[From 3rd Manx Scrapbook]
HERE, as previously, the prefix " Mac " in the Manx names is usually written in full for the sake of uniformity, whether the original form has " Mac," " Mc " or " M." In a few cases this prefix persisted into the 19th century. MacNamaire occurs in Ballaugh Parish Register in 1822. This was MacGilmere and MacEmere in 1513 in the two adjoining parishes, and underwent many transformations until, as Monier (pronounced probably Moneer), it died out in the Island before the middle of the 19th century. MacOboy occurs in Ballaugh in 1818, unchanged from its appearance in Michael in 1513, though that is far from being its only rendering. McFayle, in Thwaites' Directory, Andreas, 1863, is almost certainly not the old Manx name. McKneale, which is still to be found in the Ramsey district, is not a native either, but a Manx adaptation of the Scotch McNeill. Generally speaking, the names which tended to retain the " Mac " longest were those of the MacGil- class. These will be discussed in a later chapter.
The abbreviation Bps. Bk. refers to MSS. relating to the Courts of the Bishop's Barony, which was confined to the Northern part of the Island. Other sources are the same as those mentioned in Chap. II. The third volume of the long-extinct Manx Society's publications is especially useful for the earliest names. Woulfe's Irish Names saves a Manx writer a good deal of thinking ; a comparable work for Scotland would be even more helpful.
Black. The origin of the Black family in Man appears in a passage in the MS. Lib. Scaccarii, to. 41 :-" 22 Sept., 1654. This day John Blacke Scottishman (now and for severall years past a shop-keeper and inhabiter in Ramsey tonne) hath upon his humble request to the Governor become a free denizon and been naturalized to the cuntry, and to that end hath taken the oath of allegeance and fidelity in these words," etc. He died 26th March, 1664, and was buried at Kirk Christ, Lezayre (Mon. Inscrptns.) ; and many of his descendants after him.
Blackburn. The first may have been Hugh Blackburne, Constable to the Earl of Derby in 1526 (Mx Mus. Jnl., No. 32). [fpc a William Blackburne noted prior to 1428]
Boyd. Makaboy, the Archdeacon of Andreas, 1270, came from Scotland. MacOboye is recorded in the North in 1513, and passed through MacBoy, MacBcoye, MacBoyd 1778, 1794, into the present Boyd, found in Lezayre 1755, Ballaugh 1790. All are in the Northern parishes. A colloquial pronunciation is seen in " McAweey's Croft," Lezayre, 1703. Modern Irish McEvoy, McAvoy, from MacGiolla-bhuidhe, son of the blonde youth. Bodagh and Body 1513, Bodough 1601 (Bps. Bk.), may have been merged into Boyd. Cf. Sc. Bodie.
Callin. " Alan the Manstkes " (sic for Manske, usual term for Manxman), held land in Liverpool in 1311. The epithet was evidently meant to distinguish him from Alan the Welshman. (See Moore MSS., Rec. Sec., P. 3). See Allan, Wigan Names, chap. ii.
Cannell. Presumably MacDanell, though only one appears in Man. Roll, against Danell in the district where Cannell is now commonest. Another probable source of Cannell is MacGilhonylt, q.v., chap. iv. Cf. Danell, Chester Names, chap. ii.
Caughan. (Qy. obs. ?). MacHaughan 1417. Old Galloway MacAuchan, McHaughan. From Eachain, Horse-boy.
Christory can be distinguished from Christian and Crystal. Christry (of Ballachristory, Jurby), 1580 Xprie 1641 (Bps. Bk.) Glen Crutchery, Conchan, is the only Mx glen which may bear a personal name. It was Glan Cruggery in 1703, Glan Cruttery in 1794. Cf. the Sc. name McCruiterach, son of the Harper.
Clarke. Though Clerke occurs frequently from 1422 (John Clerke, Deemster, probably English), there is no Clerey until later dates, when it becomes plentiful. Are we to understand that all Mx Clereys are translations of English Clerk, or did the earlier scribes translate Clerey into Clerke ? The former alternative appears the more likely.
