[From Johnson's Guide, 1850]

CHAPTER VIII.

GENERAL TOPOGRAPHY, NATURAL HISTORY, COMMERCE, AND LANGUAGE.

" My Island home,! my Island home!
The lone, the loved, the fair, the free;
Pale emerald set in pearly foam,
One Island heart beats high for thee
Amid the whirlwinds and the storms,
' Whate'er my fate, where'er I roam,'
The thought of thee my bosom warms,
My Island home! my Island home!"

Island Minstrelsy,

The Isle of Mann is situated in the Irish Sea, and is nearly equidistant from the three surrounding countries. The central point is in 54 16' N. latitude, and 4 30' W. longitude. Its extreme length is about 30 miles, and breadth 12. The circumference is about 75 miles, but if the indentations of the shores were calculated, it would probably be 10 miles more.

Its area is computed at 220 square miles. If the surface be divided into twelve equal parts, five of them will be found to consist of heath and moor, and the remaining seven of arable and meadow land. The mountains afford pasturage for sheep, of which a remarkably small and delicate breed are found here, and, are greatly esteemed.

The Island is intersected by a range of hills, of which the respective extremities are termed North and South Barrule. The highest peaks are Snea-fell (or Snafield) and Bein-y-Phot, (pronounced Penny pot.) Sneafell is about 1700 feet above the level of the sea, but it has been estimated by some writers at 2000 feet. The other principal eminences are Montpelier, Garrahan, Sartal, and Slieau-Whallin, which overhangs St. John's. From these hills run several streamlets, most of which are capable of turning a mill. The principal streams are the Sulby, which enters the sea at Ramsey ; the Doe and Glas, which unite and fall into the sea at Douglas, to which town they gave their names ; the water of ' Castletown, and the water of Peel. Trout are found inconsiderable plenty in these streams, and also in some of the minor rivulets. Salmon are seldom found.

Divisions of land prevail in the Island, termed Quarterlands. The origin of this name is uncertain, and is not supposed to refer to the size or value of the land, as some Quarterlands are double and even treble the value and extent of others. It is not improbable that the term quarter is used in the same sense as the French quartier,signifying district, an acceptation of the word which is not altogether unrecognized even in England. Quarterlands have from the remotest times been considered as property of the highest nature in the Island, which cannot be bequeathed beyond the next heir, except by the first purchaser, nor are they liable to sequestration for debt. They pay, however, a small annual rent to the crown, and are subject also to the gift, sale, mortgage, lease, or assignment, by deed of the owner; and in the absence of personal effects, may be sold to discharge arrears of crown rent, which claim is, in the Isle of Mann, paramount to every other.

The only rule which seems to have been observed in the demarcation of Quarterlands is, that they all diverge from the mountain side of the parish to the coast, giving each proprietor the benefit of heather and sea-wreck. This rule of course does not apply to the inland parish of Marown. Minor estates are called mills, intacks, and cottages. By the Act of Settlement these were recognized as chattels, and were of course devisable ; but an Act of Tynwald, 1777, declared that they should no longer be considered as assets in the hands of executors, but descend intact to the heir-at-law.

The northern and southern tracts of land are for the most part arable, and have of late years been much improved. The northern extremity, which comprises the parishes of Bride, Andreas, and Jurby, is chiefly composed of a light sandy soil on a substratum of marle, which produce, in average years, crops of a fair quality. The Southern extremity rests on a bed of limestone, which is very valuable as manure.

In the stratification of its rocks, the Island presents nothing remarkable. Of the primary rocks, granite in some places may be seen rising to the surface, whilst masses of quartz and hornblende are to be met with frequently both above and below it. Slate, grey-wacke, and grey-wacke slate, passing into old red sandstone ; black and grey limestone, greenstone, and clinkstone, passing into basalt, comprehend its transitionary formations. The slate is often found of a quality that fits it for the covering of houses ; and is met with, too, of such a fibrous structure, as to make, in lengths of six and eight feet, excellent piles, posts, and lintels. The steps at the great entrance to St. Paul's are of the black limestone of Mann, (the gift of Bishop Wilson.) It admits of a fine polish, and is much used for tombstones and chimney-pieces, Its grey limestone,is also good. Copper, lead, and iron, with a slight intermixture of silver, are the only metals,which have yet been ' discovered in its mines.-( Vid Engry. Britann. Art. Isle of Mann.)

