[From Townley's Journal, Vol II, 1791]

[Note that he regularly inserts diary extracts for 1789 relating to his period in Boulogne - these indicated by ".." in the original text are indented in this]

DOUGLAS, January 1st, 1790.

ASHARP, frosty morning, and the hills all white with snow, or hail The sun shone out early in the day, making it pleasant to people using strong exercise, though very sharp upon the strangers whilst walking upon the sands, I had the pleasure to see two coal brigs come towards the bay, from the northward , but soon had the mortification to see them pass by us, without affording any relief to our wants making the best of their way for Ireland, where they would be most welcome visitants , for coals were got up there to the advanced price of thirty shillings per ton.—Wind N. W.—So they would soon arrive at their intended ports of discharge.

Two oyster boats came in by the tide, from Laxey Bank, well filled with oysters and scollops. I had not tasted one of the latter kind of shell fish, for a vast number of years, therefore was very glad to see them, that I might renew my knowledge of their flavour, which was almost forgotten. I found them very plump fresh, and well flavoured.

LET me advert to the entrance of the new year in 1789.—

" The new year is ushered in, by the Continuance of the same keen-pinching frost as concluded the old one ; but, since seven o’clock, there has been a very heavy fall of snow, which descends upon the ground, as the eloquence. of Pericles was said to do into the ears of his audience :—
" Frequent and soft, as falls the winter’s snow."

Which made the younger Pliny to ascribe to him. the palmy honour over all the other famous orators of Greece ; preferring that soft, impressive distillation, even to the thunder of Demosthenes.

MADAM Bruil, mother to the famous banker of Boulogne, departed from this world early this morning, at the age of eighty-five.

The small remains of vital oil, which might possibly have kept the lamp burning for several. years longer, in clement seasons, such as that climate usually enjoys, was entirely frozen up by the intense cold of the three last days and nights ; a degree of cold that was, I suppose, equal to any known in the frigid regions towards the pole ; the thermometer having fallen, during that time, twenty-one degrees below the point marked, extreme frost. The great fall of snow this morning has apparently meliorated the atmosphere ; but still it continues to freeze within doors, with its wonted severity ; though the wind has blown the whole day from a southerly points

" ONE of the poorest markets ever known in this place, consequently every article of provisions very dear. The sufferings of the miserable poor of this town are very painful and oppressive to the feelings of every humane mind. Shakespeare makes King Henry the Fourth, when on his death-bed, speak thus nobly of his son, the then Prince of Wales

" He has a tear for pity ; and a hand
Open as day for melting charity."

Glorious character happily again revived in the same exalted character ; a most happy one to a possessor, of such a disposition, who has the means whereby he can gratify every impulse of benevolence. ..

IN justice to the hearts of all the British, resident in this town, I must say they have been dilated with uncommon benevolence towards the poor, wretched, miserable natives of this place ; whose pallid faces, and shivering limbs, must extort compassion from the most flinty breasts ; and many have exerted themselves far beyond what the dictates of strict prudence would allow; but in a manner that does credit to themselves, and reflects high honour upon their country and national character. The man that will not willingly give up more than half his meal, (a) in order to relieve and keep alive a poor starving family, is not deserving the name of Briton ; and has still less claim to a far more glorious distinction."

(a) I have known Mr. Quindo it, though so fond of eating.

2d. THOUGH yesterday was so dry and frosty, yet we awaked to a morning, this day, of the true old stamp, most exceedingly stormy, very wet, dark, and most uncomfortable.— I took a walk down, during a very short interval of fine weather, to the pier-head, where I observed such a tremendous sea running round the Point, and such a dreadful swell in the bay, as I have never seen before, since I came to the. island. Luckily there was not a vessel to be seen upon the mountainous ocean. .

CAPTAIN BREW, in Captain Forbes’s brig, for the Straights, loaded with herring casks, fully intended going out by the last night’s tide; but, luckily for him and his owner, the wind changed before there was water enough to float the vessel, therefore, she still remains snug and safe in the harbour. Wind S. E. by S.

3d. As was the second, so is the third.— Such miserable, disagreeable weather was certainly never known, (at any season of the year) in any European clime. There are no less than twelve vessels stranded, or gone to pieces, at Ayr in Scotland.— A fine new brig, from Workington, foundered, and every person on aboard perished. The . whole crew, belonging another brig, shared. the same melancholy fate, except two boys, who were happily saved, by mere accident. Such dreadful losses, in point of property, by wrecks, and so many fatal disasters with respect to the lives of honest, industrious mariners, is not remembered (in the same short. trine) by the oldest inhabitants of this island, either upon its own shore, or those of. Scotland and Cumberland.

A GUINEA-MAN, bound from Liverpool for the coast, came into the bay towards evening., She has been beating about betwixt Liverpool, Ramsey bay, and this bay, for upwards of three weeks, not able to proceed upon her passage., Fortunately for this town, quite exhausted of fuel, a coal brig came into the bay at the same time, and will get into the harbour by the next

CAPTAIN McADAM arrived about five from Ramsey, where he had been. landed by a small smack from Liverpool.— They had a dreadful passage over, made more dreadful by the sad catastrophe of Doctor Curphey's youngest son, a fine, sensible young man, and the only hopes of comfort to the poor old gentleman I never heard a more distressing story The young. man swam in the most capital, heroic manner that ever was known in such a tempestuous sea, and that for three quarters of an hour, with his boots on.— The remaining part of the melancholy story is too distressing to dwell upon —Wind chiefly this day West, sometimes N. W

4th. THE pleasantest day we have had, for a very long time fair, yet very calm and mild. The Cumberland hills were very distinctly seen, which raises a pretty general opinion that the wind will shortly get about to the eastward. — The Dublin packet boat went out about two, with a good many passengers on board, who had been very long impatiently waiting here for a passage.