Cogeen. MacFaden, 1498, 1510 ; Codin, 1641 ; Cotgeen later ; the old form is seen in the farm-name Balla-fadeen or -fageen, Michael. MacPhdidin, son of Paudeen, or Paddy. Its Irish and Scotch derivatives have kept much closer to the original form.
Colvin. ? MacColby, 1510 ; Colbyn, 1540, Colvin, 1579 (Bps. Bk.), Colbin, 1610. Rarely as Calvin and Kelvin. As Colville in Colville's Croft, German, 1703. Probably English Ceolfwine, possibly Norse Kolbeinn.
Corjeag. A name of many disguises. There appears to have been some confusion between this name and the short-lived Cavendish, but Corjeag did not arise, as Moore supposed, from a mistranslation of Cavendish, since it is recognisable long before Cavendish entered the Island. MacQuartag, 1513, Quydeake, 1540, Quigage, 1594, Quidyacke, 1598, Quidiacke, c. 1600, Cordaige, 1636. Probably from Murdoch, Mortach, or some other reduction of Muircheartaigh, Sea-pilot. Corjeag, though uncommon, is still extant ; and Cavendish lived until at least 1863 in Jurby and Douglas (Thwaites' Directory).
Cormode (stress now on second), and Kermode (stress on first), have usually been lumped together, but they are distinguishable from early times.
Kermode : MacKermott, 1429, MacG'rmott, 1498, MacGermot, 1510, MacGarmot, 1540, Kermod, 1585, Kyrmod, 1601 ; Kermott, Germott, later. From MacDiarmaid, son of Dermot. Sc. MacKermeid, 1613 (Reg. Privy Cncl.).
Cormode : MacCormot, 1510, Cormod, 1601. From Norse Thormod plus Mac. Se. MacCormod, 1616 (Reg. Privy Cncl.).
Corrin. Prefixed with Mac, this name has kept its form with very little change from an early date ; MacCorrane, 1422. Coran, Corran or Curran was a Bold (Lancs.) family from 13th to 16th cent. Coren in Cumberland was interchangeable with Curwen and Culwen. Curran and variants are common in Ireland. An original Mx source may appear in MacThoryngt, 1408, which suggests the Norse Thorfind, Torfin.
Corris, MacQuarres, 1504, 1510, MacWharres, 1510, Quarres, 1611. Corish later. From MacMorris. Old Galloway McCarres. Without "Mac" there were Morice, Vicar of German, 1408, and Mores, Moris, and Moresson in 1510.
Cosnahan shows an astonishing series of variations. A doubtful Cuishlean, 1510, on a jury list in a MS. miscellany, Mx Museum, Quislaban, Vicar of Jurby, 1575 ; Quosnaghan, Quisnoughan, Quistnough (all John, and perhaps the same man), 1593-1600 ; Cosnoghan, 1611, Coshegan, 1634, Cosnock, Costniough, Coshogan, 1652, all Bps. Bk. ?Cowshen, 1611 ; Cosnahan, 1710, and after. The Cosnahans came, and long remained, in a clerical capacity.
Coschnochtane, Cosnauchan or Coschnocht was the name of an estate near Clackmannan in a Royal Grant of 1511 (Reg. Gt. Seal ; also Exchequer Rolls of Scot., Appx.). It appears to be a personal name, " servant of St. Nechtan "-cos from Welsh gwas ; but this would give a stress on the second syllable, contrary to the Mx usage. I have not seen it as a Scottish personal name, and this explanation would dis-regard Woulfe's " rare (Irish) O'Cosnachain, a diminutive of Cosnach." (See also end of chap. iv.)
Costain. MacAlstyen, 1418, Calsten, 1601, has probably been merged into the numerous early forms of Costain : MacAusteyn, MacCoisten, MacOsten, MacCostein ; Costin, 1601, Cowesten, 1648. Reg. of Gt. Seal of Scot. identifies Colstayne, Coustene and Cowstene ; probably from a place o£ that name. Colsteyn was a Yorks. place-name (Domesday Bk.). But MacAlstyen and Calsten are more likely to be the Scottish Alston (Norse Alsten), plus " Mac." The principal line of Costain, however, derives from Austin.
