[From Townley's Journal, Vol II, 1791]
ANOTHER dry day, with the wind at East; cold, both in the morning and evening ; but tolerably pleasant about the middle of the day. The mail boat sailed this morning.
26th. ONE of the most stinking, close fogs I ever saw, or smelt ; but it cleared up before nine ; and then became tolerably pleasant, during the middle of the day ; but grew cold again towards night : the wind moving half a point, to the northward, from East.
27th. THE coldest day that we have had, since the wind has been in the easterly quarter; but not any frost that was perceptible. There was a prodigious outcry in Douglas, the last evening, against the two Vicar Generals, for drawing together (at Kirk Michael) a vast concourse of people, from every part of the island, to one of their spiritual-court meetings, for the probate of wills and debts, and then deserting them (after fingering a good deal of cash) under an excuse that they must dine with the bishop; but would only stay one hour, and then would return, and finish the business of the day. Under that pretence, they kept the people starving and waiting, till it was nearly dark ; and then sent up a message to the public house, that no more business would be done that day. it is said, his Lordship gives his guests most excellent wine.
MANY persons, some very old, had fourteen or fifteen miles to travel home, after that late notice. This relation, I had from several very respectable persons, who were amongst the disappointed ; but would not, on that or any other account, deviate the least from truth. Shame on such behaviour, such trifling with public business ; such a delay of justice making their court a court of mockery, contempt, and ridicule. Another James Earl of Derby is wanting, to keep such ecclesiastics within their proper bounds, and prevent them from tyrannizing over, and fleecing unmercifully, poor ignorant people, under the stale, idle pretence of reforming their morals.
28th. AN excessive cold, blowing morning, with the wind invariably fixed to the same point. However, this day has been much: pleasanter than the last ; the sun having shone out most resplendently, from his rising to his setting hour ; tempting people to prolong their evening strolls, too late : for there is a monstrous sharpness in the air ; which many, I sear will feel the bad effects of, in colds and other similar-. complaints, that take their rise from frequent obstructed perspirations.
29th. WHAT I noticed, of the last day, may be justly applied to the present, in every respect. The mail boat came in last: night, exactly at twelve oclock ; bringing over three gentlemen passengers. One of them is gone over this morning, to Bishops Court ; so his business to the island may be easily guessed at. The mate is almost certain he can claim him for a brother seaman ; but is quite confident, that he has been one East India voyage, at least. Notwithstanding that line of life, he may make a very good divine, when properly dubbed of the profession. Many red coats have been dyed, here, a good black ; why should not blue jackets take as good a colour ?Ex quovis ligno non sit (hoc insula) predicator ?
30th. THIS day exactly resembles the two preceding ones ; most tempting in appearance, luring, even invalids, into the open air, to bask in the sunshine : but they have proved dangerous to be trusted to, as very many complainings, of increased colds, will testify. Most of those that are now suffering in the influenza, as it is called by the medical people, complain of violent pains in the head ; some find their eyes much affected, and many have entirely lost their taste and smell ; such various way are people effected by it.
IN the Journal for the twenty fourth of this month, I hinted having then visited every parish in the island ; but did not visit any one of the seventeen, merely to gratify an idle curiosity ; but to pay the greatest attention to the nature of the soil the present mode of cultivating that soil; and to observe upon the valuable productions that might arise to the owners from a rational and spirited culture, instead of that obsolete, languid one at present practised by the natives of the island. The soil within those parishes, that cover the great north. level, is of a light, friable nature, and of a warm, generous quality ; therefore well adapted to the growth of rye, barley, and oats ; and also for the cultivation of all the useful vegetables, either for farming profit, or culinary use fave beans,of which the last harvest season gave me satisfactory, occular conviction It is a soil also capable of producing very good crops. of wheat, where a superinduction of marl can be procured, and the farmer is not afraid. of a little expence and labour, in procuring that bounty of kind Providence, from out of the bowels of his farm ; a bounty that seems to be peculiarly, bellowed upon that large district, as a compensation for the. want of that general insular one, sea-tangle : so plentifully granted to the inhabitants of the southern and eastern shores.
FLAX and hemp, especially the former, are cultivated in the northern parishes, with great success, and to very great advantage. The level parts abound, likewise, with fine pasture and hay grounds but there is a great lack of improvement in many parts, especially of that essential one draining ; which must be the leading one to all other rational ones, where there is a flagnation of water, or even a superfluity of moisture.
