[taken from ...Proceedings of the Workington Agricultural Society ... 1807 pp55-73]
This was by President John Christian Curwen
IN climate and soil, the Isle of Man must be esteemed particularly fortunate. Less severity of cold is felt than in any other part. of Great Britain, in the same latitude : frost is never intense nor of any continuance, and snow seldom remains above a few days.
THE quality of the soil is, in general, a light loam upon a gravel or sandy bottom. In the northern districts of the Island, there are tracts of clay : the strata of the Island is, in general, so regular as to require very little draining. Part of the southern coast of the Island abounds with lime-stone; that of the best quality is found upon the shore near to Castletown, it is perfectly black, and takes a very fine polish : the dots used in the pavement of St. Paul's, were obtained from thence. In the northern parts of the Island there is abundance of marl, which is used with great advantage as a manure.
THE rapid tides, which run in various directions round the coast of the Island, and occasion a great swell and agitation of the sea, are the means of disengaging the sea-weed from the rocks, and forcing very large quantities upon the beach. This weed, though by no means a lasting manure, is, nevertheless, an object worthy the attention of those who can procure it., at a moderate expence. Salt is here subject to a very trifling duty ; the farmer has it, therefore, in his power to apply it not only to feeding sheep and cattle, but to other agricultural purposes. How much is it to be lamented, that the hopes, held out by Mr. Pitt and Lord Sidmouth, have not been realized, and some means sound of commuting the duty on salt, and putting it in the power of farmers, in this country, to avail themselves of what foreigners import from hence, and find so much for their benefit and advantage. These resources afford the Island a great facility and means of promoting improvement. Few districts of equal size are so happily situate for reaping the benefits of improved agriculture.
IN discussing the agriculture of the Island I have much to lament, that a concurrence of unfortunate events curtailed my stay, and prevented my seeing the northern district; which is reported to be in a much superior state of cultivation than the southern. I flatter myself, previous to the publication of the next year's report, either by myself or others, I may be able to make a more accurate investigation. I am inclined, however, rather to confide in the kind indulgence I have experienced on other occasions, to excuse any inadvertencies I may have unavoidably, been led into, than delay offering such remarks as have occurred to me.-I trust, my attachment to the Island and its interests, is too well ascertained to suffer my motives to be questioned, on account of any observations I may make. Providence has been bountiful in bestowing upon the Island a soil which, under proper management, could not fail of abundantly rewarding the labours of the cultivator. Hitherto, unfortunately, the attention of the small landed proprietor and farmer, has been fixed upon more distant and uncertain treasures.-In the search of those bounties which are annually expected to be scattered round their shores : they are become insensible of the riches to be drawn from the earth, by labour and exertion. To have a share in a herring boat, is the first object of their ambition, and is considered as the only road to wealth. Under such impressions, who can wonder at its being the ultimate view and object of a large majority of the Islanders.
THE four months devoted to the herring fishery, are those of the most importance in husbandry-every thing must give way to the fishery,- however ripe the grain, it must take its chance of being gathered by the aged and infirm. Happily would it be if this were found the extent of the mischief that results from this predilection to the herring fishery -- too many, of the individuals, so employed, contract habits of indolence and dissipation, which enervate their minds, and indispose them to that patient, persevering labour requisite for carrying on the operations of husbandry. Who can see, without regret, so robust and hardy a race of men moving as if devoid of energy, and incapable of exertion ? To vanquish such habits, and to conquer the deep-rooted prejudice of any body of men, is a work of great difficulty, and must require much perseverance and great length of time.
TILL some progress can be made towards this desirable end, no very general improvement can be accomplished or hoped for. The great division of property will contribute, also, to render the change still more difficult : till an interest in agriculture can be excited, the few examples of tolerable good farming, to be met with among the English and Scotch farmers settled in the Island, cannot be expected to produce any very material effect. The first step towards a change, that would so materially contribute to the happiness and prosperity of the Island, and its inhabitants, would be to establish the fact of industry being the associate of plenty, idleness and. dissipation that of penury and privation. Could the curiosity and feelings of the people, be excited to inquire, ' Whether the herring fishery, or the cultivation of the land, was the object of most importance to the small landed proprietor, labourer, and the general interests of the Island ' it might lead to very important results. With this view. I shall endeavour to state my own opinions upon the subject,-if a spirit of inquiry can be called forth, much good must arise from it. In the west of Scotland, after the most serious and grave examination, they are trying every means of seperating the occupations of fishing and husbandry as incompatible.