Corteen, Cotteen. MacMartin, 1429, 1513 (also Martyn and Martenson), Quattin and Quartin in Lonan, 1603 ; Corteen's intack, Andreas, 1703, Cotteen's intacks, Lonan, 1703. Stress has been shifted to last syllable, as in many Mx surnames. Martin still exists independently.
Creer. MacCeere, 1513, MacCreere, 1521, MacCryer (MacCreere, Sloane MS.), 1570, Cryar, 1601, Creer, 1623. Freer also exists, but as MacCreer is much earlier, Freer is either an English incomer or a deliberate reversion to the basis of MacCreer ; the former supposition is the more probable. Norman frere, " brother," then " friar."
Cringle. Qu. MacRaghnaill, from which Woulfe derives fr. MacCrindle, inter alla. Cf. Eng. Rendell, etc., from th-e same Norse original. Galloway has McCrindle, McCringle. The development from Raghnaill to (Cringle) and Cringle is paralleled by Raynold Higham, Abbey Tenant, German, 1611, and Randle Hickam (probably a direct descendant), Malew Par. Reg., 1662. Note also Crangle 1603. If this supposition is correct, Crennell and probably Crellin are connected with Cringle : all as MacReynylt, 1510. Crawe. MacCray, 1513, MacCrawe, Crawe, 1540, Crawe, 1643. McRae in Scotland shows the same changes as far as Crawe. MacRaith, son of Grace.
Cunningham. Coningham, 1580, Marown ; Cunighin, 1587 ; both Bps. Bk. Sc., N. of Ire., N. of Eng. Curphey. Traceable from Murghson, 1417 (i.e. Irish MacMurchadha, mod. Murphy), through Curghy 1510 and later, to Curphey. The last stage began at least as early as 1662, when Thos. Curfie appears in Bps. Bk. ; but Curghey appears for a long time afterwards, in the Keys to 1726, both forms in 1733 (Quayle Curphey, who made the change, according to Moore), but Matthias Curghey, Vicar-General (died 1771) ; thenceforward Curphey. In Scotland it has become Murchison.
Dawson. Dollin Dawson, Peel, 1656 (Bps. Bk.). " William son of Thos. Dawson, Esq. (a Presbyterian), out of Ireland," was buried in Peel Church, 1686. Others in the following year in Malew Par. Reg.
Fargher, Faragher. It is curious that the " F " (qu. Fayrhare, 1343 ?) after disappearing (MacKarhare, 1422, MacCargher, 1513), began to be restored with the dropping of the " Mac " in the 16th cent. : Abbot Farker, 1503, Fargher, 1513, Fergher, Fargher, 1540, Farker, 1570. In place-names Fergher Mill, on Santan Burn, 1540, now Mwyllin Aragher ; and " the Caragher road," Santan. The Sc. Farquharson.
Finch occurs in 1610 (Moore, Notes and Documents, p. 16). ffinch was a private soldier in Castle Rushen garrison, 1659 ; Vinch, 1730. A Lancs. name.
Gale, Gell, Gill. Gale has been gradually merging into Gell and thence into Gill, and Gell is often pro-nounced Gill even when still written Gell. Three generations of a Castletown family known personally to friends of mine were respectively called Gale, Gell, and Gill. All three names existed in the Manorial Roll, but Gell was confined to the West side of the Island, Gill was less common and shown in Marown and German only, and Gall (modern Gale) held land only in Rushen. Killey (pronounced Kilya) is some-times used colloquially for Gill ; just as the present Ballagilley, Malew, was Balygil in the 14th century, and Ballagilley, Maughold, was Balygil in 1510. Gill may have been strengthened numerically by abbreviation of some of the MacGil- names to MacGill and thence to Gill. Of the three it is the first to appear as, probably, a hereditary name : MacGylle, 1429. Gale is a Cumbrian name. Mx Gell has Norse affinities, and so has the Cumbrian Gill, but of a different kind. In various parts of England, Scotland and Ireland Gill has had various origins ; in the latter two countries chiefly gilla, a youth. English Gell has the " G " soft, and is unrelated to Mx Gell, often pronounced Gyell. The colloquial tendency towards a long vowel in Gill is illustrated so far back as the spellings " Giell," early 17th century (Bps. Bk.), and " Geele," 1677 (Malew Par. Reg.). (See also Chester Names, chap. ii.)