SPENT the day and evening most pleasantly, with a very agreeable party, at Mr. Bacon’s; where great hospitality prevailed, as well as much good-humour and civility.— Wind N. W.

5th. ANOTHER fine day, exactly resembling the preceding one, only the wind has got about to the S. E. The Cumberland hills more distinctly seen than yesterday.,

WE were highly entertained with seeing such multitudes of coal vessels pass through the bay, from the ports of Cumberland to Ireland, crowding all the sail they could ; every Captain anxious to get in first, in order to take the advantage of discharging at the very advanced price of thirty shillings per ton. I counted nineteen large brigs, in sight, at the same time. it was generally thought, this evening, that. upwards of fifty passed by, during the afternoon.

6th. A FINE dry morning, but rather chilly and back ; the wind nearly at the same point as yesterday. The mail boat did arrive, this morning, at three o’clock.

7th THE last evening turned out excessive wet, and so did a considerable part of the night , but it is succeeded by a charming winter’s morning, clear and serene, and at the same time mild, and perfectly calm.

IN the afternoon, the Pigmy cutter left the harbour, and so did the Liverpool packet boat, robbing our society of a most civil, good humored, little man, a Mr. Martyn, of the service. A great many passengers went for Liverpool at the same time As the wind was pretty fair, and there was a tolerably stiff breeze, when they got out, I hope they would have a short and pleasant passage across the channel.

SEVERAL coal vessels having arrived here in the course of three days, that article of winter comfort has fallen to its usual price, sixteen shillings per ton

IN a stroll up and down the Sand, at the head of the bay, met with great numbers of the smart ladies of this place, enjoying the meridian sun, and decked out in all the usual gaudy trappings of the spring. It was delightfully pleasant; the, tide approaching the shore with the most placid gentleness

I Will again draw a parallel betwixt the weather of Piccardie, last year, and the above journal of this day in the solitary island of Mona.

" January 7th, 1789.--" A most dreadful, stormy night of wind, but no more falls of snow. The cold most intense, this morning, to what degree of frigidity it will proceed, God only knows. By Abbè Clere's account, the thermometer was yesterday fourteen degrees lower than at any the in the memorable severe winter of 39-40. What is said, (by the descriptive poet) of Greenland, may be justly applied to the region of France, -which is generally distinguished by the appellation of the mild region of France.

" Here winter holds his unrejoicing court ;
" And through his airy hall the loud misrule
" Of driving tempest is for ever heard
" Here the grim tyrant meditates his wrath;
" Here arms his winds with all-subduing frost;
" Moulds his fierce hail, and treasures up his snows,
" With which he now oppresses half the globe."

" THE poorest market for butcher's meat, poultry, and for vegetables too, that ever was known at Boulogne. However, great numbers of live hogs (ready for slaughtering) were brought in to be sold, which will help out the deficiency in other articles ; and the pork (that. is brought in from the country) is uncommonly sweet, and well fed. Two Dutch vessels, laden with gin, are got to their moorings near the barracks. There are three more in the river, (with the same cargoes) just below the pier heads ; being too late in the tide to get up to the harbour. They have had a very long and very dangerous passage, on account of the vasts shoals of ice they had to encounter. I have called it the river, but there is not the least appearance of a river, or stream of water, or indeed of any current ; it may therefore be properly denominated Liane the Icy ; for it now exhibits the molt gelid, as well as most horrid, winter-piece that I have ever beheld ; such vast shoals of ice being deposited on each bank, by the tide when flowing up, and left there upon the reflux ; increasing very fact, by daily supplies, and swelling it into small rugged mountains of congealed substance, most luminous and romantic in their appearance. The Tanais, now the Don, was distinguished by the ancients, with, the proper epithet of Icy.

" Extremum Tanaim fi biberes, Lyce,
" Saevo nupta viro; me tamen asperas,
" Porrectum ante fores objicere incolis.
" Plorares AQUILONIBUS,"

" Though you drank the deep stream of Tanais icy,.
" The wife of some barbarous blockhead, O Lyce,
" Yet your heart might relent, to expose me reclin'd
" At your cruel shut-door, to the rage of the wind :"
--" et

" et pofitas ut glaciet nives
" Puro numine Jupiter!"-

How Jupiter numbs all the regions below,
" And glazes with crystal the fleeces of snow !"
MR. DUNKIN's Translation.

8th. The wind kept rising gradually all, night, and this morning, about six, blew very hard.-I hope Capt. Brew would be got into harbour at Liverpool, before the strong blowing came on.

This day has turned out dark, chilly, and very unpleasant, but fair; though the wind is S. W. I wish we may not have another heavy fall of rain before morning,; for the clouds appear very heavily loaded with vapour, this evening.