The absence of coal is a serious loss to the Island. The late Duke of Athol was extremely desirious of discovering this useful mineral, and commenced several courses of experiments with that object. The attempts have been renewed by different speculators, but without the slightest hope of success ; and indeed the stratification of the Island is itself a complete proof of the non-existence of coal, which is always found above the rocks which form the strata of the Isle of Mann.

THE CLIMATE of the Island is highly salubrious, being exempt from oppressive heats in summer, and frosts in winter. Even the gales which in winter are of frequent occurrence, have their effects modified by the saline matter wiih which they are impregnated. During the spring, easterly winds often prevail, and are occasionally very cold. But on the whole the climate is genial, and its general superiority is evinced by the longevity of the natives.

THE ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY of the Isle of Mann offer little of novelty to the Naturalist. Around the coast, however, several interesting shells have been discovered by the indefatigable researches of Edward Forbes, Esq., Jun., to whom the scientific world is indebted for a very valuable work on the Mollusca of the Manks shores, and for the recently published illustrated account of British Star-fishes. This gentleman is a native of the Island, and it is to be regretted that his important researches in the Archipelago, whither he has gone to assist the Government expedition survey, will prevent him from completing his investigations at home, while at the same time it is to the advantage of the public that his energetic mind should be occupied in as large a sphere as possible.

" Only one little Brassica, called the Simbria Moaensis, distinguishes the Manks from the British Flora." Trees are scarce in the Island, a deficiency which forcibly strikes the stranger. Thriving iplantations however are fast springing up around every villa ; those of Injebreck and Eairy-e-Kelly are very flourishing ; and on the road between Ramsey and Kirk Michael, the protection of the hills affords promise of success in the cultivation of timber. In the bogs and marle-pits are frequently found the trunks of gigantic oaks, which show that the Island formerly, produced trees of the largest size. A person unacquainted with this fact, who should accidentally take up a volume of the Manks Statutes, and meet with directions "for the going forth of the Lord his Forrester," would be apt to think that office a very useless one. But he should be reminded that there is undonbted historic evidence that forests of considerable extent once covered the surface of several districts in the Island. Near Ramsey the ambuscade of Godred Crovan was laid in a forest,* and other similar cases might be cited. It is not probable, however, that trees will ever be found again in the Island of such extent, as it is to be feared that the climate has undergone such a change as will preclude their growth in similar luxuriance.-(Vid. Part II-Arbory.)

Occasionally in these marle-pits the bones of the Irish Elk have been discovered, proving that these animals once traversed the forests which bave disappeared, and affording additional evidence of the origynal social connection of the Isle Mann with Ireland. -Vid. Part IL, Ballaugh.) A breed of cats and poultry is found in the Island without tails. A pair of sinecaudal kittens was sent to Windsor Castle, on the occasion of Her Majesty's Coronation, by Mr. Thomas Howard, of Douglas, a compliment which was very graciously acknowledged.Vid. page 15. -

The natives are a strong hardy race, and generally well-made. During the late war, it was observed that whilst the Manks soldier was surpassed in height by the British and Irish troops, any company of their fencibles' covered a greater space of ground than the same number of men belonging to other regiments. The ancient attire of blue cloaks and felt hats given place, among the Manks females, to a more becoming dress, and whether at home or abroad, they need feel no apprehension from a comparison with the same ranks in the neighbouring countries. The Manks peasant is lively, honest, frugal, obliging ; and might be much happier, were he less addicted to litigation. His fondness for this, however, arises far more from a prodigious anxiety to be thought always in the right, than from a disposition to overreach his neighbour."

(Encvyc. Brit. In regard to personal beauty the Ladies of Mona may vie with the fairest of the fair. Their beauty is quite peculiar ; being alike distinct from the aristocratic majesty of England's dames, and the expressive and decided cast of feature which characterizes the daughters of Scotia. To the luxurious and winning softness of the Emerald Isle it is much more nearly allied, and yet there is something in it different from all, which is peculiarly Manks, and adds a lustre to the virtues for which the "peerless maids of Mona," have been celebrated.

Till within a very few years, the vice of intemperance was alarmingly prevalent among the lower orders; but this most anti-social evil has now almost entirely disappeared, through the exertions of Temperance Societies, whose labours, if not founded on a strictly sound principal, have unquestionably here, as in Ireland, been attended with the most salutary results.