Hudgeon. Huchon, Hugen, 1510, Hutcheon later ; now often Hudson. This is the English diminutive of Hugh, became Gaelic Hüisdean, and was later rendered back into English as Austin, which is really Augustine. For some reason Hudgeon and Hutchin were not prefixed with " Mac " as in Scotland.
Kaighan, -in. ?MacAkoen, Abbey Boundaries, 14th cent. ; MacCaghen, 1513, Chaginge, 1635, Kaighin, 1696. Sc. Eachdonn (not Each-tigheayna, as I stated in A Second Manx Scrapbook, page 67). Mod. Sc. McEachan, McGeachan. (McEachern from Eachtig-hearna.) Or perhaps from Ir. MacEachain. In either case the sense is, broadly, a horseman. Caughan (q.v.) is probably cognate. Caken, 1510, Rushen, appears unrelated to Kaighan of German. One of the Bishop's servants in 1354 was named de Cakan.
Kaneen. Kynyne, 1422. MacFinghin produced forms in Ireland and Scotland similar to the Mx Keneen, Caneen, etc. Cf. Sc. Makkynine, 1506 (Reg. Gt. Seal). Developments from Ir. MacCoinm, are, according to Woulfe, difficult to distinguish from the foregoing. In Man there may have been confusion with Kneen.
Kermode. See Cormode.
Kewish (pronounced " Keowsh "). Kiuish, 1602, Kyiush, 1607, Kewisse, 1631, Kiewish, 1778, Kewish, 1781. (In my transcript of the Bishop's Book in the Manx Museum the first two have been unwarrantably altered to " Kinish " and " Kynish "). Also a. Kevish in Ballaugh Par. Reg., 1679. Sc. MacThamhais, son of Thomas ; mod. McTavish. See also MacGilhaws, chap. iv.
Kilburne (nearly obs.), Gilborne, Gilburne (obs.). In 1649 Thomas Gilborne beat Maria Shimin and her daughter in the parish of Patrick, detained, beat and bruised Thomas Shimin in the parish of German, detained and trespassed against Thomas Shimin in Jurby, and responded to the suit of Henry Halsall on still another count. He was in further trouble in 1654, and in 1655 submitted himself to the Deemsters' decision between himself and one Leece and others (Bps. Bk.) ; the first assault on Thos. Shimin being thrice referred to the Great Enquest. These vendettas between Gilburne and his neighbours point to his being an intruder from the North of England, where the name is found.
Kinley (see page 160). For Finlonson, 1430 (Statutes), Finloeson or Finlooson should be read. MacFinloe, 1510, MacFingloe, Finloo, 1540. Also popular formerly as a forename. Sc. MacFionnlogha, older form of Fionnlaigh.
Kneen. MacNyben, MacNiven, Nyven ; yet MacNyne, 1429, is earlier than any of these. The Sc. Naoimhin, " little saint," though a saint's appellation, was used among the laity as a forename, hence was prefixed with " Mac " without the addition of " Gille." Modern Sc. McNiven ; but the Iona place-name Cill-mo-Naoi'in (Watson, Celtic Place-names of Scold., 307), shows the same treatment as Kneen.
Lace is probably the English name, since it does not occur early. 1634, 1662, and on. Always Lace. For Leece see Quilleash, below.
Latham. Obviously an importation from Lancs. John Lathom was Constable of the Peel in 1517, and being a sportsman rented the fishing at Ballahig (Ballig) on the Foxdale river in 1515. His wife and a relative of the same surname lived likewise at Peel. Gilbert de Lathom, probably his son, was Archdeacon in 1546.