This strengthens my opinion, and confirms the judgement I have formed, with respect to the interests of the Island
FROM the accounts I have received, I should conjecture;, there may be nearly four hundred boats employed in the Manx fishery, and that the cost of a boat is about £120.. Agreeable to this statement, the capital in boats and nets would be £48,000. From seven to eight is the number of men employed in each boat, which would make the total amount of souls, so engaged, 3,000,
|Estimating their labour at 2s. 6d. per day, for 4 months; or 120 days, at £15, each
|12 per cent. interest on £48.000 the capital
|Suppose each boat to take £30. worth of fish
|Which leaves a clear gain, by the herring fishery, of
IT is estimated that the Island contains 150,000 acres, one-third of which is waste. From the state the ground is in, I think there can be little doubt an advance of 40s. on the produce of each acre of the remaining 100,000, might be obtained ;
|This would give an increased value in victual of
|4 months labour of 3;000 men at 2s. 6d. per day
|Suppose 250,0001 of capital to be employed, to produce the necessary improvement
|Balance of gain, upon cultivation
Hence it appears, the cultivation of the land would produce double the profit, of the most favourable year of her: but contrast this with the disappointments which so frequently occur in the fishery;. shall I overstate, the probability of failure in crops, to comparison with the herring fishery, in estimating it two to one in favour of agriculture? In the whole statement, I conceive I have as much over-rated the fishery, as I have undervalued the land.
Is there one individual to be found, , in the whole Island, who will not agree with me in thinking, this is an object-of the first importance, and of the greatest consequence to have fairly discussed and determined' It will not, nay I think it cannot, be denied, however I may be differed from on other subjects, that in the present mode of conducting the herring fishery, there is a great lots both of labour and capital. The herring fishery, under proper regulations, would be as highly beneficial as I conceive it, in its present state, injurious to the interests of the Island, and its inhabitants.
A large majority of the persons employed, are neither expert at fishing, nor skillful cultivators of the earth,--this mixture of character spoils both. A hundred boats, manned with persons constantly in the habits of fishing, would, I do apprehend,. bring to market an equal quantity of fish; and set at liberty 2,000 persons, to pursue and perfect the improvement of the ground. The late years of failure in the herring fishery, have, I am informed, raised a doubt in the minds of some, of the wisdom of devoting all their time and attention to it ; if this be correct, good has arisen out of a present evil; rejoiced should I be to see the change effected, without its being attended with injury to those, at present, embarked in the fishery.
THE cabins of the small landed proprietor, and labourer, are very indifferent. The population of the Island, is estimated at 40,000 souls; if this be not over-rated it would give 170 persons to each square mile; such a population could not be supported, if herring; and potatoes were not the food of a large majority of the people. This diet, for every purpose of health, is as salubrious as any other; but in years of failure of the herring fishery, which of late have frequently occurred, the sufferings of the bulk of the inhabitants, must be great : in as much as it is not only their dependance for food, but likewise for almost every other necessary article in life. For the reasons above stated, and from the very defective state of agriculture, there is less animal food consumed in the Isle of Man, than by any other 40,000 of his Majesty's subjects in England or Wales. It is impossible to fee the Island possessed of resources, which, if properly drawn forth, would so materially, better the condition, and add to the comforts of nine-tenths of the inhabitants, without feeling deeply interested and sincerely anxious. They should have their eyes opened to the advantages they have in their power to enjoy.
To speak my real sentiments, I must say that I conceive little, if any, general improvement has been made in the agriculture of the southern part of the Island, in the last sixteen years, except in buildings; in these there is a considerable change for the better. There may be more land brought under the plough ; but nothing can be more deplorable than the management, I beg pardon, I mean the mismanagement, of the ground.-- As a proof of the little progress which has been made, I should instance, that in a circuit of between thirty and forty miles, from Douglas to Castletown, St. John's, Bishops' Court, and back to Douglas; I could not discern from the road twenty acres of turnips, though every acre of the ground (some few acres of meadow excepted) was capable of producing admirable turnips. Winter food must be allowed to be the first step towards a system of improved agriculture. To devise the means of creating manure was, by the elder Cato, stated to be the whole art and mystery of farming, and such has been the opinion of all subsequent agriculturists : in the Isle of Man, unfortunately, this principle is either not admitted, or if it be admitted it is not practiced or attended to. It is self-evident, wherever winter food is not provided, there can be little flock kept; and nowhere is there a stronger instance of this, than in the Isle of Man. From the lightness of the soil, and the general poverty of their land from over-cropping, the straw must, consequently, be very short. In the north of England, where we have the largest proportion of straw, it requires two acres to make manure for the cropping of one; in the Isle of Man, to accomplish the same purpose, it will take three or four acres : this shews the absolute necessity for some auxiliary means of preventing, the ground from being impoverished by cropping the same necessity must occur to all light soils;-and, Invariably, the same means are resorted to, to supply the deficiency. Sheep have, in every such situation, been found of the greatest value; not only as a stock, but likewise in the benefit produced to the ground, by their manure. The first advance towards this improvement, is the providing winter food.