I HAVE been paying very attentive heed, lately, when I could get a droll upon the sand, with respect to the great variety of marine mosses and sea-plants, driven in continually, to the head of the bay; but my attention has not been so much directed to the discovery of new species, or kinds, of marine, vegetable productions, as the wonderful change in the tints of the same identical plants, from my first coming here last summer, to the present dead season of the year. They are still diversified by the different colours of red, yellow, blue, green, and, brown, with their various shades: but those shades have at present lost that wonderful lustre and charming brilliancy, which must arrest the attention, and delight the sight of all who walk abroad with their eyes properly open, in order to explore and admire the wonderful works of nature. Such admiration naturally leads to respectful and profound adoration of the Great Author of nature.

THE above statement of facts, let down from very frequent, and very attentive observations, has induced me to believe that marine plants and vegetable substances, like terrene, are in the highest state of beauty, from the beginning of the flowering to the end of the fructifying season; or during the months of May, June, July, and August. The bright beauty of the rock-cod fades in the same manner and degree as that of the beautiful plants covering those rocks, where he is constantly found, by the fishermen, to make his abode.-See journal for the 9th of May and 4th of June.

9th. THIS has been a very mild, pleasant winter's day, entirely fair, though appearances were very much against it, about mid-day; but it cleared up before evening, and therefore may be with justice inserted in the short list of fair days, which this island can boast.

THE Whitehaven packet did sail about four o'clock, with the wind at S. W. but not so much of it. She should have sailed by the preceding tide, with a noble breeze that would have carried her over in five hours; but the sottish brute of a captain was so dead drunk, and so dead asleep too that he could not be awaked ; so that fine opportunity was lost: - shame

10th. A FINE winter's morning, with a pretty stiff breeze, from the S. E.-There never was a place more infested and plagued with little yelping, mischievous, useless dogs, than this. A horse cannot go up or down the street, but there are four or five close at his heels; the owners never checking them; so that if the Manks horses were not remarkably sober and steady, being hardly ever given to corn-kicking, many ugly and dangerous accidents would certainly happen.

COMPLAINING of the above nuisance, to a gentleman of the town, and expressing a with that I could get some very troublesome ones, near my lodgings, made away with; he replied, By no means; they were the high bailiff's deputies, and best assistants in driving the hogs, a much greater nuisance, out of the streets ; and he must do the little yelpers the justice to lay, they were much more alert, attentive, and diligent in doing that duty, than their master :- a fact I could not controvert ; therefore (hall. devise no more plots against the barking tribe; but let the Manks riders rely upon their horsemanship, and take care of themselves.

A BRIG bound from Liverpool, for Baltimore, came in here last evening, waiting for a more favourable wind, and expecting (from appearances) some more hard blowing weather. The captain has told me that there is a cargo (provided for him) of wheat, wheat flour, and oats; with which he is to proceed to Falmouth, and from thence (he expects he shall have orders) to proceed to same port in France, to discharge his cargo.

I was in hopes to have placed this day to the short list too, but some rain came on in the evening, and ushered in one of the darkest nights ever known.

12th. A GOOD deal of rain fell in the night, and the wind was pretty high, and very boisterous at times; but the rain ceased falling before it grew light, and the wind settled gradually into a calm.

THIS is certainly a fine mild day for the season of the year, and would have been a very pleasant one, for sporting or any kind of exercise, if the last night's rain had not made every place most uncomfortably wet and miry.

HAVING heard lately, and with concern, of a coldness subsisting betwixt two ladies whole hearts seemed to have been long entwined in one, it brought to my mind that sweet description of youthful, female friendship, as given by Helena in the Midsummer-Night's Dream.

" Is all the counsel that we two have shar'd,
" The sisters vows, the hours that we have spent,
" When we have chid the hasty-footed time
" For parting us,-O! and is all forgot ?
" All school-day friendship, childhood innocence?
" We, Hermia, like two artificial gods,
" Created with our needles both one flower,
" Both on one sampler, fitting on one cushion,
" Both warbling of one song; both in one key ;
" As is our hands, our sides, voices, and minds,
" Had been incorporate: So we grew together,
" Like to a double cherry, seeming parted;
" But yet an union in partition,
" Two lovely berries moulded on one stem
" So, with two seeming bodies, but one heart;
" Two of the first, like coats in heraldry,
" Due but to one, and crowned with one crest:
" And will you rent our ancient love asunder,
" To join with men in (corning your poor friend
" It is not friendly, 'tis not maidenly
" Our sex, as well as I, may chide you for it;
" Though I alone do feel the injury;"

What a number of circumstances, most natural, and at the same time most endearing, has the poet here enumerated ? Circumstances admirably adapted to create, form, and to cement female friendship ; and by his magic powers, how wonderfully has he elicited from vulgar superstition and credulity, the most charming and proper imagery, or machinery possible, to adorn and support one of the finest poetic pieces in all his dramatic works ?

Mab and her train, in Mona's mountains,
Do Rill frequent, pure rills, and fountains,
And, by pale moon-light, oft are seen
Tripping round the smooth velvet green.

THIS day (though promising so fair to have a share or place in the short, pleasant list) loon after two forfeited all pretensions ; the afternoon turning out extremely wet, and the evening dreadfully stormy.