Leach. The first of the name in the Island may be the man who was the subject of an Order by Governor Mawdesley to the Receiver-General in 1707 :-" You are to pay unto Nicholas Leech, weaver, the sum of 40s. per annum out of our Honble. Lord's Treasury towards his encouragement to stay in this Isle for the promoting of a Linnen trade here " (Moore, Hist. of the I. of Man, p. 428n.).
Mitchell. Mychell, 1502, Michel, MacMychel, 1510 ; later Vitchell, as in Ballavitchell ; Quitchell, as in Ballaquitchell and Crot Ene Quitchel, Lonan intack ; then Mitchell again (if not a fresh comer) in 17th cent., as in Kelly Mitchell, Lonan intack, 1703.
Morgan makes fitful appearances which it would be difficult to link together. Once only in Manorial Roll, where Hugh O'Morgan sues a Douglas man. Hugh was not a Mx forename at that time. Morgan, Malew Par. Reg., 1664. Certain 19th cent. Morgans in Foxdale are said to have been Irish immigrants. There is a well there still known as Julia Morgan's Well.
Moughtin, Mughtin. A Yorks. and Cumbrian name, from a Yorks. place-name.
Oates. Otte, Vicar of Conchan, 1580, of Santan, 1608 ; Oates, Vicar of Braddan, 1623. Otes, forename, 1510. English, from Norman Odo.
Quaggan, Quaggin, MacWhaikin, 1502, Quackin, 1504, MacWhaken, 1510, Quackin, 1611. Probably MacMaicin (dim. of Mac), a Donegal surname according to Woulfe. In Ireland, however, it has preserved the " M " unaspirated. Quaggan is now very uncommon; it may have merged to some extent into Quiggin.
Quay. MacQuay, 1430, MacQuays, 1502, MacQua, MacQuayes, 1510, Quay, 1611, Quaa, 1630. Ir. MacBeatha, son of Life; mod. Ir. McVey, etc. Sc. MacBeth, commonly mispronounced in England.
Quiggin. MacQuiggin, 1429 (modernised by a copyist?), Quykyn, 1601, Quygin, 1603, Quiggin Passim in Malew Par. Reg., 17th cent. Probably the Ir. MacGuigean, mod. McQuiggan, McWiggin, inter alia (Woulfe).
Quilleash. Something has been said about this name on page 00. Here I will bring together successive examples which illustrate its transition into the present form, now localised in Lonan and Maughold, the Marown families having died out. Macfelis, Lonan, 1498 ; MacFelis, Marown, Lonan and Maughold, 1510 ; MacFelys, Lonan, 1541; Macffelish, Marown, 1603; MacColleys, Lonan, 1611 ; Coleish, Lonan, 1648 ; Colease, Maughold, 1700 ; Colleash's Croft, Andreas, and Ballaquilleash, Lonan, both before 1703 ; Coilleash, 1718, Colleash, 1741, Quilleash, 1744, all Lonan Par. Reg. ; elsewhere as Cuilleash, Colace, etc. Stress was evidently on the last syllable, as at present. All these names represent Mac-maol-Iosa. A contracted form of Mac-giolla-Iosa, which perhaps reached the Island later, is Macyleese, 1746, MacLees, 1758, both at Peel (Mon. Inscr.), and modern Leece, also in the Peel district. Scottish parallel forms from Mac-maol-Iosa, for comparison, are : McCuleis, 1580, Maleis Mccolleyis, 1613, McColeis, 1638 ; and from Mac-giolla-Iosa, Makleis,1542, Vcllishe, 1596-a patronymic (Macbain, Trans. Gael. Soc. Inv., xxii., 160). The giolla form has given the modern Sc. Gillies ; McLeish and McLees might come from either, but are probably to be classed with Gillies. With these the companion name seems to have coalesced. As there is no doubt about the continuity of the Mx names, the early " F " where we should expect " V " may be attributed to a local aberration in spelling or pronunciation. If a phonological reason is necessary, the " F " might be due to an aspirated " c " in Mac meeting an aspirated " m " in maol, with a subsequent restoration of the " c " before the resulting " F." (But see Addenda to Chapter IV.)
