[From Oswald's Guide,1831]
MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE.
Governor-in-Chief and Captain General.
Honorable Cornellus Smelt .... Lieutenant-Governor.
George Quirk, Esq. .......... Secretary to his Honor,
Right Rev. William Ward .. .. Lord Bishop.
James Clarke, Esq. .......... Attorney-General.
John Christian, Esq... .. .. .. .. Northern Deemster.
John Joseph Heywood, Esq.. .. Southern Deemster.
Robert Steuart, Esq........... Receiver General.
George Quirk, Esq. .. .. .. .. .. Water Bailiff.
John M'Hutchin, Esq. .. .. .. .. Clerk of the Rolls.
Rev. Daniel Mylrea .......... Archdeacon.
Rev. John Nelson and Rev. Benjamin Philpott, A. M. Vicars'-General...
George Quirk, Esq. .......... Clerk of the Council.
HOUSE OF KEYS.
General Goldie, Speaker.
Daniel F. Wilson,
John T. G. Taubman,
John Caesar Gelling,
William Leece Drinkwater,
William Watson Christian,
Edward Moore Gawne,
John C. Crellin,
William Carran, Esqrs.
Robert Kelly, Castletown,
John Llewellyn, Peel.
James Quirk, Douglas.
J. C, Gelling, Esqrs., Ramsey.
Visiting Magistrate of Castle Rushen, Robert Kelly, Esq.
Regulator of Weights and Measures, John Kelly, Esq.
Agent for the Crown . .. . .. , , , , , James M'Crone, Esq.
Seneschal to the Lord of the Manor.. James Quirk, Esq.
Secretary to the House of Keys. John Llewellyn, Esq,
Surgeon to the Household.......... H. R. Oswald, Esq.
Government Chaplain Rev, G, S. Parsons.
Episcopal Registrar Rev, Joseph Brown.
Archdeacon's Rev. John Nelson.
Registrar ............ Rev. Henry Maddrell.
Agent to the Lord Bishop .......... Mr. John Hughes.
Sumner-General .................. Mr. Daniel Christian.
CAPTAINS OF PARISHES.
John Cain, Michael. John Hughes, Ballaugh. William Farrant, Jurby.
John Kneale, Andreas. William Christian, Bride. John Corlett,
Lezayre. William Christian, Maughold Godfrey Tate, Lonan. John Banks,
Onchan. Robert Cuninghame, Esq., Michael Cæsar Tobin, Braddan.
William Karran, Marown. Thomas Brew, Santon. John Lucas, Malew.
Matthew Dawson, Arbory. Edw. Gawne, Esqrs., Rushen. Patrick. --- ,
Commander of the Ancient Paro-Horse.
W. L. Drinkwater, Douglas. John Burrow, Douglas. James Quirk, Douglas. William Roper, Douglas. Henry Corlett, Douglas. Richard Quirk, Castletown.
Robert Kelly, Castletown. Thomas Brine, Castletown. W.H.Carrington, Castletown John C. Gulling, Ramsey. Thomas Ar. Corlett, Ramsey.
Vice-Consul for Sweden and Norway, J. Stephen, Douglas, Consul for Denmark and Holstein, James Moore, Douglas, E2
For the Sheadings of Glanfaba, Michael, Ayre, Garff, Middle, and Rushen, are appointed annually, on the 5th of July.
T. Chesterman, Castletown. James Cool, Peel.
Thomas Cleator, Douglas. John Douglas, Ramsey.
Gaoler of Castle Rushen, P. Caley.-Turnkey, W. Craige.
This is of two kinds. That arising from his Majesty's Customs on the imports, and that which is produced by taxes imposed on wheeled carriages, dogs, public-houses; and pedlars, by the local Government.* The former exceeds the expenditure by many thousand pounds annually.t Unlike this Island, few of the dependencies on the British crown can boast of being no expence to the mother country.
The produce of the local taxes average about £2,000 annually, and is solely expended in keeping the high roads and bridges in repair. In doing this, the disbursements are regulated by a Committee of the Legislature called the Committee of High-* See Act promulgated in October, 1830.
i Gross Receipts of Duties for Year 1830, up to
Jan. 5,1831.............................. £22,613 3 2} Payments.-Revenue Salaries and Incidental Expences................. £(4,750 4 61
"ivil Otxrers.................... 5,013 10 1
9,763 14 7¢ .--13,849 61
The system of Mr. M'ADAM has been universally adopted ; and the roads are generally good, and are becoming more and more excellent every day.