12th. THE whole night was dreadfully wet and stormy, and is succeeded by a dark, gloomy, most uncomfortable morning; and so foggy as to make respiration a work of labour : at nine, candles were necessary.

" The winds have sucked up from the lea
" Contagious fogs; which, falling on the hills,
" Have every pelting river made so proud,
" That they have overborn their continents.
" The ox has therefore stretched his yoke in vain,
" The ploughman lost his sweat. and the green corn
" Hath rotted ere its youth attained a beard."

Pelting, an epithet most happily applied to the florin in Lear, but what it has to do with a rill, or small stream; is not very reconcilable to my understanding. Had it been petty, or piddling, terms generally used to express any object which we consider as trifling and insignificant, it would have formed a just and beautiful opposite, or contrast, to proud, so proud (by foreign acquisitions) as to overflow those bound which nature had prescribed for its course-

" vagus, et finistra
" Labitur ripa, Jove non Probante.

Many, and various, are the opinions of philosophers, respecting the formation of fountains; or springs, which generally first shew themselves in mountainous parts, or as the Psalmist says; run amongst the hills. This opinion, that they have their origin from dews and fogs, seems to be most generally received; yet it has been. strongly opposed, upon the ground that the cause is not equal to the effect, or that those sources are not alone adequate, as a supply for those numberless, bubbling springs and purling rills, which every where present themselves in mountainous regions. Those that have very often traversed such regions, and at all seasons of the year, will know from frequent, uncomfortable experience, that the distillations from fogs are very copious; hence the old and vulgar expression, that a Scotch mist will wet an English-man to the skin.-I have been out in many that would soon have reached the skin of a Scotchman, though wrapped up and secured by his Tartan plaidy. Mona's fogs will make all remember them long, who have frequently experienced their chilling, humid powers; that can change summer into winter, in a moment. Such a orange alteration I have several times seen, when only upon the humble elevations of the How, or Douglas-head; what then must they be upon Snaffield, or rather Snaffell? said to be five hundred and eighty yards above the level of the sea.-N. B. That is nothing, however, of a height, compared with some, even of the British mountains,

13th. A PLEASANT winter morning, and, for a wonder, fair; but the wind full in the same dirty quarter.-The sloop, Captain Quail; bound for Naples, with casks of herrings, very luckily got back again into the bay, yesterday morning, and is now safe in the harbour.

I WILL sit down this day in the short list; for not one drop of rain has fallen down from the clouds, though at one time they seemed heavily surcharged with vapour. A brig went out, with the ebb-tide, for the Lancaster channel, with a most favourable wind for her passage here.

14th. THE last night was quite fair and star-light, and the morning gives the strongest hopes that we shall have another fair day. By the look of the windows, there must have been a little frost in the night. The uncommon mildness and pleasantness of this morning tempted me to ascend towards; the Head, in order to spend the whole morning there, and upon other parts of the noble promontory; but I had not proceeded far before I was encountered with a short shower, which sent me back again in a hurry; and entirely defeated my morning plan-. I got a few turns upon the pier head, in an interval betwixt two showers, and was then highly entertained with the melody of my sweet thrush, perched upon his favourite thorns. I am quite alarmed for his safety, there are so many foolish fathers that permit their booby sons, mere boys, to ramble about with guns ; and, with such urchins, blackbirds and thrushes are choice game,

I TOOK a second stroll; about eleven, into the camp-fields, and found the day then so exceedingly warm and pleasant as to exceed any day (as far as my recollection would carry me) that I had ever known in the month of January, within any clime. The wind kept moving very gradually all the afternoon, northward, till it arrived at the N. E. point.-A very star light evening and night.

15th.. FROM the brightness of the night, and the wind being so high to the northward, I fully expected a sharp frost this morning, but it has turned out just such another day as the last ; very pleasant, but rather more wind,, and that from a S. E. point.

THE 15th of January, last year, stands thus in the Boulogne journal:-" This morning a decided thaw, but a very cold one. Some little rain hath also fallen, but the air is very raw and chilly; strong symptoms of return, or relapse, to the late severe season. The navigation across the channel is now attended with some danger, from so many fragments, and also some very extended shoals, of ice, as are every where floating about ; that it is a matter of much difficulty, to steer a vessel so as to avoid being jambed in betwixt different floats. One o'clock : I have just been down at the pier head, to see a very fine galliot come in from the southward. It was a very high, as well as a very rough sea over the bar, but she weathered it very well, and was brought up into the harbour,- with great rapidity (by one of the strongest flowing tides I ever remember in this channel) and that in spite of a very strong wind opposing, from a direct adverse point. It never was such slippery, disagreeable walking since the frost commenced, as it is this day. I thought myself fortunate in getting back into my apartments. with whole bones.