Quinney. Though it was sometimes spelt Quiney as well as Quinney, the " i " is short. There is no ground for the suggestion made by Elton (Shakespeare, his Family and Friends, page 180), that the Quineys of Stratford and London " may both have derived their descent from the stock of Quineys in the Isle of Man." (See also MacElhinney, chap. iv.)
Sayle. MacSale, 1513, 1647. Probably the English name. Henry Sale was Riding-Steward in the Island to Thomas, Earl of Derby, in 1490.
Skillicorne. In outlining the early history of this family (chap. i., sec. vi.), I attempted no explanation of the curious name. True, there is a promontory called Schillighorn at the mouth of the River Jade, North of Wilhelmshaven, East Friesland, but I do not even know that there was a local family so-named which might have migrated to the North of England. But Skillicorn was occasionally spelt Skillicore and Skillicower, just as Runcorn (originally Rumcova) was at one stage " Runcouer " ; and in Appendix xi. to West's Antiquities of Furness, 1774, are two deeds relating to a 13th-century conveyance of land in Ulverston to Thomas Schilihar of Dalton-in-Furness. Another deed transfers to a man of the same name land which he re-transferred to the Abbot of Furness in 1300. This Abbot (deposed before 1355) was Hugh de Dalton, alias Skiller or Skeller, and his family name suggests that he may have been related to Schilihar the donor. If so, the circumstances would bear on the clerical connections I have noted for the Lancashire and Mx Skillicornes, the cross on the former's coat-of-arms, and the family's associations with the Cliftons.
Teare. MacTeare, 1504, MacTere, 1510 ; but MacEntere, 1589, MacAtyer, 1601 ; from which it is evident that the later names were not borne by descendants of the earlier Teares. Probably the later form merged into simple Teare, which is now very common in the North. The name would naturally have sporadic origins, being in Gaelic Mac an tSaor, son of the craftsman or carpenter. Similar eclipsis in Sc. and In McIntyre, McTier, McTear. But MacTyr, Vicar of Arbory, 1372, was probably a Sc. MacTire, i.e. " wolf " literally " son of the soil."
Tellett. Tellot, 1662, Malew Par. Reg. ; Tellett, Keys, 1793-1800 ; Tellett, Lezayre, 1522 ; Tillett, Ramsey, 1524 ; Tellett since. English.
Vondy. Vondy is a North-side name, MacWhanty was a South-side name; are they connected ? MacWhanty, 1417, is the earliest, Quanty, 1429, MacWhanty, MacWhanty, 1510, Quanty again, 1540 ; but Wandy, 1634, in the Southern parish of Arbory suggests that the name was becoming assimilated to Vondy before the families in the South died out there. So do MacVandy, MacVaundy, Jurby, 1580 ; and Vandy, 1763, 1768, Lezayre Mon. Inscrptns. Also " Balnewandy " for, probably, the present Balla-wanton, Andreas, in Mon. Inscrptrns., 1790. But a single " McYlvandy," c. 1590 in the North (Bps. Bk.), if it is to be relied on, must derive independently from the Sc. McGillivantic, formerly a dependent sept in Lochaber. Vantych as a cognomen (Toothless, or Bad Speaker), occurs in Scotland in 1576 (Maclagan, The Perth Incident, p. 38). A natural source for Vondy would be the word which, in different forms in Norse and English, signified the head of a family, and in England has, I think, yielded Boundy and Bundy. Bonda was a very early pers. name in Scotland and England ; in the latter country, at least, meaning a farmer.
Wattleworth has been much confused with Wood-worth in the Island. Its true source is the office of Waterward ; e.g. in Lancs. Lay Subsidy Rolls, 1332. Waterford, 1422, in Statutes is Watersone in the corresponding Sloane MS. (Acts of Stanley). In Mx records of 17th century (the probable time of its arrival), Wattleworth alternates with " Wattleford." See also Woodward, Chester Names, chap. ii., ante