THE COMMERCE of the Island cannot be said to be of great extent. One of the chief articles of export is fish, which produces a clear revenue of more than 40,000 per annum. The fishery, indeed, may be considered the entire employment of a large class of the people, as from two to three thousand derive their subsistence from this hazardous pursuit, which also employs nearly three hundred boats of from 16 to 30 tons burden. Until lately, the herring was almost the only fish caught in large numbers. The Great Shoal of herrings, which passes the winter beneath the ice of the polar regions, begins the southward migration in the month of January. In extent, this prodigious army of fish almost resembles a submarine continent, for it is computed that they occupy a space equal to the whole of Her Majesty's European dominions, and as in general they swim very compactly, it is probably within the truth to allow four fish for every square yard. A trifling calculation will show the enormous amount of herrings which compose the Great Shoal. Taking the length of Great Britain at 700 miles, and the main breadth at 120, the surface will contain 84,000 square miles, or 260,198,400,000 square yards, to which may be added one-third as the extent of Ireland, and the result, multiplied by 4, gives us 1,387,724,800,000 herrings, a result so prodigious as to defy belief. It must however be remembered that the shoal, before it reaches the British seas,, has to run the gauntlet of all the piscivorous denizens of the deep, who are led by instinct to expect its southward movement as the signal for the feast, so that probably not the ten-thousandth part of the shoal arrives off the coasts of Mann. About March they encounter their earliest human foes, the Dutch fishermen of Iceland, who capture great numbers, but the fish are then poor and flabby. In May the Orkney fishery commences, and an active warfare is carried on in the Hebridean seas, where fish of very fine quality are caught, and yield a large profit to the small seaports of the north of Scotland. They are seldom seen off these coasts before the beginning of July, when their presence is announced by a slight rippling of the waters, a delicate phosphoric illumination of the surface, and, more certainly, by the flocks of gulls or gannets which hover over them. 'This bird is so well known as the attendent of the "king of the waves," that heavy penalties were formerly inflicted for killing one during the herring season. When their flight is high, the fish are swimming deep ; when low, they are near the surface ; which is a guide to the fishermen in shooting their nets.Vid. Appendix, G.. The Herring is so styled by the fishermen of the Mediterranean.

From July till the 10th of October, the Island is a scene of bustle and activity. The sluggish peasant, who may be seen during the winter months in a condition little better than that of the marmots of Piedmont at the same season, or who, in the spring, crawls after his tortoise-like plough in the field, is awakened by the arrival of the herrings to animation and energy. Every sort of boat is overhauled and patched anew, the nets are carefully examined and repaired, and instead of the dull plodding step and lack-lustre eye which greets the traveller at other times, his ears are saluted with jocund laugh and frequent song from almost every cottage.he passes, and every thing combines to assure him that the grand business of the island has indeed commenced. The towns, too, exhibit a thronged andbustling appearance. Peel, Port Erin, and Port-le-Mary, off which places the finest fish are taken, become suddenly instinct with life, and numbers of stout, hardy, weather-beaten fellows are seen in the strees, whose existence during the rest of the year, is unnoticed. The dress of these bold children of the sea in general consists of nothing more than a shirt, over which are buttoned trowsers, both , of blue flannel. Some indeed are found, who patronize the undyed article for the nether integuments, but these are decidedly heterodox, and beyond the epicycle of piscatory haut ton. A canvas apron and a tarpaulin hat complete the costume

The commencement of the season was formerly attended with ceremonies of great solemnity, which testified the importance deservedly attached by the natives to this branch of commerce. Bishop Wilson wrote a form of Prayer for the occasion, and to this day a suffrage is added to the Litany, praying that " the blessings of the sea" should be preserved to our use.

The herring fleet sails in the evening, and returns the following morning. There are few sights more picturesque than the departure of these little vessels when witnessed from the rocks behind Peel Castle. One after another, in apparently endless succession, they go forth from the harbour, and sweep round the base of the rock toward the coral reef which forms the fishing ground. The reflection of the homes which these rough Spirits have left, of the sigh that escapes from wife, mother, daughter, sister, or maid beloved, whose every earthly hope is consigned to those few frail timbers ; the fear of danger, suggested by the occupation itself, and heightened, as it often is, by the distant roar of the billows ; these, mingling with the natural features of the scene, the bold outline of the coast, the fine old ruin frowning above, and the interminable whirling and screaming of the gannet below, form a combination of natural and moral sublimity which few scenes are so well calculated to produce, and which seldom fail to exert a holy and tranquillizing influence on the soul.