I HAVE before noticed the shocking management of their hay-grounds ; but it is an evil that (I fear) will remain, until Manksmen can be cured of their native indolence, and entirely divorced from their long-wedded prejudices, and most absurd customs : and that can only be expected from a more general intercourse, and a more free communication with strangers ; against which there is a strong resisting impediment, an unhappy insular jealousy of all foreigners ; promoting distrust and unpleasant reserve.
As to the soil in the three southern parishes of Kirk Christ Rushen, Arbory, and Malew, it partakes very strongly, of the same warm generous quality ascribed to the northern ; is worked and cultivated with equal facility and abounds in the same productions ; but is not capable of equal substantial improvements though grateful to the tillers hand and care.
THE parishes upon the east shore cannot boast either so fruitful or generous a soil, as those I have already alluded to but still that district is capable of great improvements ; as may be seen from the spirited efforts òf a few individuals, towards a more perfect mode of cultivation than is generally adopted by the natives ; and being blessed with more commerce and better population, in proportion to district, those improvements may turn out-as beneficial, to such individuals, as if they had been made in a more fertile soil. : The two middle or western parishes, Kk. Patrick and Marown, seemed the least favoured in situation, either for present, or future improvements. However, the one abounds in fine sheep pastures, and the other is possessed of a long extended swamp vales which, if properly drained (and it is very capable of it) might be converted into the richest land in the whole island.
FROM the appearance of this swampy vale, extending so very far by the road side, from Douglas to Peel, it is not improbable the sea in some very remote age) may have made some attempt to force a passage from one sandy bay to the other ; though I do not learn of any tradition existing of such an event : but present appearance, being so very dead a flat for many miles, favours strongly of it ; and we have the greatest reason to believe that like efforts have been made; in other places, by that wonderful element, that tremendously powerful body.
INSULAR tradition is very strong, with respect to the discharge of all the waters in the great north level, formerly by Lemoor, instead of Ramsey; and having viewed the outlet, and: similar level. and swampy vale above it, I do firmly believe the tradition to be well founded.
HAVING noticed the outward advantages of the island, .I must briefly touch upon its inward riches and sources of wealth, It contains, within its bowels, mines of lead and copper ore ; some say iron ore too. Those of the first named are uncommonly rich in silver, and the most pure self ore. From its bowels are also obtained valuable quarries of marble, lime-stone, blue slate, flags, and walling stone ; to which must be added those sources of wealth to the farmers, noble beds of virgin and shell marl ; both first rate specimens of their kind. The other beneficial article, in tillage, sea-tangle, has been sufficiently observed upon.
THERE is one source of wealth, and that of more general concernment and advantage, to the inhabitants at large, that has been only cursorily remarked upon ; I mean their noble fisheries ; in which most useful bounty of kind Providence, every district is (almost) equally participant. Some, indeed, enjoy the blessing sooner than others ; but those generally lose the welcome visitants, at a more early period of the season ; so that there is no reason to complain of any partiality in the bountiful dispensation of Providence.
IN treating upon their fisheries, I now chiefly allude to their noble herring- fishery, being the only one, yet established in the idle, that is become an export article an. article of beneficial commerce. The precursors of those immense shoals (which annually leave the frigid regions of the north) driven from their native shores, by the inifinctive impulse of indulgent Providence, to seek nutrition in more southern ones, where they are kindly intended to become a valuable article of food to millions of the human species, sirif make their appearance about the shores of this island, particularly about the bay of Port Iron, on the western side ; where the first straggling visitants are taken ; and are then found so very rich and melting, as to be unfit for curing in the drying house therefore become a noble treat, for the natives and sojourners, who (for a short time) pamper their appetites with the delicious, savoury dainty, with unrestrained indulgence Every thing then seen, touched, talked of, or scented in this place, is herring. Strangers soon become satiated, but the natives are never surfeited with the delicious treat so strong and natural an attachment subsisting betwixt a. Manks stomach and. the herring bogo.
WHEN the grand shoals arrive in the western channel, their first station, or resting place, after a voyage of so many thousand miles, is generally near the Calf of Man When the happy intelligence is announced, all is life, bustle, and industry, throughout every corner of the island. Every face wears the appearance of business, and every countenance is. brightened and cheered with the joyous and anxious expectation of a good sea harvest.
