ORGANISATION, FUNCTIONS & ACTIVITIES of the COMITTEES FORMED
CIVILIAN PRISONERS of WAR in CAMP IV.
|§ 1.||Camp Central Committee Administration||
|§ 2||Kitchen Section.||
|§ 3.||Industrial Department||
|§ 4.||Educational Department||
|§ 5.||Literary & Scientific Society.||
|§ 6.||Camp Central Library||
|§ 7.||Gymnastic Institutions.||
|§ 8.||Athletic Clubs .|
|§ 9.||Football League..|
|§ 10.||Cricket Clubs|
|§ 11.||Tennis Association||
|§ 12.||Football Clubs .|
|§ 13.||Recreation Grounds ..|
|§ 14.||Amateur Gardeners' Allotment Section.||
|§ 15.||Entertalment Section .||
|§ 16.||Camp Gazette A Printing Office .|
|§ 17.||Camp Post Office||
|§ 18.||Church Institutions|
|§ 19.||Freemasons' Circle||
|§ 20.||Sick Visiting & Burial Board|
|§ 21.||Austro-Hungarian Committee||
|§ 22.||Dr. Markel Section||
|§ 23.||Prisoners' Aid Society||
|§ 24.||Popular Debating Society||
|§ 25.||Transport Workers Union||
|§ 26.||Trawler Captains' & Sates Association '||
|§ 27.||Ship Engineer Officers' Association . ' 24|
|§ 28.||Master Mariners' Association . o s|
|§ 29.||Geneva Association , Union 'Ganymede' , Int.Union of Cooks|
|§ 30.||Skittle Alleys|
|§ 31.||Chess & Billiard Clubs. .||
ORGANISATION. FUNCTIONS & ACTIVITIES
by the PRISONERS of WAR in CAMP IV.
This review of the Internal P.o.W. Administration in Camp IV, covering the period of six months ending May the 31st,1917, is supplementary to the last Annual Report (December 1915-1916), and the work of the various Committees will be dealt with in the sequence laid down therein. Before, however proceeding with the individual Committee Reports it should here be pointed out by way of comparison that the interests of the 7 Compounds of Camp IV (accommodating between 6/7000 P's/W.) are now in the hands of 149 Committees as against 133 in 1915.
A complete list of these Committees is attached hereto, showing how this figure has been arrived at and giving the names and numbers of the P's/W. Administrative Staff and the Camp-& Compound-Chairmen and Representatives, illustrating in a measure the extensive nature of the organisational scheme laid down and efficiently maintained in this Camp. - Where not otherwise stated these Committees have been in operation since 1915.
The constitution of this Committee has not to any considerable degree altered fundamentally ; - Its sphere of activity, however, has increased, and further facilities and privileges were granted by the Commandant of Camp IV, more decidedly making towards 'Self-Government' of the Prisoners of War respecting their Internal- and Committee Affairs. This noteworthy concession is both, appreciated and duly respected.
In the Annual Report already referred to, the organisational theme underlying the Camp Central Committee Administration was briefly dealt with, but it has since become evident that some of the features of this Institution are not yet fully understood. For this reason a mental sketch of the conditions governing its policy and justifying its purpose is here inserted.
Camp IV is the largest Camp in Knockaloe (separated from the others) and it consists of 7 Compounds, each of which is self-contained;- thus a Compound has its own Post-Office, Kitchen, School, Workshop, Theatre, Library, Gymnastic Club, Recreation Hall, Parade Ground and so on. Two Recreation Grounds are available alternatively for Camp IV and are open to all Compounds for Joint use. so that at given times the P's/W. may congregate.
The P.o.W. Organisation is in this Camp divided into two distinct groups, viz:-
(a) the military Section ; - and
(b) the P's/W. own Administration.
The prisoners assisting in (a) the Military Control are the 12 Hut Captains of each Compound (one of whom acts as Spokesman) and their names and numbers are given on the enclosed table which is appended to the Committee List. They are, however, not affiliated with the P.o.W. Administration 'proper' but individually subordinate to the Military Command, having solely to attend to points of order and discipline and their sphere of activity being strictly confined to their respective Compound. -
On certain occasions they are acting in concert. but they do not form a Committee and are, therefore, not specially dealt with in this report.
Questions of Recreation, manual & mental Occupation and of spiritual & physical welfare generally, are, on the other hand (under "b") taken. care of by the 149 Committees formed by the P's/W. themselves.
It should here be pointed out that originally the general scheme as well as the structural provisions intended each Compound to be "self-contained" and entirely dependent on discovering its own latent talent for the development of industrial and recreative activity.
Due to the kaleidoscopic assembly in each Compound, thrown together by force of circumstances, various discrepancies, however, arose, calling for the need of equalizing and accelerating the efforts made in the different spheres. It was at this stage (1915) and with this purpose in view that the Authorities of Camp IV were approached by the present Camp Secretary to grant the establishment of a "Central Camp Organisation", governing and bringing into close collaboration one and all of the Compound Committees.
This form of Administration demanded, however, an elaborate system of Issue and Control of daily passes, enabling the P's/'W. to go at varying times to and from the different Compounds for school, industrial, theatrical, sport and private purposes. As has already been pointed out "Inter-Compound Communications" were in the initial stage of the Camp only made possible by special permission and the necessary passes had been granted, so that thanks are due to the Commandant of Camp IV for adequately extending this privilege and for overcoming the many difficulties presented thereby.
About 400 passes are granted daily, representing 95% of the applications lodged in the first instance with the "Pass Department" of the Camp Central Committee. ("C. C. C. " ), where they are registered and individually and discriminately dealt with. Satisfactorily considered applications are thereupon compiled under their respective headings, and in this concrete form the daily pass-list, giving reasons and particulars, is submitted to the Commandant for approval and sanction.
At this stage it may be of interest to survey the diagramatic sketch attached to the enclosed Committee List and clearly illustrating the systematic centralisation of the manifold interests represented by the 149 Committees in Camp IV. These are established on a uniform working basis and thus enables to adequately exchange ideas and talent.
This diagram will further reveal the distinct grouping of the P.o.W. Administration;
- the Camp Central Committee consisting of : -
(a) the permanent Staff of voluntary workers discharging the executive duties and acting as sole Intermediary between the Authorities and the P's/W. ;
(b) the clerical Staff, regularly attending to the considerable task of dealing with the correspondence, applications, proposals, passes etc. relating to Committee-and administrative work and intended for transmission to the Commandant; - the "C.C.C." figuring in the Camp as a general "Clearing-House" ; - and
(c) the C.C.C. Board of Chairman, who are periodically elected "Camp" Representatives of seven respective and independent "Compound" Committees and who aid and support the"executive" staff in the exersise of all technical. Committee matters.