There is at present a bill in transitu to enable the Lord Bishop to grant leases of his tithes for twenty-one years.
With regard to antiquities, excepting Peel Castle and Castle Rushen, none of any magnitude exist. But many of a kind that are the only remaining indications that mark the early ages of Manks history, and which are very interesting to antiquaries, are to be found; such as barrows, Druidical circles, watch and ward posts, fortified hills, circular encampments, runic pillars, with inscriptions, and other monumental stones, the enumeration of which would lead too much into detail. The improvements of modern agriculture are causing many, especially of the first named, to disappear. Some of them will be pointed out in the excursions to the different parts of the Island, subsequently to be described.*
* On this subject, consult the Transactions of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries. Communications by Mr. Oswald.
It is said that the ancient armorial bearing of the Island was a ship, but the arms are now, and have been for five centuries, Gules, three armed legs, proper or argent, conjoined in fess at the upper part of the thigh, fleshed in triangle, garnished, and spurred topaz. The following is a representation.
The arms of the Bishoprick are, on three ascents ; I the Virgin Mary, her arms extended between two pillars, on the dexter a church, in base the ancient Arms of Man.
COINAGE AND CURRENCY.
The only current Manks coin known is a copper one of pence and halfpence, most of which was struck by the late Lords of Man of the Derby and Atholl families, and some of which as private bank tokens. The silver coinage of Great Britain is plentifully supplied by the bankers. The bulk of the circulating medium consists in one pound notes of private bankers. A silver coinage was struck by the last Earl of Derby, Lord of Man, but it is questionable if it ever was in circulation. The present copper coin with the Derby crest, the Eagle and Child, and on the reverse the three legs of Man, is nearly a counterpart of it. `
ARE always objects of great moment, in a country situated as this is, in a channel that is a thoroughfare of trade and navigation. There are six harbours, affording good shelter for small craft, namely, Ramsey, Douglas, Derbyhaven, Castletown, and Port-le-Mary, on the eastern coast, and Peel on the western, and excellent anchorage ground for vessels of the largest size occur on many parts of the coast. To begin with the eastern coast.
POINT OF AYRE.
It has already been remarked, that the Point of Ayre, a tract of low land diminishing to a point, and only a few feet above the level of spring tides, constitutes the northern extremity of the Island. Here a Light-house stands, about six hundred and fifty feet from the sea-an elevated, elegant, and highly useful structure.*
* This, and the two Lighthouses on the Calf, are under the management of the Commissioners for the Northern Lights.
Immediately south from it, the first bay on the eastern coast is that of Ramsey, the largest in the Island, being about five miles wide and nearly two deep inland. It affords safe and excellent anchorage during westerly winds, to the largest class of vessels. The harbour of Ramsey till lately admitted only vessels of 100 tons burden at spring tides; but a jetty has lately been constructed, which deepens the harbour about 4 feet. At Port-league, on the south side of the bay, inside of Maughold-head, a harbour might be constructed at a moderate expence, for a work of such magnitude, capable of receiving at all times large fleets of heavy vessels,--say £50,000 at least. The land, on the middle and north of the bay, consists of flats and low undulations, presenting low alluvial cliffs of sand and clay, towards the sea. On the south-west it is bounded by Maughold-head, and by the acclivity of the north termination of the mountains.
Is an angular looking hill, about four hundred feet high, insulated or detached from the mountain chain about one mile, by a narrow valley of cultivated ground. In this manner it is precipitous towards the sea, and slopes inland. From its projecting into the sea, the Island acquires a considerable encrease in width here; and the rocky coast continues for upwards of twenty miles to the south-west, in nearly the same parallel line-bold and precipitous, but much indented by bays, and by creeks, formed by rivulets, emptying themselves into the sea.
CORNAY, THE DOON, AND LAXEY.
The creek called Cornay, about two miles south from Maughold-head, is the estuary of a rivulet, and is frequented by boats loaded with limestone, &c. About a mile from Cornay, the estuary of the Doon, a smaller rivulet occurs, indenting a very high and precipitous shore, but its beach is at present inaccessible from the land. The shore, on both sides of Laxey bay, which is six miles south from Ramsey bay, is distinguished by the precipices being the highest of any on this part of the coast, by its being less interrupted by deep indentations, and closely backed by the mountainous land. There is no quay at Laxey. The herring boats that enter the mouth of the rivulet are drawn up on the beach. The rivulet is a considerable stream, and is gathered on the southern acclivity of Snafeld and the adjacent mountains. The bay is about a mile in diameter, and is good anchorage ground.