I HAVE occasionally noticed the mode of curing and drying the herrings , I shall therefore now advert to the export business of their valuable property
EVERY principal herring merchant has either vessels of his own, or some hired for the trip, lying ready to take in a cargo, as soon as sufficient number of barrels can be got ready to make it up. ; every one being most anxious to have the first chance at an Italian market of consequence ; as Venice, Florence, Leghorn, Genoa, or perhaps Palermo in Sicily ; where they are certain to meet with a ready sale, and an extra price, if first there.
THE Manks herrings are held in estimation, at all the Mediterranean ports. When they have finished their discharge, they begin to take in part of their homeward freights, at the same places ; and complete their cargoes (at some of the Portuguese, Spanish, or French ports) with wines, fruits, and other valuable articles, to be delivered at the ports of London, Bristol, Liverpool, &c. except what is reserved for home consumption. Many thousand barrels of white, or pickled, herrings are also sent every year, to different places in England, which bring in very considerable profit to the owners.
I HAVE before observed, that herrings constitute the chief article of food, with the natives ; those, and potatoes perhaps the best in all Europe, are the sole articles of food to be depended on, by three fourths of all the labouring people belonging to the island ; and, possessed of a sufficiency of those necessaries, they "bless their stars, and think them luxury". Very properly, therefore, do they use, in all their churches, an additional petition to that in the last verse but one of the litany ; "preserve to us the kindly fruits of the earth ;"restore, and continue to us, the blessings of the sea (ii) I do not see any reason, why it should not stand a part of the petition, for temporal blessings, in every church throughout the world for surely the blessings of the sea are of very great importance to every country, if we have only respect to that element, as furnishing mankind with a noble portion of their daily food.
(ii) This clause is inserted in the last edition of the Manks Common Prayer Book, printed at Whitehaven, "1779;- " as dy char er ash, as dy hannaghtyn dooin, bannaghtyn ny marrey"
BUT they derive many other blessings, from that wonderful and stupendous part of the creation. From the vast quantities of cod, whiting, pollock, (a noble species of the same tribe) ling, haddock, &c which constantly frequent these shores (especially the western ones) another very valuable export article might be established, if the fishermen were instructed in the most approved methods of taking and curing them In short, were this island, instead of being as it now is, under a motley, divided, heterogeneous kind of rule and jurisdiction, established into one liable, entire, and permanent kind of government ; one fostered by the kind care, and ruled by the mild laws of Great Britain, a spirit of industry and enterprize would soon prevail ; and Mona shortly become, though a small, a bright jewel in the British crown. Strangers would not long behold, with concern and regret, (as they ~now ?liuJl do) the forlorn and ruinous state of her ports and harbours , harbours most kindly sorme& and intended by nature, to afford proper asylums for the distressed mariners of every nation, having occasion to navigate these stormy seas.
THE only manufacture, or trade deserving the name of one, established at present in the island, (save the making of a little coarse paper at one mill) is a linen one, of strong, useful cloth, for common tabling and sheeting But were all surmises and doubts entirely done ax&ay, as the future innovations with respect to rights and private property, so. that people might be well assured in their minds, that what they now possess would remain with their heirs, or proper representatives, as long as the British government retained its present strength and purity, many new ones would spring up. The wool of the island is admirably adapted for a hat- manufactory, and it has been clearly ascertained to me, that betwixt four and five thousand rabbit skins are yearly sent from the isle.
31st. ANOTHER very cold morning, the wind continuing in the same ungenial quarter.
. The note, at the close of yesterdays journal, respecting the number of rabbit skins sent from hence, will naturally lead to an enquiry of -what size the island is, that can furnish so many, besides those that go over with the carcases to English markets. My observations will justify me in saying the numbers, so sent are considerable. . My Welsh friend has a whole chapter upon the dimensions of the island, or rather the discordant opinions of the ancient learned writers, upon the subject As that chapter is one of the most extraordinary in the whole compilation, for a j.umblemøzt of ancient lore, ignorance, and. childish credulity, I will spend this cold morning, over my fire side, in order to transcribe it, long as it is ; then bid a long farewell to his worship. ,
Of the length, breadth, and situation of the Island of Man.
CHAPTER THE THIRD.
THEY are many much mistaken herein. Some seem to contract it too much, and some extend it too long : but I find none to have erred so much as the Scots, from whom, in all probability, we have reason to have expected the truest information. But they say the island of Man is only twenty-four miles long, and eighteen broad ; and are mistaken~ in both: for thereby they should make (within a fourth part). the island to be as broad as long ; whereas. later dimensions have found it to be-far otherwise ; for the length exceedeth three times the breadth ; all agreeing the form of the island to be long and narrow.