(d) The 'Compound" Committees again have their own Chairman Cashier etc., as will be seen from the Committee List, who jointly with the members of collateral Compound Committees hold regular Meetings at the C.C.C. Board-Room under the Chairmanship of the "Camp" Representative elected by them;- the latter automatically becoming a Member of the C.C.C.Board for the term of his Office.
Minutes of all proceedings are kept.
It appears desirable to again place on record that financial transactions of any kind are not within the scope of the Camp Central Committee, and that it merely acts as Auditor to the different Compound Committees, a factor largely contributary to the harmony and general efficiency of the entire organisation. '
Furthermore, the C.C.C. is not, and never has been, in receipt of financial support from any one of its 149 Sub-Committees and has thus preserved its absolute independence of action and power of control, so that its functions arm now generally recognised as those of an unbiased Intermediary free from all party idiosyncrasies, so disadvantageously evident in the majority of P.O.W. Organisations .
Such support in money or kind as has for the first time been rendered to the Committee, beginning in January 1917, is here gratefully acknowledged an follows,: -
(1) the quarterly grant of £6. sanctioned by the late German Division of the American Embassy on behalf of the German
Government now to be continued by the Swiss Legation since charged with the German interests. Further the loan of a typewriting
machine as well as the gift of one case containing office utensils and stationary at the approximate value of £6.,
reaching this office from the same source in February 1917, in which gift the late Austrian Division of American Embassy
participated to the extent of one third.
(2) the quarterly grant of £2.sanctioned by the late Austrian Division of the American Embassy on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian Government, now to be continued by the Swedish Legation since charged with the Austro-Hungarian interests ; -
(3) the supply of further stationary goods and the loan of two typewriting machines kindly granted by Dr. K.E. Markel of the, P.O.W. Relief Agency, London, SW. 7 .
The financial contributions mentioned under points (1 & 2) serve in principal as weekly remuneration of 2/-sh. and twice 4/-sh. respectively, made to three of the most hard-worked members of the clerical staff, who are in every way deserving and without means, whilst the small balance is made to cover the most needed expenditure in connection with the office. In conformity with the voluntary C.C.C. regulation "not to handle financial matters" the quarterly cheques are forwarded to the Commandant of Camp IV who hen kindly undertaken to settle the items submitted to and approved by him.
As regards the office equipment, utensils etc. etc. mentioned under points (1 & 3) the enclosed set of photographs, showing the interior of the C.C.C. Offices, will bear evidence that good use is made of same and that the Commanding Officer has granted adequate facilities. The advantages derived from the latter are obvious,- yet no other Camp can show so efficient an office organisation.
The observations made from and the individual reports that here follow will leave it clear that the P.O.W. Administration created and maintained in this Camp is to some appreciable degree tantamount to "Self-Government', although reports and concrete working plans are submitted daily to the Commandant of this Camp for approval.
A generally more satisfactory basis is now being reached, and these daily nagotiations are developing into a routine void of that element of distrust which the stress cf circumstances easily and so damagingly provokes. A state of all-round efficiency is than promoted, and the comparatively high standard of the moral, physical and internal conditions prevailing throughout Camp IV is the direct result.
Each Compound has its own Kitchen which is managed by a P.O.W. Committee. The members of this Committee are periodically elected, every one of the 12 Huts in each Compound choosing its own Representative. Out of these 12 members 5 are appointed on the "Inner" Committee, which is in charge of the executive work. The Managers of the compound Kitchens hold weekly meetings at the Board-Room of the C.C.C. under the Chairmanship of the permanent Secretary of the Kitchen Department, to compare notes and to exchange views.
By reason of their constitution the centralised Kitchen Committees of all Compounds form an important and integral part of the P's/W. own Administration of Camp IV.
Questions pertaining to the Dietary, however, are - strictly speaking - not within the province of this report, but the arbitrary steps taken by the Head Captains early in March render it desirable and justify that an unbiased statement of fact, concerning the reduction of rations, is here placed on record.
The food rations were reduced on March the 5th quite unexpectedly and considerably, and both factors naturally caused anxiety throughout the Camp. If then this measure called for action it became clearly a question of "uniform" representation. Whether or not a change of conditions could have been brought about - is rendered problematical, yet (in spite of the absence of reliable data) one can but assume that with the coming in force of the new regulations the Rations were reduced to a "reciprocal" Standard. - In any case, there was no room for doubt that, whatever negotiations were to be initiated, had to be conducted in a proper and relevant manner, and the issues involved presented a task best dealt with by a responsible "Committee" equal to gauge the true position and qualified to offer practical suggestions.
Endeavours should then have been made - by such a Committee - to solicit the advice and to enlist the help and goodwill of the Intermediaries representing the German and Austro-Hungarian interests respectively, - instead of which the Head Captains acted (though well intentioned) in a manner likely to prejudice and damage - rather than further the cause. By their isolated action they fore-stalled mediative procedure, which is rendered all the more regrettable, by the drastic attitude and the harmful distortion of facts evident in their letters to the Swiss and Swedish Legations.
No good could result from protests and threats and the matter under discussion is conclusive evidence that consequential action failed where tactful negotiations would have promised fair success, inasmuch as the collaboration of the competent Kitchen Committees would have been sought instead of ignored, - which was the case.
The Head-Captains, though figuring as the "elected" Representatives of a Camp, have their sphere of action clearly demarcated, as set out under clause (a) of §1 page 2 and it is a foregone conclusion that delicate negotiations of this description could only be dealt with capably if entrusted to the Central Board of Committees (clause "b" of the same paragraph),the heads of which have by nature of their individual task attained their rank by "qualification" and not mere "election". Yet as long as the Committee-Representation is not adequately supported and recognised officially and the status of head-captains not more strictly enforced the fallacies of a one-sided system will continue to make themselves felt, - which is precisely the reason why this case in point has been made the subject matter of comprehensive discussion.
Those who seriously study problems of Camp Administration and endeavour to bridge the difficulties daily encountered and arising out of the cross-currents created by the different elements, characters and conditions in Camp, will agree that the "Military" grouping of "Civilian" P's/W. is a system ill-applied if it entails a"direct" election of their principal leaders. Head- & Hut-Captains are chosen in this manner and invariably personify the lower ranks which constitute the majority in the important Knockaloe Internment Camp, all the more as it has been drained of its better-class and mere intellectual prisoners by the privileged Camps of Wakefield and Douglas.