" I observed, and with great pleasure, a cock chaffinch this morning : I wish he may be able to meet with a mate; that the breed may be preserved in this neighbourhood ; for though a much persecuted bird, especially by gardeners, yet it is an elegant made bird, and the male bird is not very much inferior, in plumage, to the first rated European birds, in point of beauty. Their notes, though wild and irregular, and without much variety, are chearful and lively, answering very well, when a sweet morning, in May or June, calls forth (from the feathered choir) a general chorus of praise and gratitude, to their beneficient Creator. In the art of nest-building, they exceed, in my humble opinion, any bird we know in our climate. Their soft, round, little couches, for the reception of their eggs, and fostering their young in, are formed in a style of elegance which human art cannot emulate ; and, when finished, are so naturally studded with small pecks of shining white moss, picked. from the tree to which the nest is firmly, attached, as to resemble an excrescence from the ball of it. This is done (through the wonderful operation of instict) that it may, by such a deception, elude the searching eyes of the strolling schoolboy, and all other idle nett-plunderer;. Well might the Royal Psalmist break out into that noble exclamation, " The works of the Lord are great,, fought out of all them that have pleasure therein."

16tb. THE last evening (soon after sun-set) gave evident signs of an approaching change to the old Manks weather. There was a gentle distillation before nine ; and the streets, this morning, bear unquestionable proof there has been a very plentiful one, during the night.

THE day cleared- up betwixt nine and ten ; the fun /hone out with much splendor, and a smart and stiff breeze from the N. Very soon dispelled all the watery clouds that had darkened the morning, chacing them far hence, never more to return here, I hope.

DIPPING into Mr. Seacome's memoirs of the noble house of STANLEY, this morning, I. could not help transcribing from them a few paragraphs relative to the celebrated Countess, of Derby, whose heroic character (gained by the noble defence of Latham House) will live and bloom in British annals, as long as there are any Britons able to read them : but her noble conduct (after entrusted with the command of this island, by her beloved Lord) not being so well known, has not been so particularly noticed by the English historians. Speaking of James. Earl of Derby, " This great and noble Lord, whose various transactions in life, and tragical death, we have been describing, was the seventh Earl of Derby of his family. He married to his lady, the most noble Charlotte, daughter to Claude de la Tremoville, Duke de Tremoville and Trovers, by Charlotte his wife, daughter to the renowned Count William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, by his wife Charlotte de Bourbon, of the Royal House of Bourbon; by which marriage he stood allied to the Kings of France, and to the Houses of Bourbon, Monpessier - Bourbon, Condè, Dukes of Anjou, Kings of Naples and Sicily, Arch Duke of Austria, Kings of Spain, Earls and Dukes of Savoy, of Milan, and to most of the Sovereign Princes of Europe.

BY this noble Lady, he had issue three sons Charles, who succeeded him, and Edward and William, who both died young and unmarried also three daughters; The eldest the lady Henrietta Maria, married to William the great Earl of Strafford, and died without issue : The Lady Catherine, second daughter, married to Henry Marquis of Dorchester : and also died without issue : And the Lady Amelia, the youngest, married to John Earl of Athol, and was grandmother to his Grace James, the present Duke of Athol." - Mr. Seacome's small work was printed in 1741

"' THE: taking away the blood of the noble peer aforesaid, might have been esteemed, by the world, a sacrifice sufficient to have atoned for any supposed offences given by his lady and innocent children, who were in the -Isle of, Mann, at the time of his being taken out of the world; where it may be supposed they were in a place of quiet and safety.

" BUT even this place of retirement was no safeguard to them ; for the wicked and restless malice of their persecutors, Bradshaw, Rigby, and Birch, found them out here, and struck at his surviving and afflicted lady and children, endeavouring and using all their power to eradicate them and the whole noble family, from, the face of the earth.

AND to this purpose had corrupted one Captain Christian, whom his Lordship had brought up from a child; and, on his coming over to attend King Charles the Second, entrusted him with the command of all the foot-soldiers of the isle and, as a guard and security of the place and his distressed lady and children, whom he was charged to take especial, care of:

"BUT the said Christian, proving a most perfidious and treacherous villain, had corrupted the soldiers of both the castles, as well as those under his command, and promised to deliver up the island to the Parliament ships and forces, when they appeared against it.

" UPON which Colonels Duckenfield and Birch , having commission from the junto at London, with ten ships appeared before it, and summoned the heroic Lady Derby to deliver up the island to them, for the use of the Parliament, Her Ladyship, having Sir Thomas Armstrong with her in Castle Rushen, (whom her Lord had made Governor there, and his brother Governor of Peel Castle) and being likewise confident of Christian and the islanders under him, refused to surrender, without licence obtained from the King.

" BUT Christian, having prepared his countrymen for the execration of his treachery that very night suffered the forces to land, without resistance : seized upon the lady and her children, with the governors of both the castle,, and the next morning they were carried prisoners to Duckenfield and Birch, who told her Ladyship, that Christian had surrended. the island. upon articles, which her Ladyship desired a fight of; and, on perusal whereof, she observed that the Isle of Mann was only delivered up and that the islands about it were not included upon which the requested of Colonels Duckenfield and Birch, but especially of Christian, who had formed and acquiesced to those articles, That she and her children might have leave to retire to Peel Castle, situated in an island separated from the main island by sea; from whence The proposed, the might, in some little time, get over to leer friends in France or Holland, or some other place of rest: and refuge.