As a previous step to reasoning upon the advantages of green crops, it may be advisable to state the information I obtained, respecting the return that might. be expected from feeding sheep, and the improvement that might be made in the fleece : I was most agreeably surprised to find wool of native sheep, in their present neglected state, worth eighteen-pence per pound. The sheep of the Island are exempt from many of the disorders, by which great losses are elsewhere sustained; the rot is scarce known, which proceeds, probably, from the dryness of the soil, and the mildness of the climate, the vegetation being hardly suspended during the whole year. Salving or dressing of sheep is not practiced. If u were necessary to enable sheep to resist the effects of wet, there would be few places where it would be more required.
From Mr. Gawn, of Mount Gawn, (to whose farm the president's cup was adjudged,) I received the following information; that he had fed eight sheep, per acre, during the whole twelve months, on his clover lays, his pastures are, undoubtedly, in very high condition, and under excellent management : his soil possesses no superiority over that of the general quality of the Island. Supposing the fleece to be improved by a cross of the Marino, it should, I have not the least doubt, be of double the value of the very best wool produced in the present state, and worth three shillings per pound.
|8 sheep, clipping 4 lb. each; 321b. at 3s. per lb
£4 16 0
|Improvement in carcass or lamb, 15s. each
6 0 0
|Profit of an acre fed with sheep
£10 16 0
HALF of this profit would hold out a most powerful inducement for the adoption of the sheep system, as the most lucrative plan of improvement.
From Mr. Gawn I also learnt, that the second year's crop of clover was, frequently, superior to the first ; that it was not liable to be injured by the winter, or the severity of spring frosts : this circumstance alone tend to make sheep eminently valuable, and the first object in Manx agriculture;-by sheep, the ground would be enriched, and superior crops of grain obtained. So favourable is the soil and climate for the growth of clover, that no crop would be found so valuable, or so deserving the attention of the farmer. hitherto the cultivation of it is but partial : I was glad, however, to find the sale of clover and other feeds annually increased; and that above 1,000l. worth was, yearly, imported into Douglas alone.
THE crop,after feeding with sheep, and ploughing in the clover root, (the weight of which has been calulated at thirty-two cwt. per acre,), would produce a much greater return of grain, and of superior quality to any other mode of management.
I discuss the value of green crops, the first object is, to ascertain the produce of hay, per acre. I would ask:, Does the best acre of meadoow or natural grass produce a ton and a-half ? On an average, would they yield above a ton ? In Northumberland, forty tons of turnip; are grown per acre. In Cumberland, I should suppose, the general weight of crop to be from sixteen to twenty-five tons. The proportion of feeding, between hay and green crops, in favour of hay, is as three to one if so, green crop would be stilll to hay, taking the weight ol-green crop into confideration, as five to one, and this upon the lowest estimation; in general, it might be expected to be as sevcn to one. In addition to this, it must be observed, that turnips fed on the ground contribute to the enriching of it : hay, on the contrary, invariably exhausts. The profit upon an increased flock, must also be brought into the account : nor must we omit the loss and difficulties experienced by the farmer, who depends entirely upon hay for fodder, in years of scarcity, and which must, I conceive, very frequently happen in the Isle of Man. The turnip crop is, in the Isand, of increased value, from its being less liable to injury from frost; it is no small addition to its value, to be exempt from those losses which unavoidably occur in other situations. To put the earth banks in a state that would secure their sheep,wouldl not require either much time or expence: goss might soon be raised, so as to make them perfectly safe.
AS far as I may be presumed capable of judging, I am of opinion, no situation holds out more flattering prospects to reward the cultivator, than the whole of the Isle of Man ; and, fortunately, the very best system is that which is within the reach of every landed proprietor and farmer.
IT neither requires a great capital, nor a length of time, to effect a total change in the face of the country. The plan of farming, adopted by the English and Scotch farmers settled in the Island, has not been bottomed upon a sheep system; and neither their profits nor the condition of their lands are equal to what they might and would have been, had they pursued the Norfolk mode of agriculture.