In conclusion it should yet be said that the P.o.W. Kitchen Committess of Camp IV have coped with the difficulties in a commendable manner, so that monotony and short-ness of rations have practically ceased to be the topic of conversation within the Camp, though there naturally remains room for improvement.
The question of finding occupation for Civilian Prisoners of War within the Camp, both, - congenial and remunerative,- forms an obstinate problem which is accentuated by the increasing financial and material difficulties, as well as by the lack of equipment;- nevertheless good progress has been made and new departments were opened since the Annual Report was issued.
Mention should here be made that a considerable share of the success attained is due to the help freely gives by the "Friends' Emergency Committee, London" through their Representative in Knockalee. The launching of any new industrial venture has always been readily supported by this Society and set into motion by their overcoming many of the tool and material difficulties. The stimulus thereby given extended mainly to the sphere of handicraft work and scores of P's/W. encouraged in this manner were induced to change their idleness for useful and instructive occupation.
(a) The principal workshop,as well as the office, stores and show-room are situated in Compound 7, and whilst the making of mail-bags was suspended (though nearly 21000 had been delivered by the end of 1916) considerable activity has developed in the boot-making department and the repair-shop, the Government- & private tailoring sections, as well as in the newly opened brush-factory;
(b) The auxiliary and fully equipped workshops of the other 6 Compounds, set apart for handicraft, wood-& metal work are progressing steadily, although the turn-over has not materially increased;
(c) The industry carried on within the huts also remains much as before. The nature of the work (requiring small tools only) vizs- bone-carving, fret-work, wood-carving, knitting of hand-bags etc. remains unaltered;
(d) Last year's success of the Camp Nurseries and Vegetable Gardens of Camp IV have been so encouraging that the area of 13 acres has now been increased to 25, part of which is situated immediately outside the Camp. The ground is placed at the disposal of the P's/W. free of rent by the Government for the purpose of raising vegetables for the free use of the 7 Compound Kitchens. The gardeners employed thereon are being paid by the Government on identical terms to those under which P's/W. carry out any other work.
The following is a resume of the work done during the last 3 months:-
(1) Tailoring:- 250 suites, 60 extra trousers, 30 breeches, 1250 pants on the average were produced and delivered to the Camp Quartermaster's Stores every month, whilst about 350 private suits were made during the half-year;
(2) Bootmaking:- Although this department was only established towards the end of 1916, when 300 pairs of boots had been delivered, the monthly turn-over has since reached 250 newly made pairs of boots;- the repairing department is now averaging nearly 1000 pairs each week ;
(3) Handi-craft work:- This, as before, is carried on is the auxiliary workshops and in the huts and has no increase to show on last year's production. The articles made are practically the same, ranging from inlaid cabinets, boards, chess figures, frames, bone-carved ornaments, toys, metal repousé to ship's models etc. etc. New features introduced in this Section are fancy-leather goods and pipe-making, although supply of material forms an obstacle to expansion;
(4) The brush-making department is now in running order, but here again the difficulty of procuring the necessary appliances has spelt delay so that definite manufacturing results cannot yet be shown;
(5) As compared with last year, the activity in the Camp IV Nurseries and Vegetable Gardens has been doubled and the following is a table of the produce being grown :-
Seeds sown during March is open ground and promising good results-,-
18 beds of early carrots;
20 beds of turnips ;
142 trenches of broad beans;
54 trenches early peas.
Seeds soon in .frames, now being planted out:-
48000 cabbages (Manchester Market & Drumheads);
20000 Drumhead Kale ;
25000 red cabbages (Dutch);
2000 beet-roots (early) & leeks.
Cabbages already planted out:-
4000 own plants;
4000 plants supplied by stores;
2500 square yards of carrots;
2000 " "turnips;
( planted out-side the Camp).
Last year 58200 vegetables were planted for Spring use but perished through frost and included 25000 Kale, 29000 Cabbages, Savoy., red cabbages and Brussels Sprouts.
The last CENSUS taken shows that about 860 P's/W. are regularly at work in the above mentioned departments, or approximately 100 less than last year's average, which most be accounted for by the proportionate reduction of P's/W. in the Camp. The artisans (tailors, bootmakers, Compound-Joiners etc.) permanently employed within the Compounds, and the constructional workers engaged in the Construction Office (but not coming under this heading) number now about 100 men.
As stated in the Annual Report the employment of P's/W, Is one of the predominant features of the main plank of the Camp Central Committee's policy, experience having shown that manual labour is for certain sections of the P's/W. the only antidote against the evils arising out of prolonged Internment. As the result of this policy there are now about 250 men proceeding to work in connexion with or outside the Camp (not including the gardeners). These men are chiefly employed on constructional work, quarrying, road-making etc., whilst three agricultural parties of 100 men each are regularly at work in adjacent localities under the direction of the Officer in charge of agriculture.
The results of the scholastic work in progress in this Camp and dealt with at length in the Annual Report have accentuated the necessity to still further stimulate mental activity and to more fully utilise the available time in order to balance the monotony of lengthy internment, which, when left unchecked, has been known to promote detrimental effects in the case of many prisoners.
The original small circle of teachers have,therefore, accelerated their efforts in a noteworthy manner by systematically extending the sphere of teaching within the scholastic compass, so that since the issue of the Annual Report certain organisational changes in the Administration of the Schools became imperative. These mainly concern the establishment of "independent" Sections of the Educational Department as against the single control previously in force.
The newly created Sections consist of:
(a)The Compound (General) School Board, governing the 7 Compound Schools where subjects of general interest are taught: Each School is to some degree independent and in charge of the respective Head-Teacher, as will be seen from the enclosed Committee List. these 7 Head-Teachers form the Board which is presided over by the administrative School Secretary, permanantly attached to the C.C.C. His principal duty is to promoto close collaboration and a continuous exchange of teachers, books and scholastic materials;- the latter being under his care.
Before dealing with the statistics it should here be added that the major part of the school-affairs is handled by Professional teachers, who act voluntarily with the exception of a few who are without means and to whom a small monthly allowance is made through the benevolence of Dr. Markel.