THOSE that have best informed us are Camden, F. Heylin, Arthur Hopton, and John Speed ; for I found the Manksmens relation to agree with them, That from Cranston village, in the north, unto the Mull hills in the south, it stretches itself in length about twenty-eight, or twenty nine miles, if not thirty. In breadth, from Douglas point to Peel-town, the distance is scarce nine miles ; for the Manksmen account the distance between those two towns to be only eight miles More northward the island is some,what broader ; yet not fully of Mr. Camdens account, who will have the island there to be fifteen miles broad. Much. more is Mr. Maxwell mistaken, wh maketh the island to be eighteen miles broad.
Now, suppose a medium to be chosen by the middle, betwixt eight, which is the least, and eighteen, which is the greatest ; wherein I will take as little as cannot be denied,which is twelve ; now multiply twenty-nine, which is agreed by all for the length, by twelve, which I suppose the breadth, and they make only eighty-seven square miles in the island. The whole circumference, by J. Speed, is eighty-two miles ; by Arthur Hopton, ninety one.- .I will not contend with either. As little concordancy do I find amongst geographers, or historiographers, touching the elevation of the pohi ~ John Speed not mentioning any at all. Mercator, in his Atlas, saith the isle of Man standeith in fifteen degrees: of longitude, and fifty-five, or- six, of latitude; William Harrison gives sixteen degrees of longitude, and forty minutes in latitude ; fifty three degrees and thirty minutes. Hector Boetius, omitting the longitude, saith that in latitude it hands in about fifty-seven degrees. John Tap, in his Seamans Calendar, (and Thomas Sternes correction) placeth Man in nineteen degrees of England, and in thirty four degrees and fifty-one minutes of latitude : the former counting every one degree sixty miles, although that Hector Boetius reckoneth to every degree sixty two miles and a half.
CONCERNING the situation of the island of Man, I have not saith enough to assent to Polidore Virgil, who affirmeth for truth a strange wonder ; see, (saith he) what time can do. This island of Man is now remoted ( from the land, twenty-five miles space, which in old time was scarce one mile distant from " Anglesea, and joined unto Wales. But I observe as great (if not greater) absurdity in Hector Boetius, who (in his history of Scotland) maketh no distinction at all, between the two islands of Man and Angelsey; but seemeth to seat them not only to be contiguous, but continuous one unto the other. For in all his history, being misled by Tacitus, (I suppose) he nameth them both by the only name of Mona ; not once naming Angelsey alone, by any name, in any part of that work. And whatever Julius Paulus Agricola, in the name of Vespassian, or any of the Romans, aaed in Anglesey, he confidently averreth to be done in his Mona which he always calleth Man.
PAULUS Jovius supposeth these two islands to have been joined together, and so to the continent of England ; but cut off by the working of the waves of the ocean, as Sicily-.; and as some suppose, betwixt Dover and Calais, &c. However, at this day, it is far seated in the main sea, at least twenty-five miles from any part of England, or Wales.
MONK, of Chester, (out of Guldas) saith clearly that it is seated in the navel of the sea and standeith in the very midst (as it were the centre) of all that the Kings of Great Britain do command; as the heart of a man is seated in the midst of his body. The comparison will hold very fitly : for the heart, in a man, is compassed round about in a bag of water, which bag is called the pericardium, and therefore the heart of Man may truly be called the Isle of Man.
THIS liquid humour, the naruralists and anatomists do say, that God did place about the heart, to the end that it might temper the obsessive heat of the heart; which otherwise it would acquire, by reason of its perpetual motion ; and one of the eminenteif anatomists saith; he has observed that this liquid humour is to be found; both in the living and the dead ; which that eagle-eyed evangelist, St. John, curiously observed, when our blessed Saviours side was opened by Longinuss, or as others name him, Legorriuss, spear. After his passion, there issued out water and blood : thereby to demonstrate that he was truly dead ; for the pericardium yielded the water, and the heart, being pierced, streamed out the blood. St. Cyprian saith, 'his heart was wounded, that he might let out all the moisture in his body, and and all his blood residing in his heart, reserving nothing to himself.
Now of the privileges, or immunities, belonging this island. Jocelinus testifieth the Manksmens immunity to be of the same antiquity with that of Ireland ; for, (saith he) after St. Patrick had precipitated all the venomous beasts iii Ireland, from a high rock into the sea, he turned his face towards the Isle of Man, and all the other islands that had been converted by him ; he then blessed, and prayed for them, and freed them from all Venomous creeping things.