NOTHING can be worse than the general state of agriculture of those parts of the Island which I saw. I must be understood as speaking generally : there are exceptions which strengthen my opinion, and prove how much may be done. A disposition to grant leases, is general in every part of the Island; and nothing can contribute more to foster a spirit of improved agriculture :-without leases. I am more and more convinced, no material change of system can be effected. Happy would it be for the county of Cumberland, if the same enlightened policy as generally prevailed.
THE common practice of cropping, in the Island, is as injurious to the ground as to the proprietor; white crops succeed each other so long as the land will make a return of the feed, when exhausted it is left for pasture. Thus as the expences of a crop, are incurred with a return little above a- third of what would be obtained, by alternate white and green crops : in the more improved practice, two or three white crops are taken; a method that is now esteemed completely at variance with good agriculture. though,
IRRIGATION is scarce known; from the number of rivulets, and the natural fall of the ground, few places possess equal facility of effecting great and most important improvements, at a very moderate expence. Mr. Atkinson, who farms near Peel, and who obtained the cup for irrigation, has done some little : he has, also, made use of the sea sand upon his irrigated ground, with much advantage. I am inclined to believe, his meadows require draining to put them in a situation of reaping the full benefit, from the water.-With much good sense, he preferred having, from the society, a mole plough in lieu of the cup, and, I have no doubt, he will reap essential benefit from this simple and valuable implement of husbandry : an account of which is in a preceeding part of this Report.
THE want of cattle yards and sheds is general; experience has proved their advantage, not only in assisting the farmer to make manure, but alto in keeping the cattle in much superior condition, with less food;-no feeding can keep the generality of cattle in condition, when exposed to the wet and cold. The necessity of such conveniences, for good farming, is indispensable; and though this would, doubtless in the first instance, be attended with a heavy charge, in the end it would be amply repaid.
CONSIDERABLE portions of land, in various parts of the Island, are admirably adapted for planting; its advantages are now pretty well understood : to such as with for further information, I strongly recommend to their perusal an Essay on the value of Timber, written by the Bishop of Landaff, and published by the Board of Agriculture.
THE general flocks of cattle, in the Island, are a mixture of Scotch, Irish, and the long horned; as no pains have been bestowed upon them, they are, as may naturally be expected, possessed of little form or symmetry. There are some of a very small size, that are called the native breed, and said to milk well : a native breed is, in general, as large as the ground will maintain; and, till the ground be improved, no increase of size is of advantage;. Small cattle, for some tinge at least, are best suited to the Island.
THE native breed of horses are small, and very hand some; but unfit for the purposes of agriculture. If I be correct, which I confidently believe I am in, in the value which would be derived from sheep : the breeding of horses can never be an object in Manx agriculture ; nor even cattle, beyond what may, be necessary for the dairy and butcher.
THE native sheep are very small, though fine wool is to be met with in some of their fleeces ; in general, it is very long, and full of hair :-there appears to be a cross with the long Scot, which is a very misshapen animal. The flocks imported, are of the long woolled sheep; there are, I believe. some crosses of the Southdown, those I saw I did not admire.- The breed of swine admits of great improvement.
IN offering this short view of Manx agriculture, I have too much reason to fear it may be erroneous in many points: it will be the means I trust of leading to a more correct detail, by persons more able to do it justice. It is with much satisfaction, I add some accounts of the improvements made by a few of the most spirited and intelligent agriculturists, of the Island.
MR. Gawn, of Mount Gawn, (whose farm was in the best order of any I saw,) has adopted the following rotation of crops : he takes barley from the clover lay, followed by potatoes, then barley, and lays down with feeds; cut the first year, grazed the second : limes with 300 Winchesters per acre, once in five or six years :- does not consider the sea weed as worth the labour and expense of leading, though close to him. In differing from him, I must confess, I have no experience to justify me ; where used, I should strongly recommend its being ploughed in, as soon as possible; if exposed to the atmosphere, the falts will soon evaporate.-Mr. Gawn has no winter crops, though he feeds twenty head of cattle; being engaged in a brewery, he does not find them so necessary. He gives potatoes to his horses and cattle; his fattening cattle have a small proportion of oatmeal : he is allowed to produce the bet fat, in the Island. I think he would find a few turnips, as a change of diet, very beneficial. I must regret Mr. Gawn was prevented attending the agricultural meeting, at Workington : the great object proposed, by offering the cup, was to draw over those gentlemen who had made a progress in agriculture, to sea the system pursuing here; and to give them an opportunity of mixing with intelligent agriculturists, of other countries. Individually the president would be highly gratified, to offer them those commendations due to exertions which cannot fail of benefitting the Island, as well as themselves. In nothing would they be more likely to profit, than in viewing the advantages derived from farm buildings. I conceive the adoption of steaming potatoes, instead of giving them raw, would tend also much to the advantage of those who use them. On this account, I also lament not to have seen Mr. Gawn and his friends.