Compound School s (continued) :- Programmes
|General Subjects||Weekly Lessons||No. of Students|
|Drawing & Painting||6||16|
|English||35 lessons||128 students||Turkish||20||43|
|Commercial Subjects:||Weekly lessons:||No:-of Students|
|" Spanish :||6||43|
|Bills of Exchange:||2||31|
|Theory of Commerce||3||11|
|Mathematics: (Algebra)||19 lessons p.w.||97 students.|
Popular Lectures : -
|Geography||1 lesson p.w.||25 students|
|Hotel Book-keeping||8 lessons p.w||64 students.|
|Theory of Chess||2||10|
It should here be mentioned that through the Agency and the kind efforts of Dr. E. B. Markel and his Committee (London) an adequate and well chosen supply of school and text books, as well as a large quantity of school utensils, including black-boards, exercise books, drawing- & writing-material etc. etc. are regularly placed at the disposal of the "Educational Department" of the C.C.C. in general and of the Compound School Board in particular, a fact which enables the extensive programme to be carried out efficiently and which is highly appreciated by pupils and teachers alike, so that an expression of sincere gratitude is here incorporated.
There remains yet another point to be recorded in connexion with the 7 Compound Schools. The steady growth of the Schools,evident from the supplementary Report, has heavily taxed such facilities as were originally provided for by the Commandant of Camp IV, referring to accommodation Whilst in the structural provisions of every Compound a separate room or building has been set apart to serve as Post-office, Kitchen, Workshop, Stage etc. no special room was allotted for the schools, although efforts are known to have been made from time to time by the Officer in Command to procure a special school building for this Camp, plans and particulars of which were laid before the Authorities but not approved of. Such room as can from time to time be arranged in a living hut in any one of the Compounds is temporarily serving the purpose, the technical difficulties, however, appear to obstruct the uniform carrying out of this improvised scheme. - A well organised school activity forms a controlling factor in a Camp of this kind and it is, therefore, hoped that due notice will be taken of the preceding clause.
Finally it is here acknowledged that the Commandant of this Camp has liberally extended the privilege of passess enabling the exchange of teachers and the concentration of classes.
(b) The Advanced Schools, which figure as 'Camp'-Schools (concentrating both teachers and pupils) are situated in Compound 7 where different Hut sections have been temporarily allotted to them. These Schools are divided into the following independent classes:-
(1) Matriculation Preparatory Class, which continues under the able control of a former lecturer of the Manchester University (see Committee List) who, in addition, acts as the spiritual head of the Schools in Camp IV which were founded mainly due to his efforts, but the "Administration" of which has now been set up in different Sections on account of the scholastic activity having outgrown its original compass. Since then the head of the Matriculation Class has been able to devote the major part of his time to the task of preparing the 19 students for the German University Examination, in which he is aided by able teachers.
The enclosed photograph shows this class at work. The following subjects are taught:-
|Church History & Bible Interpretation||2 hours weekly;|
|History (Roman, Greek & German)||3|
|Mathematics ... (1) Real-Gymnas.||6|
|" ... (2)Ober-Realsch||6|
Physics, Chemistry:- Geography and Gymnastics. Part of this class-room has been.assigned for private studies for the students.
(2) One Year's Service Preparatory Class for pupils wishing to qualify for the privilege to serve only one year in the Army. This class is subdivided into two Secticns (consisting of 10 and 30 students respectively) both, however, following out the same system.
The work of preparing these pnpils is in the hands of qualified and professional
teachers and the programme comprises :-
All the subjucts taught under (1) the Matriculation Class with the exception of Religion and Greek, although generally more elemontary.
(3) Nautical School:-
Up to the present lectures on nautical subjects ware held in the Compound Schools, as set out under (a) page 8-9, but, in view of the fact that a large section of P's/W, in this Camp belongs to the sea-faring profession of all grades, a general demand is making itself felt to centralise the different sections in Compound 7, where a special Navigation Class is already in progress. The lectures given are divided as follows:-
(a) Deep water sailing; 1) masters; 2) mates.
(b) Costal sailing ; (1) masters ; (2) mates.
(c) Course for Iceland Fisheries. Approximate attendance : 220 students.
(c) Agriultural School (situated in Compound 7):-As will be gathered from the enclosed photographs this School has assumed great proportions on account of the general interest shown, all the more as it is ably conducted. The character of the school is best illustrated by the programme specified below : -
|Subjects taught:||No.of Students||Remarks:|
|Goat breeding:||70||Practically demonstrated;|
|Poultry breeding||73||2 courses.|
|Rabbit breeding||43||Practically demonstrated;|
|Dairy farming:||54||Milk analysis;|
|Science of Soil:||45||Analysis of soil;|
|Cultivation of soil and implements||60||Daily practice;|
|Fodder plants :||44||Grown on trial ground (Cpd:-8);|
The Commandant of this Camp has facllitated practiaal demonstrations by the loan of live animals and has further placed at the disposal of the Agricultural School 1250 squ. yards of land within the Amateur Gardeners' Compound for experimental purposes;- of which a more detailled account will be found under § 14 .
(d) Scientific Reference Library - Attached to the Educational Department 'in a special Library containing over 300 volumes of a purely scientific nature. The bulk of these were presented to the University men and sudents,who are P's/W. in Camp IV, by the Professors of Leyden University and supplemented by members of German Universities. Between 150 and 200 men attended regularly since the opening (October 10th,1916 ), and the works mostly in demand are those on natural and technical science and on economical &commercial laws; philological books coming next. The library is open daily from 5 to 8 p.m.
is as such a 'Camp' Institution, each Compound appointing a Representative, and these forning a Committee, choosing a Chairman and a Secretary amongst themselves. The Head-Quarters of the L. & Sc. S. are situated in Compound 7, where every Sunday evening lectures on scientific and educational subjects are held.
A collective pass is granted by the Commandant of Camp IV enabling 20 to 40 men of each Compound, interested in that particular lecture, to attend. Whenever the lectures are found to be of interest and value to the Camp in general arrangements are made for repeating same in each of the other Compounds .
The Literary & Scientific Society held its Anniversary on April 22nd, 1917, and its activity has been made the subject of an Annual Report,copies of which are here enclosed. The following is a resume of the lectures held up to June 1917, and the attendance specified justifies the existence of the Literary & Scientific Society
|Number of lectures given within the Society :||
|Numbers of lectures repeated in the different Compounds :||
|Attendance of the Society Meetings, averaging||
|Attendance of lectures held in the Compounds||
|Total attendance of all lectures:||
The most notable lectures of the last six :months dealt with the following subjects:- Astronomy, Automobile Construction, Diving- & diving appliances; wireless telegraphy, Radium & its uses, Freemasonry, Philosophy, Shakespeare as Psychologist, Beethoven Recitals, West Indies & Spanish Main,, Travels in Egypt etc. etc. - All MSS. are duly censored.
has a remarkable record to show since its activity was dealt with in the last Annual Report. The Chief Library is situated in Compound 2 with branch-offices in each of the other 6 Compounds, and a Library-Section has recently been added to the Camp IV Hospital.