CLAY HEAD AND BANKS'S HOW.
The headland to the south, is Clay-head. It projects a little beyond the general line of coast.-Banks's-howe, the north boundary of Douglas bay, is adjacent, and in the same line, but separated from Clay-head by the indentation formed by the estuary of Groudal rivulet. These headlands are somewhat elevated above the surface of the lands that lie back from them, and have no appearance of being a continuation of the mountains in the interior.
DOUGLAS BAY AND HEAD.
Douglas bay is bounded on the south by the head-land of the same name ; it is about eleven miles from Maughold-head, and nearly in the middle of the east. ern coast of the Island, about two miles in breadth, and one and a half in depth, and affords good shelter to vessels during gales from the southwest, west, northwest, and north. Douglas harbour is an excellent one for its size, and admits vessels drawing from twelve to sixteen, and even eighteen feet of water. It lies immediately within Douglas-head. The Pier is of freestone, and very substantial, and the quays extensive. To vessels coming from the southward, the harbour light upon the Pier-head, opens to view at south-east, and to the north of the mouth of the harbour. It has been determined upon by the Commissioners of Harbours to erect a Lighthouse on the lower projection of Douglas-head, at their own cost; a desideratum long called for by vessels making the bay. About a quarter of a mile from the shore, is the small rock called Saint Mary's, or Connister. It is always visible, excepting about two hours during high water. The best anchorage is between it and the headland,a space of about a quarter of a mile in extent,-where there is a buoy for warping out of harbour; but large vessels generally keep a good deal on the outside of it. The anchorage is protected bya battery of two 18-pounders inside of the Head. '
Port Soderick, a small bay of little depth, lies about three miles distant from Douglas; it is anchorage ground, but has no harbour. It receives a rivulet, and is bounded on the south by Santon-head.
The three headlands, Clay-head, Douglas-head, and Santon-head, are so much alike in appearance at sea, especially to those making the shore from the southward, that it is not uncommon to mistake the one for the other, when the contiguous land is not distinctly seen ; and thus the harbour is missed, and a tide lost. A Tower has been erected on Douglas-head, in order to distinguish it from the others ; and it may be observed that it rises more abruptly from the back grounds round Douglas, than either Clay-head or Santon-head does from those in their neighbourhood. Hence the inland acclivity of the headland itself, is less gradual than that of the others, and rises in an insulated manner to a greater height above the surrounding land. The light about to be erected on Douglas-head, will completely remedy this liability to mistake.
GRENACK AND LANGNESS.
About two miles from Santon-head, the creek of Grenack, formed by the estuary of a small river of that name, occurs. It is a beach frequented only by small boats. A mile and a half further, the elevation of the shore loses its hilly character; and Kirk Santon river opens into the sea at Cas-na-hown, a rocky and precipitous estuary, having no beach, but there is good anchorage opposite, in Derbyhaven bay, in all westerly winds. The bay or harbour called Derbyhaven, and the low point of land of Langness, or Langless, are two of the most important points on the coast. Langness is a low peninsula, projecting obliquely seaward nearly half a mile beyond the general line of coast, of a triangular shape, formed by the influx upon the low land of Derbyhaven bay on the east, and of Castletown bay on the south-west.
Derbyhaven is a circular basin, about half a mile in diameter, the entrance to which is a narrow opening on the east. It is protected on all sides, and is an excellent lee-shore asylum for all vessels that take the beach. There is no quay or pier here; but it has been calculated that £20,000 or £30,000 would make it one of the finest places of refuge, or for any purpose for shipping in the channel. To vessels out of Liverpool, put back by adverse winds, such a port would be a great and important accommodation. The entrance is lighted during the months in which the herring fleet is out, by a wooden lighthouse, erected on the round tower called Fort Derby, on the low point that forms the seaward boundary of the bay.