" BUT she was utterly denied that favour, by her hard hearted and inhuman enemies ; neither regard to her sex, comparison to her children, honour to her quality, nor even common civility, sound any place for her relief: and thus that great and excellent lady, whose religion, virtue, and prudence, were not inferior to any woman's upon record, became a captive and prisoner to her most barbarous, malignant, and unmerciful enemies : and she that brought fifty thousand pounds portion into this nation, had not a morsel of bread for herself and desolate children, but what was the charity of her impoverished, ruined friends :-after which she, and her children with her, continued prisoners in the island, until his , Majesty's happy restoration, (enduring all those sufferings with a generous resolution and: Christian patience). and then expecting justice against her Lord's murderers, her son restored to his father's sequestered estates, and some compensation for the immense losses and devastations of her family : but failing of all, her great heart (overfilled with grief and endless sorrow) burst in pieces; and the died- at Knowsley-House, with that Christian temper, and exemplary piety, in which she had always lived."

THIS piece of history will probably appear as an unnatural. excrescence out of a common journal,; but having never had an opportunity of perusing Mr. Seacome's performance before, and this being (probably) the last I may have, I was determined to transcribe the above, for the amusement of a few friends that, I know, idolize the character of the noble Earl and his heroic lady.

17th. A BRIGHT, clear, pleasant morning for the season ; the wind at S. E. blowing, n_ then briskly, and with a small degree of sharpness, which is not to be regretted in this month, but rather to be wished for, if it will lead on to a fine dry frost. A good handsome brig is arrived, to take Mr. Bacon's unfortunate cargo of herrings, up the Straights. Four or five more brigs and sloops are come into the harbour, to avoid the late hard blowing, and wait for a more favourable wind for their respective passages.

18th. ANOTHER fair, bright morning, with, a very strong and cold wind, blowing very near from due east, and making a very great swell in the bay. As the day advanced, it grew colder, and at night became very stormy, and excessive severe; a most sharp-horned moon and twinkling oars, bespeaking a sharp frosty morning. Two vessels, that quitted the harbour the day before, returned into it; making the crews very happy to get shelter from the coming storm.

19th. IT blew very hard all night, from the same quarter as yesterday, ushering in a sharp, frosty morning, with a molt piercing wind.-Such a sudden and violent change, from uncommon mildness to extreme cold, is most unfavourable to all invalids, especially those that are afflicted with rheumatic complaints; of this truth I have had most painful experience, for these last two days and nights.

ABOUT one o'clock, Capt. Dundass came in with his cutter, in a most hard-blowing gale of wind, and through a mountainous sea. Though so very cold, the day is very pleasant to appearance, from its brightness. A sloop bound for Liverpool, with wheat and oats, came in the latter end of the tide, for shelter. Were that attention paid to this harbour, which its utility in saving so many lives and so much valuable property, merits, it could not possibly remain a year longer in the very neglected state it now is. It must be deemed an object well deserving government attention, and assistance too:

10th. THIS day may be well coupled with the last, in every respect. Not a vessel can possibly get out, the wind blowing so directly into the entrance of the harbour, and so furiously too.

BEING confined to my apartment, I will transcribe a few more passages from Mr. Seacome, in order to beguile some of the dull hours of confinement, and to impress a circumstance upon my mind, respecting King Charles the Second, which time had almost obliterated from my memory.

" THE late very eminent, but unhappy, Lord, Earl James, was succeeded in honour by his eldest son, Charles Lord Strange, as the eighth Earl of his name; who, upon his accession to the estate of his family, found it in the utmost confusion and disorder : the ancient house of Latham demolished, and all the estate belonging thereto under sequestration : the house of Knowsley in little better condition; ruinous, out of repair; and great devastations committed in the house, garden, and park: and, which was yet more deplorable, near one half of the estate (possessed by his father) sequestered and sold, and little, or a very small part thereof ever recovered : of which the legislative justice of both houses of Parliament had suck a sensible knowledge, and so deep and compassionate a concern for the sufferings of the late brave Earl of Derby, his lady and family; that they unanimously passed a bill by both Houses, to restore Earl Charles to all his father's sequestered estate ; he repaying, to the possessors thereof; the inconsiderable value given by them for their several purchases ; and they accounting with him, for the profits received during their possession of any branch, or part of it.

" BUT so it was, that neither the services of his father and another, nor the vast sums expended by them for his then Majesty, Charles the Second, and for his father's interest, and the support of his crown and dignity; nor the loss of his own father's life, nor the saving and securing that of the reigning Prince, King Charles the Second, (as before observed) nor any other interest or consideration, could prevail on that ungrateful King to give his Royal Assent to that act-so that all those estates were lost and separated from the family, for ever ; which so reduced Earl Charles; that he had scarce sufficient left to support the honour and dignity of his character, as will hereafter appear.

" INSOMUCH that his eldest son and successor, Earl William, (whom I had the honour to serve several years as house-steward) has often told me, that he possessed no estate in Lancashire, Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, Warwickshire, or Wales, but whenever he viewed any of them, he could see another, near or adjoining to that he was in possession of, equal or of greater value, lost by his grandfather, for his zeal and services to the crown and his country;

21 st. ANOTHER very raw, dry morning, like yesterday, the wind blowing from the very fame point, but not so boisterously ; yet so strong as to prevent any attempt to get out, even of the packet boat.