The Chief Librarian is a member of the C.C.C. Board and the Library Service is centralised like that of any other Institution in Camp IV; thus the main register of the books and the library records are kept in the Chief Library from where the exchange as well as the repair of books are systematically effected. The following, is a synopsis of the library statistics, comprising features of principal interest : -Classification of Books
|Classical Books (German & English)||
|Books in foreign languages French, Italian, Spanish, Polish &c||
|Popular Edition of German Fiction||
|Novels written in German||
|Novels written in English||
|Books of a religious nature||
Statistical Records:- The number of volumes in the keeping of the library has now increased to 11004 as against 9175 at the end of 1916; of these 5334 were presented by Benevolent Societies & Institutions, whilst the balance of 5870 represents the result of the collection of books made amongst the P's/W. themselves.
Frequency Records:- In the following a table is given showing by way of acmparison the number of readers and books lent in the respective Compounds for a corresponding month of 1916-1917. The frequentation of libraries being higher in the Winter than in Summer time, the month of April has been chosen as representing the mean.
|April 1916||April 1917.|
|Compd||No. of Readers||Books lent||Readers||Books lent|
The figures show that 50% of.the P's/W. use the Libraries. Donations:- Amongst the prominent contributors figure Dr. Markel, London. the Royal, Libraries,Berlin, the Academical Union (B),'Pro Captiva' ,Berne,P.o.W Emergeney Committee, Vienna,German Aid Society, Zurich &c. - The British Government on the other hand is making a monthly grant of £5 for the purchase and repairs of books.
In conclusion it is respectfully suggested that, in order to establish a better balance of the nature of the books, contributions such as may yet be intended should be confined - if possible - to technical subjects, languages, agriculture etc. etc.
The Gymnastic Clubs established in 1915 of the 7 Compounds continue to hold their exercises three times weekly, but it is wtth regret that a reduction of 35% in the Membership, compared with that of 1916, has now to be recorded, so that the Gymnastic Union, of Camp IV now counts about 400 heads only.
As will be shown in the paragraphs dealing with the out-door Sports, the facilities created last year for the respective Clubs (such as Football Fields, Tennis , Cricket Pitches &c) are stimulating an increased activity. Thus it can be assumed that the interest taken in the Gymnanstic Club has now, with the approach of fair weather, been transferred to the sphere of the various 'open-air' Sports, though, on the other hand, the Gymngastic Instructors are inclined to believe that the reduction of the food rations is somewhat narrowing the limits of the men's physical ability.
Boxing & Wrestling Clubs exist in Compounds 1,3,4,5 & 6 and form the Camp IV "Athletic Sports Club" with a membership of 144. Training is daily in progress and the Clubs are properly equipped with wrestling mats, boxing ring, punching balls etc. Since the issue of the Annual Report three further Sporting Events were held, consisting of boxing and wrestling acntests.
In the past season the interest in the Football Sport was greatly stimulated by the fact that the Camp Authorities permitted "Inter-Camp-Matches" to take place, - the winning team receiving the prize at the hands of the Commandant. Training was consequently very keen and the teams are grouped as follows : -
|Compound I||1st & 2nd teams;|
|II||1st & 2nd teams;|
|III||1st & 2nd teams;|
|IV||2nd & 3rd|
|V||1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th|
|VI||1st, 2nd & 3rd|
|VII||1st, 2nd & 3rd|
The team representing Camp IV Football League in the "Inter-Camp' Matches was chosen therefrom end the results were as follows t -
Camp IV versus Camp III ...... 2 : 2
Camp IV versus Camp I .........3 : 0
Camp IV versus Camp II........ 0 : 5
Camp II being in the "Final" won the Camp Prize against Camp III by 2 : 0.
The Cricket Sport is represented in all Compounds except in Compound 7, and the Clubs are now making full use of the Pitches which were laid out late last season. The membership now at 280, steadily increases and thanks to the sets supplied by the Authorities the Clubs are adequately equipped.
Each Compound has its Tennis Club with an average membership of 25; each Club has its own court in Compound 8(which is not inhabited), excepting the Cpd: 2 Club, which, owing to its large membership (4S5) possesses two Courts. These Courts are in perfect condition and in charge of a competent steward, who, at the same time, is caretaker of the small but convenient Tennis Club Bungalow, most- kindly erected by the Commandant of Camp IV.
As will be gathered from the enclosed programme permission has also been granted for holding an 'inter-Camp' Tennis Tournament on the Camp IV Courts, but the results of same cannot be included in this report. -(Photograph of Courts enclosed.)
established last year in 6 of the Compounds have resumed their activity, and pass facilities having been. given, they are now enabled to play 'Inter-Compound" Matches on their respective Parade Grounds. 94 Members.
Sports Administrations The affairs of the above mentioned Gymnastic & Sports Clubs are conducted in a business-like manner. The Chairmen of the respective Cpd.-Clubs meet fortnightly, and in some cases weekly, in the Board Room of the Camp Central Committee, when the Chair is taken by the Representative they have elected to take charge of their interests in Camp, and who (for the term of his Office) automatically becomes a member of the C.C.C. Board. Minutes of these meetings are regularly kept by the administrative Secretary belong.to the C.C.C. permanent Staff. Those minutes are duly signed by the Cpd.-Club Chairmen present and are incorporated in the Club's dossier lodged at the Office, whilst type-written copies are sent out to the Compound Committees the day after the Meeting. In this manner disputes and misunderstandings are avoided and a proper routine is maintained. The C.C.C. Sports Sections further promotes and organises Inter-Compound-,or Inter-Camp-Matches, which invariable prove successful.
Little can be added in respect of these to the last Annual Report, but a time-table here appended will serve to illustrate that good use is made of the open-air exercise facilities provided in Camp IV. An improvement has, however, to be recorded - dealing with the "March-Out" formation. During the major part of last year the P's/'W. were conducted to and from the Recreation Field under Military Escort whilst now they are marshalled and counted in and out by the Hut Captains of the different Compounds, who in turn also police the ground;- time and inconvenience being thereby saved.
Camp IV uses alternatively '`B" and "C' Grounds which are 20 and 40 acres in extent respectively. "B" ground is a natural and flat lawn and, therefore, preferably used for sports and gaes;- "C" ground consists of the Hill formation,adjoining Camp IV on the South side,and offers opportunity for those not participating in Sports to obtain climbing and marching exercise, as well as the benefits of bracing sea air and an attractive view of the surrounding sea and country.
The quest of finding suitable and recreative activity for all sections of the P's/W. to tide over harmful idleness and monotony is an ever present problem under the prevailing conditions.