The cliffs, forming the bold shore from Maughold-head to this place, vary from one to three hundred feet in elevation. Southwards, to Port-le-Mary, a distance of about four miles, the shore undergoes a considerable change. Though still rocky, it becomes so low as seldom to exceed twenty feet above the level of the sea, and is often much less. It is very rugged and indented, especially about Langness Point and Castletown bay, bv sunken rocks.-Some of the outermost rocks of the peninsula of Langness, such as the Scranns, are covered at high water, and close up to them the sea is of great depth, and a powerful current and ripple of tide runs past them. Owing to these causes, and the lowness of the land, the heaviest vessels have been wrecked in the darkness of the night, by unexpectedly striking here, under a press of sail. About the middle of the peninsula, a Tower has been erected as a land-mark, in order to render the land more readily distinguishable; but it is much better to depend upon the Calf lights. By keeping both these open to view, when passing this coast, all danger is avoided.
Castletown bay, which adjoins Langness on the south-west, is a deep, rocky, and dangerous indentation, about two miles wide and three miles deep. Many of the rocks in it are covered at high water. The harbour is snug, but small and rocky, surrounded by a pier and low quays, and is never attempted as a place of refuge, nor should it ever be made for at night by strange vessels. The water in the harbour, during neap and spring tides, varies from five to fourteen feet in depth.
SCARLETT POINT AND POOLVASH BAY.
The accuminated Stack of Scarlett point, forms the south-west termination of this bay, where a strong and deep current of tide also passes to the northward. Rounding it, Poolvash, or Port-le-Mary bay sweeps to the westward. It is nearly three miles wide, and there is a rock in the middle of the bay, which is covered at high water. The anchorage is considered bad, and is seldom come to but in cases of necessity.
In the western angle of the bay, at the foot of the high grounds that extend to Spanish-head, lies the village of Port-le-Mary, the harbour of which is excellent for its size, well protected by a pier, and admits vessels of 50 or 60 tons burthen.
SPANISH HEAD AND THE CALF OF MAN.
From this harbour to the Calf, the high precipices of Spanish-head occupy the shore. The shores of the Calf are equally precipitous ; and from the danger of the Chickens, and other rocks near them, a vessel should always keep a good offing here. There is nn shelter on the coast, and the passage of the Race of the Calf is, at best, very dangerous. On some emergencies, however, it has been taken with success. The Calf is highest on the western side, where the precipices, perpendicular from the wave, cannot be less than four hundred feet in height, by computation. From this elevation eastward, it slopes considerably, but unequally. In some parts it is capable of bearing good crops of grain. Here there is a small stream, and a good farm house and offices. On the southwestern edge of its precipitous shores, stand the two Lighthouses, which are very elegant buildings, and have been of the greatest service of late years to the shipping in the channel. Opposite to them, and a mile and a quarter from the high precipices, are the low, pointed, partly sunken, and dangerous rocks called the Chickens ; and a few fathoms from the eastern shore, stand the acuminated rocks, known by the name of the Stack and Eye of the Calf.
PORT ERIN BAY.
Rounding the south extremity of the Island, the western coast presents a perpendicular wall, about two hundred feet high, almost in a straight line from the Race of the Calf to Port Erin bay, a distance of two miles.
Port Erin is a small bay, about half a mile in diameter; bounded on the south by the precipices just mentioned, on the north by those of Brada-head, which are of great magnitude, and overhang the sea. Opposite the middle of the bay, the land lies low. These circumstances give it a picturesque appearance. The sides are rocky, but in the centre there is a good beach.
BRADA HEAD AND DAUBY.
From Port Erin to Peel, the coast continues rocky and precipitous ; but it is much more even, and less indented than the eastern coast. From Brada-head to Dauby-point, distant five miles, the coast is still precipitous, bends inland to some extent, and forms what is called the Big bay, which has an excellent beach, and affords the best anchorage on this coast. Here the mountains approach close to the shore, and in some parts their abrupt termination of great height forms the sea boundary.
CONTRARY HEAD AND PEEL HILL.
About four miles from Brada is Contrary-head, formed by a projection of the south end of Peel hill. Peel hill is an oblong and insulated eminence, that runs along shore about two miles. On its highest part, which is upwards of five hundred feet, there is a Tower, a good landmark. Towards the north, the hill becomes lower, and terminates in the small rocky Island on which Peel Castle stands, and there forms the western boundary of Peel bay, which is about three quarters of a mile in diameter, and has a good beach.
PEEL BAY AND JURBY POINT.