MR. Coulthard, who farms 400 acres within three miles of Douglas, on a one-and-twenty years' lease, appears to me to be proceeding with equal spirit and judgment: he has twelve acres of turnips, this season, which I regret not having seen; had twenty acres of wheat, the produce of which he estimates at forty Winchesters per acre; has laid down sixty acres with clover and other feeds, his proportions are fix pounds of red clover, three of of white clover, three of trefoil, and six of rye grass. Mr. Coulthard cut and soiled five acres of clover, which he applied to feeding his mulch cows ; makes butter, and sells both new and skimmed milk to Douglas,-a more profitable branch of farming there is not, either for the firmer or the public. Mr. Coulthard has used 500 tons of lime, upon his farm. in the last two years and a-half: he top-dressed his clover with hot lime, after the first cutting; no injury was done to the young leaves on its first spreading. and it produced a most abundant second crop.
I beg leave to offer a few remarks upon the use of lime, I do it with great diffidence, and own I am far from being satisfied with any thing I either know myself, or have learned from others, on the subject. Loamy and sandy soils, from tillage, are apt to be rendered too light: lime gives them adhesion, which is very serviceable; by its attraction of the atmosphere, it also affords moisture : and in no year was it likely to produce more beneficial effects, as a top-dressing, than in the present; when for a month or more, after the first cutting of clover, there was scarce a shower of rain. Lime, used in its caustic state, may, by consuming of grass roots, &c. create a vegetable mould; on dry soils, I see the benefit it produces, though I cannot, in any satisfactory manner. account for the causes.
Up to what point the use of lime may be serviceable, is a question not agreed upon.-I have been informed, the predecessors of Mr. Coke, used so much lime on the Holkam estate, as to materially, injure the ground. Mr. Coke himself is no friend to lime, and, I believe, seldom or ever makes use of it: his authority and example are entitled to great weight.-- On stony clays and wet grounds, (such as clay lands must always be,) I can discover no advantage, or devise a principle on which the use of lime should be recommended.
THOSE farmers who will not work their ground, will, naturally, wish to resort to lime to bring it into tilth, which I conceive to be better done by labour; invariably when much lime is used, as soon as the ground is returned into grass, it claps down, and becomes so hard and baked as to prevent the moisture quickly subsiding to the roots of the grass : I have seen many instances of injury from lime on clays, I know of none which it has benefitted.
THOUGH, I am so well situate for procuring lime, I make no use of it; except in destroying weeds, mixing with schiftus, and a small quantity for pulverizing composts for top-dressing.
I cannot omit naming Mr. Coshanan, as deserving of great credit for his exertions. Mr. Corlet, of the North-side, is also making many improvements, and has the merit of never taking more than one white crop.
My short residence did not allow me to become generally acquainted with the opinions held upon the subject of agriculture : I found, however, there existed a great diversity of sentiments, as to early or late sowing of grain. In all parts of England, of which I have any knowledge, early sowing is found to answer, and is esteemed of importance in proportion to the dryness of the soil. The advantage of dry foils over wet, in the culture of grain, &c. &c. is precisely this, that the plough is never stopped, and the getting in of the crop is almost independent of the season; besides the saving of expence, the superiority of the early crop is esteemed a great object; now, according to the Manx opinion, this advantage would be lost.
ALL good farmers endeavour, if possible, to finish their ploughing before Christmas, and to give but one furrow afterwards for barley; the cleaning should be made in the green crop. The danger of ploughing light soils late, if the season be dry, proceeds from the powerful evaporation that takes place, at that period , the moisture exhaled from a ncN1 ploughed field, in May, is equal to 950 lb. of water per hour, in a statute acre,
TILL I am furnished with some more satisfactory reasons than any I have yet heard, I cannot admit the Isle of Man to be an exception from the general rule, The Manx harvest might be accelerated some weeks, by more early putting in the crops, which would be an object of material importance and benefit to the agriculture of the Island : What has it not suffered by the lateness of the harvest, in the present season?