BUT moreover, if those toads, which were imported here, had sympathised with the soil, they would have remained here ; for it is well known that toads are not easily exterminated; for out of the corruption of one toad,another will be generated ; not one, (as another saith) but a multitudinous production, of the same species, will be produced, if it be exposed, sub dio, to wind and weather, for a convenient time. Why not ? seeing experience attesteth, that, in the putrefaction of one serpent, many hundred serpents will be produced thence, and every one as big as the first." -
COULD any one believe (without occular demonstration) that such nonsense could be broached) within a century and .a half ago and that by persons generally reputed very learned. But there is as much difference betwixt mere bookworms, and true, learned men, as betwixt wise men and blockheads. The former read without digesting at all, or endeavouring to separate truth from error ; the latter consider well, and digest every thing properly; retaining the pure or; and discarding the dross.
I HAVE now done with most learned authors- Paulus Jovius, Hector Boetius, Polidore Virgil, &c. &c.-not intending to associate, in future, with many of the curious group of saints and sinners, Christians and Pagans, here assembled together , save with the eagle-eyed ST. JOHN, and old, honest Camden ; even giving up my learned countryman Jocelinus.
MR. FANNINS admeasurement (from his new map) makes the island thirty miles long, and the width from Douglas to Peel, (which I believe to be very near the medium width) eleven miles. ..
AFTER having said so much of the island, its soil, and various productions, it is necessary I should say something of the inhabitants : a most delicate, tender subject, I must confess; but, by adopting Mr. Popes just and generous maxim
"Blame where you must; be candid where you can "
I hope not to do injustice to any one, Or give any reasonable cause of offence, by speaking the truth. As to the higher ranks, the men are, in general, very civil, attentive, - and very hospitable to strangers. this observation is meant to extend to the principal inhabitants in every part of the island,.save one or two ; who swoon, all at once, into unwieldy magnitude, think it would be a letting down to their upstart greatness,. and muffiroom consequence~ -to pay any attention; or civility, to foreigners. If the blind capricious goddess (who finds ~out merit, where no mortal can do) would, in her unbounded liberality, bellow a little civility upon her favourites, the would make them more comfortable to themselves, and much more so to all who must have - occasion either to converse, or have any kind of intercourse with them. In. short, a ÑabGb - is found a nuisance in every country : more especially an ignorant one, that is a mere e~btist in every trivial conversation.
THE ladies are exceedingly civil, affable, and polite ; very sprightly in conversation, and uncommonly neat and smart in their dress. There are many very pretty women in the island, and some very accomplished. As to the middle ranks, when they are sober and cool, they are decently civil, and attentive even to strangers but the lowest classes are rude, ungovernable, and uncivilized ; far beyond the common people in any country I have had occasion to visit. But this tart observation (which has forced its way through my pen) is only meant to take place within the town of Douglas: for I have often noticed, with pleasure. that the common people in the inland parts (as well as the other towns) are as civil and obsequious, as could be wished. The next generation, I fear, will be more intolerant in this place ; for the boys and girls are encouraged by the parents,(instead of being restrained) in every kind of rudeness, barbarity, and insolence. Accidental blemishes, or natural infirmities, cannot escape their brutal, insolent notice.
THERE is a young man, now resident in this place, who happens to have his neck a little awry ; not from choice, (every one will agree) but some casual warp. Yet this poor man (who is perfectly good natured and inoffensive) cannot traverse the streets, without being followed, and hooted for his misfortune, by the rude rabble of the place. This proceeds (no doubt) from a defect in the police, and a culpable indifference in the magistrates (the very worthy deputy governor always excepted) to every thing respecting their office, but the emoluments of it. But this is an evil that will (with many others) be soon eradicated, I trust ; for when the insular laws become meliorated by the mild spirit of the British, a reform in manners and customs will soon take place. Strangers may then be glad to visit an-island, so beautifully romantic, so. abounding in the most picturesque views ; and where they may live so well and comfortably, if the clime suit their constitutions, not only in the summer, but the winter months too : for they may live, at all times, as well in the eating way, as reasonable people can desire, and where a bad bottle of port, or rum-spirit, is as rare to be met with, even in village inns, as a good one, of either kind, at any common inn, or house for the reception of travellers, within the noble island of Great Britain.