Inside of the Castle Island and the hill, lies the town of Peel; the harbour of which is good, forms the estuary of the river, and is protected by a pier and light house. It receives vessels of 100 tons burthen, at spring tides, and the bay is resorted to during easterly gales. On the north-east, the bay is terminated by the rocks protruding into the beach. From hence the shore continues rocky for nearly four miles north-eastward, after which it becomes alluvial, presenting abrupt faces of clay, sand, and gravel, in general from thirty to forty yards high. It forms an uneven or bending line; and the estuaries of the rivulets cause little or no indentations. About ten miles from Peel, one of the convex curves which it makes opposite the church of Jurby, is denominated Jurby-point. From hence the coast takes a course E.N.E. to the Point of Ayre, almost in a straight line, by that means rapidly reducing the Island to its narrow termination on the north.
INTERCOURSE WITH THE SURROUNDING COUNTRIES.
Before steam vessels were introduced, the communications of the Island were kept up by means of sailing packets to Whitehaven, Liverpool, and Dublin, which still continue to sail frequently, and to carry on the whole trade of the country. But it is by the steam packets that visitors now make the passage. These vessels were first established between Liverpool, Douglas, and Greenock, by a Glasgow company, in 1819. They carry nothing but passengers and luggage, horses and carriages. Since the extension of steam navigation, the passage between Liverpool and Douglas has been supplied by vessels expressly appropriated to it alone. The last year there were the mail packet and the Mona's Isle three times a week in summer, and once a week in winter. The Mona's Isle, Capt. Gill, is a very superior vessel of her class, and was built last year by subscription, expressly to supply this passage regularly. She is one of the most beautiful vessels that. has yet appeared on the coast, and makes her passage in the most expeditious, safe, and comfortable manner. The following vessels also touch at Ramsey, on their passage between Glasgow and Liverpool, when the weather will permit, and occasionally call at Douglas for passengers-all very excellent and safe vessels,-Huskisson, Ailsa Craig, James Watt, Henry Bell, Enterprise, Glasgow, and Liverpool. The Scotia, which plies between Greenock and Dublin, calls frequently at Peel; and the St. Andrew, between Whitehaven and Dublin, regularly passes through Douglas bay once a week. These are worked, even in rough weather, with the most astonishing precision ; and an experience of twelve years has proved them worthy of confidence.
The commanders and the stewards give universal satisfaction ; and the matrons that wait in the ladies' cabins, are humane, active, and attentive women.-The number of passengers between Liverpool and the Island, besides those for Scotland, is often numerous ; and an early attention is, therefore, necessary to secure a berth in the cabin. But the passage being often made during the day time, and the deck spacious and pleasant, a bed, unless for invalids, is of the less importance. The packet anchors inside of Douglas-head, a few hundred yards from the pier, and frequently when the tide answers, comes into the harbour. The passengers are immediately brought ashore with care and safety, by boats stationed for the purpose ; but it is proper to remark, that there is sometimes a confusion, occasioned by a rush to get into them ; and it is recommended, especially if ladies are in the question, to wait till the hurry is over. The landing boats are regularly numbered, and a constable is sent from the town on board the packet, to regulate their coming alongside ; but when there is a disposition to irregularity, unless his endeavours are seconded by the passengers themselves, his utility, in contributing to their safety and satisfaction, must be much limited.
The trip from Liverpool, especially on a fine day, is really delightful; except to a few, the effect of the motion of the vessel, steadily directed by powerful machinery, is much less than that usually produced by the swell caused by the wind and the tides in sailing packets. Every care is taken to provide all kinds of refreshments. There is music on board, and often the joyous throng form themselves into circles of the most exhilarating description,-
" whilst, like a meteor in its airy course,
The rapid bark speeds on its liquid way."
On approaching the Island from the sea, the lover of the picturesque will not fail to observe the perspective presented by the chain of precipitous headlands and retiring inlets of the coast, backed by a fine outline of mountain. The bay of Douglas requires only to be better wooded to be one of the most beautiful in the channel ; its two headlands, Douglas-head and Banks's-how are distant from each other about two miles, and its depth is upwards of a mile ; thus the bay is a semicircle, nearly regular, flanked by two lofty precipices, and skirted all round by a shore that rises suddenly by brows upwards of a hundred and fifty feet high, into an elevated and cultivated country, which, studded with hamlets and lively cottages, undulates to the base of the mountains, five miles in the distance. In the centre of the bay stands Castle Mona; and on its southern limb, under the headland, on the south, and the high grounds on the west, lies the town of Douglas, snug and compact, on the narrow triangular space formed by the termination of the valley, by which the river of the same name flows into the sea.