BEING under the same predicament as yesterday, confined (by necessary prudence) very closely to my lodgings, I will consume a few of the doll hours, in transcribing the exordium of Mr; Seacome's Memoirs; as it contains , force particulars relative to the origin and earl property of the Stanley family, that I do not recollect to have meet with, in any other author.

" THE illustrious house I have undertakes to describe, and treat of; in the course of these Memoirs, is allowed, by ail the historians and records I have met with, to have been a family of ,great antiquity and renown ; having, in their several aces, been distinguished and promoted by Royal favour, to the highest posts of honour and trust under the Sovereign Prince; always advancing in the front rank of our British heroes.

" BUT with regard to the origin and lineal descent of this ancient house, authors are not fully agreed on that head : Mr. Camden (Britain Staffordshire) makes them to spring from the same stock with the Barons of Audley ; and tells us that the Barons of Audley built Healey Castle, in the county of Stafford, upon lands given to them by Harvey de Stasford, and alto Aldeleigh, by Theobald de Verdon ; and from these (says he) sprung the family of the Stanleys, Earls of Derby; but gives no pedigree; or lineal descent thereof.

" AND though this account, from so public an author, might be esteemed by force -very honourable, as to be related to, or descended from, a family which he assures us made one of the greatest figures in the nation, for force ages yet methinks, as the noble house of Stanley hath produced so many brave and gallant persons, both in peace and war, the original thereof demands a more particular enquiry and description than Mr. Camden has thought fit to bestow upon them; who appears to me to have taken the relation given us of that worthy family, more upon trust; and the credit of others, than from any labour or acquired knowledge of his own. Wherefore, for the honour due to so many brave and worthy persons, the satisfaction of the reader; and that all the heroic and celebrated actions, performed by them, may not be buried in oblivion; I have procured and inspected all the histories, records, and manuscripts of value or esteem, I could obtain either the fight or private use of, with respect to the subject before us.

" AND have (as I think met with some public prints; as well as manuscripts, of equal antiquity and authority with Mr. Camden ; from whence it will manifestly appear to the reader, that the Honourable House we are treating of, is of greater antiquity, and an earner original, (at least in England than the barons of Audley can boast of; and Mr. Camden might, upon full enquiry and much more reason, have said that the barons of Audley sprung from the same stock with the Earls of Derby; for they were ingrafted into it, and sprung from it, as hereafter is shewn.

" MR. CAMBDEN indeed tells us, in his survey of Staffordshire, that the family of Stanley were seated at Stanley, situated in the northern. parts of that county, called the Moorlands, near the head of the river Trent, and about a mile west of it ; that the land was craggy and stony, and thinks the family might take their name from thence ; but does not acquaint us how long the family might have been feated there, or even who resided there in his time.

" BUT my learned and Right Reverend author, Bishop Rutter, in his manuscript now by me, agrees with Mr. Camden, in the situation as before, and observes farther, that the original of the Stanleys was of Saxon extraction; as indeed, I find by the best and approved antiquaries, were all the families in England. whole surnames end in ley, ton, (b) and comb ; as Bolton, Dalton, Walton, Sefton, Singleton, &c. &c. also Stanley, Tyldsley, Townley, Mawdsley, Walmfley, &c. &c. and also Duncomb, Tidcomb, Jacomb, and Edgecomb ; and that the family now before us was seated at Stoneley as aforefaid, and is of opinion that the Stanleys might assume their surname; from that lordship ; which is very probable, with respect to the name, the soil being, as above, of a rough, stony nature; and that nothing was more common and usual, in those early times, than for families to give surnames to their seats; or to take them from that of the fact; of which we have many instances in our own memories; as well as in history.

(b) Vestigan observes rather differently from this, by the following distich
" On FORD, and HAM, and LEY, and TON, " Most of English surnames run."

" BUT how long this honourable house might have been seated here, before the conquest, is not discoverable from history or record : but the Reverend and learned author above assures us, that they were long here, before the coming in of William Duke of Normandy-; by the manuscript supposition, about the year 1066,-and that he was attended in his expedition to England, by one Adam de Audley, or Audithley, as the French have it.

" AND that he was accompanied from Audithley, in Normandy, by his two sons Liduph and Adam; and that on the Duke's obtaining the crown of England, he gave Adam, the father, large possessions ; as indeed he did all his followers; insomuch that Mr. Camden observes (in his notes on this family that it is strange to read what lands King Henry the Third confirmed to Henry de Audley, the fort of Mrs. Stanley, (as hereafter) and his family, which were bestowed upon them by the King, the bounty of the peers, and even of private personsv

" AND to heighten and increase the grandeur of this favourite family,, who had attended and greatly ferved her husband, King William, Queen Maud, his wife, and daughter of Baldwin Earl of Flanders, (commonly called Maud the Stranger) gave to Adam de Audithley, the father, the seat of Red-Castle, in the county of Salop, with all the lands and tenements thereunto belonging, and where, it is probable, that family resided to their building of Healey Castle, in the county of Stafford, upon lands given them by Harvey de Stafford, as before mentioned; which brought them into that county, and from whence they were first styled Barons of Healey; but which of them built that castle, and who first possessed it, history does not inform us.

WHEREFORE having by this small digresson (which I could not well avoid in this place) given the reader the story of the Barons of Audley's first appearance in England, and settlement there, I (hall, for a while, suspend any farther mention of them and their posterity, and return back to the House of Stanley, whole antiquity and situation are in part before described.