It is rendered a particularly difficult one in the case of men who are aged, invalids, or otherwise physically prevented from participating in the usual occupations and pastimes provided. The Camp Central Committee, therefore, gladly availed itself of the opportunity given by the Commandant of Camp IV to utilise the waste but arable land in Compound 8 (a large, wired-in ground situated within the boundary line of this Camp, and until 1917 only partly covered by the eight Tennis Courts referred to elsewhere).A special department was set up to deal with the numerous questions connected with the scheme involved; - every one of the many applications received was carefully and individually considered, and finally 172 Garden Plots, measuring 7 yards by 3 yards each, were parcelled out to 221. P's/W. (some sharing~ The men selected average 40 to 45 years of age and are of the type that takes little interest in most things but delights in cultivating a small garden plot, and it is justitifiable to state that the scheme originated by the Commandant of this Camp is greatly appreciated. - A photograph showing portion of the ground is here attached.
Every assistance was given to the Amateur Gardeners' Section of the C.C.C. in respect of the loan of tools etc. and the development of a special system of passes, enabling the old men to freely pass into the Garden Compound between the hours of 6 a.m. and 8 p.m. The gardeners who are destitute were supplied with an adequate quantity of vegetable seeds for their own allotments and, needless to say, whatever produce is grown in intended for the men's own use.
The plot holders are grouped in compound-fashion and have elected a representative each and these 7 "Compound-Gardeners' Foremen" constitute a Conmittee which is presided over by the Assistant Secretary, permanently attached to the C.C.C. The "foremen" are at the same time in charge of the ornamental gardens laid out, in every one of the seven Compounds and arrangements are being made for a prize-competition to be held.
In connexion with the Agricultural School, dealt with under §4., page 11 of this report, the Commandant has allotted a "trial" ground of 1250 sq yards for the purpose of raising roots, vegetables and various kinds of fodder plants etc. These experimental plots were laid out by the 120 Students of the Agricultural School, who are receiving practical instructions in classes held on the ground under the leadership of experienced teachers.
As in the ease of the needy Amateur Gardeners, the Friends' Emergency Committee, London, kindly supplied the necessary quantity of seeds for the School gratuitously, which, as one of the many acts of their support, is here gratefully acknowledged.
Compared with the Annual Report the theatrical activity has a marked improvement to show in the last 6 months. The 7 independent theatres of Camp IV have maintained a satisfacotory average in the production as well as in the repetition of plays. Whilst all the Stages and the Orchestra Pits have been erected at the expense of the Authorities, the stage fittings, scenery etc. have been provided by the individual theatre companies, and with the accumulstod experience remarkable results are acehieved in this respect. Incidentally it may be said that all the theatres are now not only self-supporting but contribute from time to time to the Hospital, Benevolent and Kitchen funds.
The Theatres are managed bg independent Committees, whose Chairmen hold fortnightly meetings at the C.C.C. Board Room for the purpose of interchanging plays, manuscripts and equipment. On 'first nights' the managers of the theatre are present in the respective compound, and on the play proving successful the company is granted permission by the Commandant to go "on tour" to the other Compounds.
In this manner moral, educational and humorous elemants are introduced into the daily life of the Camp inmates and the theatrical successes not only spell to them relief so beneficial under the present circumstances but also promote general interest and provide occupation for a considerable number of actors, musicians, scene painters, stage-dress-makers, hairdressers, carpenters & electricians &c.-The following is a synopsis of the theatrical work covering the period of the last 6 monthss -
43 Plays mainly translations from well-known Continental & English Plays
21 Variety Shows (now not so much in vogue);
18 general Concerts (Band & Choir
22 Classical Concerts ;
5 Open-Air Concerts;
8 Zither Concerts;
12 festivals (Christmas Celebrations &c.);
8 Social Evenings.
The above statistics are supplemented by diagramatic tables and printed progrannes here submitted, from which it will be seen that Compound 6 Theatre is leading in this friendly rivalry and the enclosed 2 photographs (representing the stage setting of their most sucessful plays) may prove of interest.
The most noteworthy performances on the part of the actors are those of the 'female impersonators" who under natural difficulties have attained well merited success. - Permission to appear on photographs in their actual role and stage setting has, however, so far not been granted then although (as a memento) this concession would prove a valuable incentive to the actors without in any way provoking adverse criticism;- photographs being subject to censoring.
Closely linked up with the Entertainment Section are: 1 Military (Brass) Band,4 String Orchestras and 3 Choirs, all of which have good results to show.
A Committee of 3 P's/W. is responsible for the issue of the "Knockaloe Lager Zeitung" (Knockaloe Camp Gazette) and for the working of the general printing department connected therewith.
A photograph, showing portion of the printing shop is enclosed and it should here be stated that the original plant and type was mainly provided by Dr.Markel and by the Friends' Emergency Committee, London, whilst such material, including a small hand printing press, has been acquired by the Committee themselves.
The literary and administrative staff receive no remuneration and all proceeds of the paper as well as of the general printing work (programmes, announcements etc. ) are devoted to charity in Camp, notwithstanding the fact that the risk of the enterprise is borne by the Committee.
The sum of £30. represents the contribution of the Knockaloe Camp Gazette for the last 8 months towards the Hospital Fund and the Burial Board Expenses etc. and includes donations received from supporters of the paper abroad. Gifts in kind and books frequently arriving from similar sources are distributed amongst deserving P's/W. and the Camp Library respectively.
The Gazette is published monthly and its circulation (inside the Camp) averaged 600 to 700 copies, whilst about 900 copies of each issue are posted abroad by special permission of the Authorities.
Specimens of the recent editions are appended, rendering any coment on the editorial aspect of the Gazette superfluous, yet it should not be left unsaid that the articles appearing in the Paper are conscientiously compiled and that they exercise a noticable effect in Camp, taking into account the prevailing conditions and-effectively C.C. C. balancing the one-sided tendencies of the mental activity accruing therefrom. Each number contains a prize-competition, amounting to £2 which offers considerable attraction and which is made possible through the generous help of Dr.Markel. The standard of the work reached by the printing department will be evident from the specinen progrannes enclosed under "C.C./14".
Eash Compound has its own Post Office and P.o.W. Staff and the Canp Post Office (forming part of the Camp Central Committee Offices) acts as clearing, sorting and distributing agency for letters, parcels etc. -
The P's/W. employed in the Postal Service have been carefully chosen, and the fact that no complaints have as yet been lodged bear evidence that the men perform their work diligently and discreetly.