THEIR. malt liquor, at present, is execrable; but when more strangers come here, to reprobate it, and bestow a hearty malediction upon the wretched manufacturers, * perhaps they will take more pains in brewing it. One truth is clear, that if they alter their mode, they must mend it.
* As was done upon poor Billy Wattteworth.
April 1st. A MOST excessive cold and hard-blowing morning, and the air so frosty as to exhibit specimens of very strong ice, in the inland parts of the island, and evenj.~ places but very little remote from the sea-coast.
THE two or three last nights have brought great dçifrustion upon the gooseberry and currant bushes ; and, I fear, upon all early flowering fruit-trees ; especially in places much exposed to the cutting blasts, from the East to which chilling, ungenial quarter the wind seems invariably attached, though we have now bid a lalling adieu to the blustering month of March. I must make one other comparison with my Boulogne Journal, and will select this day, so ~eti noted i-n ~ the rustic's calendar, for that pwipof,. - ,
" Boulogne, April 1st, 1789, or All-Fools' day in England; for the French get the start of us, in the ridiculous foolery, making the last day of March into their all-fools-day.
My neighbour. Russel, and his French partner, had a very busy, and I dare say a very lucrative, night of it. Five or six men (employed by them) were incessantly moving about, without their limes I could distinguish, for three or four hours, betwixt Adamss new trading sloop and their warehouse, carrying there, no doubt, same kinds of illicit articles :-~4- have just heard, Cotton goods. I fancy. they had sent the officer on duty, or rather that ought to have been upon duty, upon some fools errand ; not only for their advantage, but his own too ; rewarding him very well, no doubt, for being so long blind that night : a French custom-house officer being as like an English one, as one pea to another.. Rogues all, I fear. Indeed the temptations are so great, (in the tide-waiting_duty) that there muff be a large share of innate honesty, to withstand them ; even those that condemn the taking, being too apt to offer, the bribe.
WITH men in that line of life, Custom soon smooths the way, and lulls to sleep all impertinent suggestions of the inward monitor ; teaching them to think, at least say, they are only labouring in their vocation ; and, under saL slaW-authority, it is no sin for a man to labour in his vocation.
" IT was a very convenient evening and nights for such a kind of business ; for it was so very dark, and so exceedingly wet, that nothing but very particular, or very urgent, business could draw any person from under his own roof; therefore no fear of overlookers.
THE wind was very boisterous, the whole night, and has caused a prodigious swell in the channel ; where the appearance is more tremendous than has been observed for a considerable time past ; notwithstanding we have had so long a season of stormy weather ; but, during that season, it blew generally from an Eastern point ; but now from a full West, which makes very great difference as to the swell upon this coast.
FIVE oclock, afternoon. What was run in last night, from Adamss vessel, is a matter of conjecture only ; but I have this moment seen three packs of English long-wool (that have been very lately brought here by some vessel) thrown down from Russel's upper warehouse,. the door immediately closed not one of the warehouse men either appearing, or. attending ; though a person, in a blue greatcoat, came soon afterwards, with a cart and single horse, and took them away ; being assisted in the loading of them, by two porter-like-looking men. I took the man to - be the person that I have several times met upon the Paris road, driving the great waggon that travels constantly betwixt Calais, by Amiens, and Paris ; but in that I might be mistaken, but could not be so with respect to the packs of wool ; as they laid upon the ground, within four yards of my room-window."
AS IT turns out a very cold night, and blows very hard. - The Brothers, a sloop belonging to Ramsey, is just got into harbour, from Whitehaven, laden with coals ; an article very much wanted here ; the prices being very much advanced :the Cumberland coals, from fourteen shillings, the usual price, to seventeen; and the Wigan, from sixteen to twenty per ton.
2d. EXACTLY such a morning, and succeeding day, as the last. The wind seems riveted to the point of East.
3d. This morning was so entirely overcast and gloomy, that though the wind is invariably steady, to its favourite point, a change to rain, or snow, was the general opinion ; but that only prevailed till about nine, when the day cleared up, and became of the usual cast, very cold, and very unpleasant too ; at least whenever the sun was obscured by a dark cloud, or a large portion of black fog, that came floating betwixt wind and water, and then rising up gradually, in order to take its wonted station upon the summits of the lofty mountains, which were entirely hid in gross darkness, during the remainder of the day.
IT is now become most uncomfortable walking, or riding, from the vast clouds of light duff, that are every where driven about most furiously, by the strong blowing gales, from the East :even the country ceases being tempting to the eye ; having lost all its early verdure;