" THE first Lord of Stonely I have met with in history, or record, is styled Henry Stanley de Stoneley, who lived (as near as I can compute) about forty or fifty years before the Conquest, and force years after; and having issue an only daughter and child, named Mabilla, or Mabel, he gave her in marriage to Adam, the son of Lidulph de Audley, the elder son of the aforesaid Adam, by whom she had issue a son, named Henry, after her father; on whole decease Adam, her husband, was, in her right, Lord of Stoneley and Balterley, as hereafter ; and the said Henry, the son, was the person mentioned, by Mr. Camden, to have had such large possessions confirmed to him, by. King Henry the Third.

" AND being so possessed of those manors, be some time afterwards exchanged the manor of Stoneley, and part of Balterley, with his cousan William, the son of his uncle Adam, of Thalk on the Hill, as by the following deed upon record.

I ADAM, the son of Lindulph de Audithely, give and grant unto William de Audithley, the son of Adam my uncle, the town or manor of Stoneley, and half the town or manor of Baltlerley, in exchange for the town or manor of 'Thalk on the Hill, &c. Testibus, Henrico Preers, Roberto de Audithley, Adam de Capell, and William de Wolve, &c."

" UPON which deed, in the hands of Sir Rowland Stanley, of Hooton, Baronet, (living in the year 1610) is reserved the yearly rent of twelve-pence, payable for ever, from the town or manor of Thalk, to the said William, and his. heirs.

AND here Mr. Speed, in his history of Stafforshire, very aptly confirms the above account, given by Bishop Rutter, of the family of Stoneley, by the discovery of another branch of the said house, being seated at Stafford, which he calls Thomas Stanley, Esq. and remarks, That he was younger brother, or uncle, to the aforesaid Henry of Stoneley; and that his ancestors founded the Abbey of Sandewell, in the county of Bucks; and endowed it with 381. 8s. 4d. per annum; which was esteemed a large income in those times, before the reduction of the Roman standard, when every penny was of equal value with seven-pence now.

" Which farther shews the antiquity, as well as figure, this antient and worthy family made in the world, at that time.

" AND farther observes, That the said Thomas Stanley, Esq. had one only daughter, named Joan, or Joanna, and that he gave her in marriage to the aforesaid William de Audithey, the son of Adam, as aforefaid ; and with her, as a marriage portion, gave him the manor of Thalk, which being exchanged, as by the above deed, he, in honour of the lady and antiquity of her family, made choice of Stoneley for his seat, and called himself Stanley; and, from him are descended all the Stanleys we shall treat of in this order; but shall respite them a while, and proceed, by a short digref sion, to give the reader an account of the issue and posterity of Mrs. Mabilla. Stanley, by Adam de Audithley aforefaid.

" THE first of which was a -son, named Henry, who was founder of Hilton Abbey, on which he settled large revenues. According to Camden, he married to his wife, Bertred, the daughter of Ralph Manwaring, of fever in the county of Chester ; and by her had issue two sons, James and Adam; also two daughters. Adam, the second son, died young ; and James, the elder son, was the first I have met with in history styled Lord Audley, of Healey castle.

Lord DERBY's first letter, from the Isle of Man, to his Son, the Lord STRANGE; with his observation relating to that island, for his instruction and imitation, &c. &c. .

" THE Isle of Man was some time governed by kings, natives of its own, who were converted to Christianity by St. PATRICK, the APOSTLE OF IRELAND ; arid SIR JOHN STANLEY, the first possessor of it, of that family, was by his patent styled King of Man; as were his successors after him, to the time of Thomas, the second Earl of Derby; who, for great and wise reasons, thought fit to forbear that title."

His LORDSHIP'S reasons to his Son for not assuming title of KING IN MAN, &c.

" SOME might think it a mark of grandeur, that the Lords of this Ile have been called. KINGS; and I might be of that opinion, if I knew how this country could maintain itself, independent of other nations; and that I had no interest in another place: but herein I agree with your great and wise ancestor Thomas, the second Earl of Derby, and with him conceive, That to be a great Lord, is more honourable than a petty King.

BESIDES it is not fit for a King to be subject to any other King, but the KING of KINGS; nor does it hardly please a king, that any of his subjects should affect that title, were it but to act it in a play; witness the scruples raised, and objections made, by my enemies in his Majesty's Council, of my being too nearly allied to the Royalty, to be trusted with too great power; (as before herein mentioned) whose jealousies and vile suggestions have proved of very ill consequence to his Majesty's interest, and my service of him. There never was a wise subject that would. willingly offend his king; but, it offences were given from the prince, would rather humble himself before him, as the only means to recover his favour, without which no subject can propose to live with honour and safety.

" To conclude this council, take it for granted, that it is your honour to give honour to your Sovereign; it is safe and comfortable; therefore, in all your actions, let it visibly appear in this isle; let him be prayed for duly; let all writings and oaths of officers and soldiers, &c. have relation of allegiance to him.'.'

Now I have finished with Mr. Seacome, and shall return him to Mr. Moore Quayle, the rightful owner, to whom I am much indebted, (a stranger) for the very obliging loan. of him.


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