THE barley and oats grown in the Isle of Man, are of a very good quality : I saw barley, this year, which weighed fifty-six pounds, per Winchester. Formerly, much wheat was imported for the consumption of the Island; at present, sufficient is grown :the export, which is chiefly to Liverpool, is in barley and oats.
THE next thing which presents itself to our consideration, is, the means of promoting a spirit of improvement: with those advanced in life, the difficulties are so great as to give but little room to hope for much success. I heard, every where, great complaints of the want of good husbandry servants : as a remedy for this, and with a view to the general improvement, I should strongly recommend to every gentleman and farmer, to take apprentices in husbandry, and have them bound at an early age; to bestow some pains on their education, and have them well instructed in every branch of agriculture. The habits of early life would not easily be broken through; and such persons would not only take valuable servants, but, after a period, be admirable farmers; and escape the mania of the herring fishery.
THE objects of improvement, in the better cultivation of the Island, are no ways more likely to be promoted and drawn forth, than from the exertions of the Agricultural Society. If the landed proprietor and farmer can be induced to associate with the gentlemen and clergy of the Island, they will be imperceptibly led to adopt a better system of husbandry.
THE support given to the society, and the example set by his Majesty's Lieut. Governor, the Bishop and his clergy, the Deemsters, the Keys, Col. Taubman, and the rest of the vice-presidents, cannot fail, in time, of producing a powerful effect. Fortunately, the objects of the Agricultural Society, are such as must have the approbation of every man of common sense-of every man who loves his country, or values the happiness of his fellow-creatures : how gratifying mutt it prove to those,, who are now taking an active part in forwarding the internal improvement of their country, (as to every other patriotic Manx man,) to see abundance generally diffused, to witness the comforts of life enjoyed by all ranks, and industry and happiness crowning every quarter of the Island. The constant endeavours of the society, will be to give to merit its due reward of praise and approbation, to suggest, from time to time, the most advantageous modes of agriculture, and to point out the best examples for imitation,
THE drill husbandry, which promises to become so general in Cumberland, and which owes its introduction to the Workington Agricultural Society, is not known or practised in the Isle of Man : how honourable to the person who shall introduce it! The first object is the saving of feed, which in wheat is half, and still more in barley; it admits of the grain being hoed, in the spring, which operates not only as an advantage in cleaning the ground; but improves the grain; it prevents the lodging of barley, by suffering a free current of air to pass; gives an opportunity, likewise, of cleaning with the hoe, and of sowing clover feed after the barley has made some progress: the clover plant is always much superior in the drill to broadcast.-I shall not contend whether the drill produces more or less grain, per acre, than that is sown in broadcast; but I will assert, without fear of contradiction, that there will be no comparison in the state of the ground, at the end of five years, in the drill and broadcast husbandry;-so much is gained by the power of cleaning.
A manufactory of agricultural implements, is established at Workington in order that there may be a ready and cheap mode of obtaining such as are found, by experience, to be of the most use and importance in agriculture
THE first public meeting of the society, held at St. John's, the 23d of September, must have afforded great satisfaction to every friend of the Island. The appearance of so many respectable characters, united with the yeomanry and farmers of the Island mutt create a spirit of exertion. For the better convenience of the meeting, it is, in future, to be held at the White-house, the farm of Col. Taubman : this will give an opportunity of inspecting his improvements, and those of the neighbourhood. I shall be much deceived if the White-house farm does not, in a very short time, exhibit an interesting specimen of improved agriculture. My young friend cannot employ his fortune and talents more to the profit of his native country, or with a view to his own happiness, than by exerting himself in perfectioning its agriculture.
FROM the ties by which I was previously connected with the Island, as well as from the union with a society in whose credit and prosperity I take so lively an interest I cannot but feel the strongest anxiety and concern for the improvement of Manx agriculture : whatever exertions are in my power for may be commanded; and, was my power equal to my good wishes, it would prove me not ungrateful for the many marks of kindness, received in along period of years.
I have witnessed, with heart-felt satisfaction and pride, the spirit of improvement which, in the last few years, has emanated from the Workington Agricultural Society, and diffused itself through the country ; the beneficial effects of which are rapidly developing~ Happy, indeed, will the society esteem itself, if it produce the like in the Isle of Man; and that our union may be marked by a coincidence of opinion and exertion.
THE Society voted an address to the Lieut. Governor, requesting him to apply to Sir Joseph Banks, bart. to know by what means a tup or two of the Merino breed, could be obtained from his Majesty's flock. Few situations give more promise for the success of the Merino cross.