Regular Church Services are being held twice weekly by a Roman Catholic Priest, a Church of England, a Protestant and an Old-Catholic Clergyman. Members of the Jewish Faith hold their devotions in a special Hut and the Mohammedans were enabled to keep their Ramadan Festival.
The commandant of camp IV has granted adequate facilities to members of German and English Lodges to hold occasional meetings, and, as last year, preparations are now being made by the 35 Freemasons of this Camp to celebrate the Anniversary of St.John on June the 24th,as per programme here attached.
Since the issue of the Annual Report this Committee has been divided into :-
(a) the Hospital Aid Section, which began its Work on January the 15th, 1917, and has since accumulated a fund of £18 l2 8. for the purpose of distributing comforts to the Isolation Hospital. in the consisting of. honey, eggs, fruit tobacco, cigarettes, cocoa, oxo, soda-water etc. and amounting to £7 8:3½. have in this manner been made to 105 inmates in the Camp IV Hospital and to 41 patients in the Isolation Hospital.
The Funds which enable relief work to be continued are principally the result of voluntary contributions made by P's/W. and the Knockaloe Camp Gazette, and portion of same was realised out of the sale of Almanacs, Christmas & Easter Cards.
The Chairman and the Seacretary of the Committee, (which has a representative in each Compound) are responsible for the accounts which, as in the case of all the other Committees, are audited by the Camp Central Committee.
(b) the Burial Board Section:- The activity of this Committee now covers the period of 14 months, and its functions include the arrangements for funerals, (wreath, band etc.), the due notification of the families of the deceased and the keeping in order of the graves situated in the Parish Church-Yard, of which a photograph is enclosed. The collections made at each funeral amounted in the aggregate to £19:0:2.,of which £15:8:2. were expended,whllst the money collected for general purposes, including the erection of grave stones etc. realised £19:22:0.,which sum was duly handed over to the collective fund of the four Camps of Knockaloe. - The constitution and management of this Section is identical with that of (a).
Its purpose is threefold:-
(a) Rational Representation, as far as special appeals to or inquiries from the diplomatic representative of the Austro-Hungarian Government become necessary.(This stands in decided contrast to the system still in force where the representation. of the interests of "German" P's/W. is concerned,- and the observations made on this point under §2. (pp-4-6) find corroboration in the practical and successful working of the Austro-Hungarian P.o.W. Organisation and farther proof that the sphere of the Head-Captains should not extend beyond maintaining order and discipline within their own Compound, as defined by the Camp Regulations.)
(b) Organisation of the distribution of gifts in Money or kind which are intended for Austrian and Hungarian Subjects only ;
(c) The Administration of the 'von Emperger Relief and` for the Assistance of invalids in the Hospital and destitutes in need of dental treatment.
The Austro-Hungarian Committee is closely affiliated with the Camp Central Committee, and its Chairman is a member of the permanent Staff, whilst the Compound Representatives are elected in the usuat manner. By reason of direct collaboration with the C.C.C. the Chairman cf the A.-H.Committee is co-operating with the Chairman of the 'Dr.Markel Section' (also a permanent member of the C.C.C.) so that overlapping is excluded,and the compiling and correction of the lists of destitute P's/'W. within the whole Camp is materially facilitated thereby. The Compound Representatives of the A.-H Cornittae hold bi-monthly meetings nt the C.C.C. Board Room at which all current affairs are discussed and dealt with and of which minutes are kept.
Out of the funds placed st the disposal of this Committee by the diplomatic Representatives on behalf of the Austro-Hungarian Government and the "von Emperger Fund" the following distributions were made during the Half-Year :-
(1) Emperger Fund Easter Distribution (special):-£73:6:9. were allotted to Camp IV out of which sum 1760 tins of beef and tongue were purchased and distributed amongst 1140 destitutes. (It should be pointed out that this Committee preferred to distribute food in place of money, contrary to the three other Camps, and the experiment proved successful).
(2) The distribution out of the Government Funds (May 23rd) was carried out on the same principle:- 200 lbs. cheese, 218 tins Milk, 2 boxes dates, 239 sardines (tins) 309 tins herrings, 185 oz Tobacco, 18350 cigarettes, which were dealt out to 1108 Austro-Hungarian Subjects in Camp IV.
(3) The City of Vienna Contribution, amounting to £28:10:- for Camp IV, was distributed amongst 271 Viennese here interned.
constitutes a Committee, the Chairman and the Secretary of which are members of the C.C.C., whilst all the Compound Representatives are elected. The Offices and Stores are accommodated in the C. C. C. Hut (Enclosure C.C./4) where the Committee's business is conducted and statistical records kept; the monthly meetings are held in the Board Room.
As will be evident from the resume of the business activity of the Dr.Markel Committee, covering the last six months, the Relief Work has gradually assumed considerable proportions. Thanks to the close co-operation of all representative bodies in this Camp a strict control and a discriminrtive procedure is maintained no that all genuine and deserving cases are kept count of and systematically followed up. By this means the help given is always turned to good account, and the unbiased activity of the Dr.Markel Committee is daily proving of the utmost value
Financial Assistance given from Dec 1st to June 1st :-
£231 15 6 to destitute P's/w. (3/9 per head);
£3 to Destitute teachers per month
£3 to destitute Jews (January 1917 only)
£92 11 0 - dental assistance to destitute P's/W;
£40 18 11 presented to the 7 Compound Kitchens to improve New-Year's day fare
£150 6 0 representing Baron Schroeder's Christmas present to each P's/W (6d p. head)
Assistance in kind given from Dec lst to June 1st:-Wearing apparel:-- 41 Cardigans, 14 Sweaters, 43 Shirts, 73 vests, 103 p. pants, 133 p. socks, 28 handkcrihiefs; Surgical and other articles:- 37 trusses, 35 suspendors, 41 body belts, 5 p. flat-foot supports, 30 sets of strings, 16 scores of music etc. and the requests for 114 other articles were also granted
Committee Assistance: Given to the School Section during the last 4 months:-
5 large & small drawing and black board; 60 drawing pads 8 gross of crayons; 1 gross erasers; 1 gross of drawing pins; 1 large & 48 pairs of small compasses; 1"T"square; 35 rulers; 84 protractors; 1798 exercise books; a large quantity of writing & plotting paper; 40 large & small bottles of ordinary & Indian ink; 35 gross white chalk; files;clips;labels; gum &c. &c.
General Presentations made by Dr.Markel and the Deutsch Volksspende for Christmas
1916, each P's/W. receiving :-
30 cigarettes or 1 oz.of tobacco ar any one of the following articles : -
Set of links 4 studs, safety razors, fountain pens, pocket books, purses, pouches, playing carts, cigarette holders, hairbrushes, small clocks etc. etc.
