops on the vanes or inclined blades of the wheel, and so drives it round, and the screw, fixed to the other end of the shaft, is made to revolve beneath the water. By this means the water is kept in constant undulatory motion, and it is hoped that this seasons lobster hatching will be more successful than has hitherto been the case. The machine was designed and made by Mr W. James Ashburner. The hatching apparatus in the building consists of several series of boxes immersed in a tank of sea water which flows in and out of the boxes as they are oscillated up and down by an ingenious automatic arrangement operated by the waste water falling out of the tank. The apparatus was explained by Deemster Callow and the Curator. Afterwards the party viewed the lecture-room, the laboratories for students, and a small museum of shells, algae, and other objects taken from the adjoining seas in the course of dredging expeditions or hunts along the shore. Before leaving the hatchery a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Chadwick for the courteous manner in which he had conducted the party over the Institution. Deemster Callow was obliged to leave the party at this stage, and he requested Mr. R. J. Grindley, of "The Isle of Man Times," to take over the leadership for the remainder of the day's proceedings. The visitors took luncheon at Port Frin, and re-assembled at two o'clock outside the Falcon's Nest Hotel for a tramp over the Mull Hills to Port St. Mary.
Leaving Port Erin by the Ballafurt Road, the party ascended the steep slope, and soon arrived at the stone circle on the Mull Hills, one of the most complete and interesting examples of pre-historic burial grounds to be found in the Isle of Man. In close proximity to the burial circle there have been discovered the traces of at least three pre-historic villages or but settlements, and the lines of ancient boundary fences dividing the moorland into small plots. The stone circle standing on a commanding platform just below the highest summit was evidently the common burial place of the tribe inhabiting the neighbouring villages. It belongs almost certainly to the neolithic or early bronze age. At that remote period the high land known as the Mull Hills was probably separated from the adjoining land much as the Calf of Man is at present, and the commanding position on which the circle stands was, under those circumstances, a strong and defensible position against the attack of invaders from the mainland. It is not unreasonable to suppose that it was in such a situation the aboriginal race made their last stand against the Celtic intruders. There are in various parts of the Island evidences that the old Iberian people were inhabiting the more mountainous and inaccessible parts of the Island simultaneously with the Celts inhabiting the lower and more fertile country. Here, then, we have a burial place, a sacred depository for the ashes of the departed, and a refuge for the living in time of danger. From this natural platform the eye ranges over a great stretch of country, of mountain and plain, sea and sky. It is almost impossible to resist the idea that in choosing this lordly site, the rude ancestral race were unconsciously influenced to some extent by some aesthetic prompting, some mysterious whisper of nature, to whose breast, perhaps, the uncivilised man is as near as his more polished descendant of to-day. The circle itself is a remarkable monument, unique indeed in some respects. It is Soft. in diameter from north to south ; 57 ft, from east to west. Two upright stones indicate an entrance to the circle on the north, and two corresponding stones on the south, Between these points on either side the graves are arranged in two semi-circles. There are 18 kists, and they are all symmetrically arranged in groups of three-two tangentially placed (i.e., along the line of the circle), and one in the centre, pointing outwards in a radial direction. The remains of cinerary urns, ashes, and flints have been discovered in the kists. In each kist, also, were found numbers of round white quartz stones ; what the signification of these is it is impossible to say, but the same thing occurs in the excavation of the floors of some of the keeills, for instance at Sulbrick, in Santon, and at Ballahutchin. The facts connected with the Mull Circle were set forth in a short address by Mr. Grindley.
From the Mull Circle the party pursued their way through the old-fashioned Manx village of Cregneish, and so on over the moor to the Chasms. As the effect of a mighty earth movement of bygone days, the slate massif along the cliffs has been faulted and torn by an almost innumerable number of clefts or chasms. Scarcely twenty yards of the heather-covered surface can be passed in any direction without disclosing one of these fearsome yawning gaps which seem to go down into the bowels of mother earth. In some of them the sea can be heard dashing and booming at high tide ; others look like fathomless abysses conducting to Pluto's own realm ; still others are shallow and accessible, and filled with graceful ferns and shade-loving plants. Some of the more adventurous descended one of the latter, and were fascinated by the contrast of the dazzling heat of the July afternoon above to the cool and darkness of these grottoes. Close to the Chasms, on a little knoll, there is a small but very perfect stone circle, which was pointed out by Mr. Richard Lace, a Manx antiquary with the party, who had been a reliable guide to them in exploring the Chasms. After a refreshing cup of tea on the grass beside the refreshment room, the party resumed their journey, and after passing through the quiet little village of Port St. Mary, they arrived in due course at the railway station. Douglas was reached about half-past six, and all agreed that they had spent a most enjoyable day, An informal vote of thanks was passed to Mr. R. J. Grindley for-his services as guide, and all the members were enthusiastic in expressing their satisfaction at the enjoyable tours which they have had during their stay in the Island and the hospitality extended to them by Manx people.
Several of the members on Sunday responded to an invitation from Mr. and Mrs. Rigby to take tea at Ballamona.
1 Vol. v, p. 110 (1909).
2 Archaeologia Cambrensis, vol. x, Sixth Series, P. 75,
3 "The Manx Note Book," vol. iii., p. 124,
4 The first Report of the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of England. issued in October this year. mentions that they are frequently asked for advice and assistance with respect to the preservation of monuments. and they are of opinion that the time has come when such cases " should be dealt with by a Government department, acting with the assistance of a Permanent Advisory Board." This expression of carefully formed opinion. coming from such an authoritative body, should receive attention if properly followed up. In Sir John Lubbock's Bill of 1877, it as intended to call the new body the " National Monuments Commission.