Apart from the above 30860 Cigarettes and 2824 oz. of tobacco were given by Dr.Markel, as well as : -
In January & February 328 lbs. of Dutch tobacco to needy P's/W. , and on February 25th 25 suits, 3 overcoats, 4 p. of trousers and 4 p. of boots were distributed amongst those needy P's/W. who were about to be repatriated, being over 45 years of age
78 private parcels of varied contents were through the kind offices of Dr.Markel sent to individual P's/W.
On behalf of the "Swiss Relief Committee" 200 lbs. of cheese and 400 tins of milk were sent in February for distribution.
Through the medium of the Dr.Markel Committae the School and other Committees
were enabled, to purchase the following articles :-
3138 exercise books , 48 drawing pads, 198 school books and 1140 volumes for the Camp Library, Sporting Outfits, music etc. etc.
Even a casual survey of the figures given above must convey same idea of the importance and vaue of the relief extended to the P's/W. by Dr. Markel and his Committee, and the greatest credit is due to him for his untiring efforts and personal endeavours to help the P's/W. or their Committees wherever possible. Dr. Markel has earned the gratitude and thanks not only from the P's/W. whom he has thus assisted, but also from those who have with him striven to exercise humanity in strained and difficult time.
The purpose of this Committee, which has elected representatives in all Compounds and a small office in the C.C.C.Hut, is to aid the P's/W. in their settlement of outside affairs, obligations and so on, which is readered possible by the special correspondence facilities that the Authorities have granted. In the early stages of the War this Society has been taxed quite consderably in trying to recover property lost is transit, or after internment, in settling insurance clams and generally-winding-up the private affairs of a number of P's/W. But the Societies scope has now materially decreased so that there are no special records to show for the last 6 months.
This closes the chapter of the principal Organisations and leads to a brief description of the trade unions and Clubs established in Camp IV.
Due to the large assembly of P's/W., who are workmen of various trades on land and sea and members of Organisations and Trade Unions, a general movement made itself felt throughout the Camp early in 1916, with the object of forming in each Compound "Readers' Circles". Towards the middle of last year the formation of these Sunday Clubs - later known as "Popular Debating Societies" - was sanctioned and gradually developed into independent lecturing societies, which, as the Annual Report will show were originally intended to form a sub-division of the 'Literary & Scientific Society" already existing as a "Camp" Institution. Up to that period Inter-Compound Communications for both, members and lecturers in the Popular Debating Societies had not been allowed, as due to the varying tactics of some of these Clubs an opinion was prevalent that purely democratic and political tendencies formed their basis.
On being approached by the leaders of this now general movement, the Camp Central Comittee thereupon investigated their claim and plea for centralisation, and after due consideration submitted to the Commandant their request for incorporation in the Organisation of Committees.
This step was taken at the end of 1916, and under the tactful leadership of the appointed Camp Representative it soon became evident that the centralisation of these debating Clubs showed equalising and beneficial effects and proved that the nature of the popular lectures interested a wide circle of P's/W. who, with other subjects, were difficult to reach.
The Popular Debating Society thereupon became a 'Camp' Institution ( now counting 1840 registered members) and the formerly independent Compound Clubs are now under the control of their Camp Representative, who is a member of the C.C.C. Board for the period of his office. In the following a record of the lectures and their attendance is given:-
|No-of lectures||No.of P's/W.present:|
As part of their routine the executive Committee of this Society regularly submits for censoring purposes a programme of their lectures together with the MSS. The subjects dealt with mainly bear on political economy, aims of education, public health (causes of alcoholism, venereal diseases &c races and languages, land problems, co-operative societies, industry and commerce, handicraft &c and are moderate in their tendencies.
Connected with the Society is a special Library disposing of about 2700 books, and records are kept of their exchange and readers.
Sea-faring men represent a large proportion cf this Camp and, following a general desire to be allowed to meet and organise themselves, the Commandant sanctioned the formation of this Union,which has as its sole purpose the discussion of questions relating to insurance connected with the mine danger, as well as to conditions of work after the War.
The Union has a membership of 920, embraces the following sea-faring trades: mates, machinists, firemen deck-hands & fishermen, and has, since its foundation April 11th, 1917) held 19 Compound- & 2 Camp Meetings. The Resolutions then passed and compiled in proper form were by permission of the Authorities sent to the Transport-Arbeiter-gerband in Germany for consideration and action. - the Camp Central Committee being in the position of a disinterested observer, is able to report that at these Meetings food for reflection is given to a large number of men, who outside their trade-questions (and influenced by the long internment)are more or less apathetic.
This Committee has been established on the same basis-and for identical purposes, and their resolution in respect of the mine danger and questions of insurance connected therewith, has by permission of the Authorities been forwarded to the representative Bodies in Germany. - The membership of this Association is 47.
About 40Engineer Officers of the Mercantile marine have been granted perminnion to form a circle, which, as is the case of all the other trade unions etc. carries with it the privilege of passes for the purpose of holding occasional Meetings. This Circle discusses purely technical questions to keep its members up-to-date in their profession and interested in their particular aims.
This Association is the oldest of the kindred Unions in this Camp and nunbers nearly 100 Officers of the Mercantile Marine who are allowed to meet at intervals for the purpose of holding lectures on purely "nautical" subjects (recently including, for instance, the reading of a paper on the 'gyroscopic' compass ).
The Master Mariners' Association further influences the development of the "Nautical" School, dealt with under §4 (page 11) of this report, and is thus promoting useful occupation amongst the junior menbers of their professsion.
GENEVA ASSOCIATION : - Membership 291.
UNION "GANYMED":- 178.
Int. UNION of COOKS:- 45.
The above three independent Societies were founded to keep the members of their respective Associations together, and have now combined for the purpose of discussing trade questions and initiating instructional lectures.
Each Compound has its own Skittle Alley and frequent competitions are held in support of the Kitchen Fund..
The majority of the Compounds have a Chess and a Billiard Club to provide for congenial indoor recreation and at regular intervals properly organised tournaments and matches are held.
In concluding this Report the CAMP CENTRAL COMMITTEE Administration of CAMP IV may now best be defined as the "Hub" around which the wheel of daily life in CAMP revolves- the spokes representing the Committees and the rim the structural basis of sound organisation.
In principle as in fact the BOARD of the C.C.C. endeavours at all times to act free from bias and outside influences and to generally perform the functions of as "INTERMEDIARY" - serving both, HUMANITY and FAIRPLAY.
| Any comments, errors or omissions gratefully received The
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