The return of the fleet, however, after a successful night, is indeed exhilarating. The smiling faces which welcome the safety of the adventurers, and the activity displayed in landing the scaly cargo, the shouts of men, and rumbling of carts, give to the quays for some time a most interesting appearance.

By immemorial usage the lord proprietor was entitled to a maze (five hundred) out of every five maze caught, and had a right to purchase as many more as he chose at 6d. a maze. A premium of 3s. 4d. was, however, paid to the boat that brought the first maze of the season. The Castle Maze, as it was called, was afterwards commuted for a payment in money, which was one of the droits of the Lord Proprietor transferred to the Crown at the Revestment, and was (by Act of 11th George III.,) assigned to the Commissioners of Harbours for maintaining and improving the Harbours of the Island. The payment was at first 10s. per annum for each boat, but was subsequently increased to 15s.

The fish being safely brought into the harbour, are immediately brought up for curing. The process of curing white herrings, though apparently simple, re quires some experience. The fish are first drawn, then rubbed with coarse salt, and left for a few hours to purify. When saturated with salt, they have a peculiar feeling in the hand, and it is in discovering the exact time of saturation that the mystery lies. ; If they are not thoroughly pickled, they will not keep till the next season, and if they are allowed to soak too long in the first brine they are apt to retain a coarse flavour. When they are declared ready, they are packed in barrels with a layer of salt between each layer of herrings. Each barrel contains six or eight hundred.

Those intended for red herrings are left in salt for a few days, and then washed and allowed to drain. They are afterwards hung up by the mouth on small rods, in long houses built for the purpose. These rods are laid as closely as possible together, and fires made of the dried roots or bark of oak are kept constantly burning under them. When sufficiently reddened, they are packed up in barrels for exportation to Great Britain and the Mediterranean.

Besides those which are pickled and cured, great numbers of herrings are sent fresh to Liverpool, and from thence to the interior by railway. Before they reach this distance, however, their flavour is almost completely lost, and in fact, herrings should not be kept more than twelve or fourteen hours out of the water. The Manks herrings are of an extremely fine quality, and, when quite fresh, possess a delicacy which is entirely unknown to those acquainted with them only through the English markets. Their peculiar delicacy causes them to be greatly in demand among the manufacturers of anchovy sauces and pastes, by whom a single keg of Gorgona Anchovies is multiplied into ten or twelve, a very lucrative speculation, and contributing greatly to the commerce of the Island, if not to the reputation of the sauce makers.

During the herring season, besides the native fishermen, the Island is visited by 800 or 1000 from the Cornish and Irish coasts. Until about thirty years back, however, the Irish fishermen were the only strangers who considered the trade worth the expense of fitting out boats. At that period, the moral condition of the fishermen was most deplorable, the towns, during the season, being the scenes of continual riot and drunkenness. The jealousy with which the Manks fishermen always regarded the Irish was also the occasion of innumerable brawls, too frequently attended with fatal results. In fact, the presence of the military', was generally necessary to preserve even the appearance of quiet. Two large breweries were, at that; time, almost entirely supported by the fishermen, and all their hard earnings were consumed in the tavern.; so great, in short, was the demoralization of this class of the community, that the evils of smuggling, which the Revestment so effectually checked, were found to be perpetuated, in a form almost equally objectionable, by the fishery ; and the better disposed were inclined to doubt whether the total failure of this branch of commerce would be a greater cause for sorrow or for satisfaction.

So long as the fish continned to visit the coast in such large numbers, there was little hope of modifying the enthusiasm of the natives for a pursuit, which provided them with the necessaries of life for the year at l the expense of four months' activity. The returns of ; the fishery were indeed,- in some seasons, enormous. The memory of persons still living can recal a season when the herrings were so abundant, that they were caught with the hand on the beach. After being sold at 4d, a hundred, until purchasers could not be found. they were carted off for manure. On the 13th of July, 1667, herrings were sold publicly at 6d. a maze; and there is a statute, unrepealed, though not enforced, prohibiting the exportation of herrings, so long as they might be sold in the Island for one shilling and two pence per hundred, under penalty of forfeiture to the buyer, and fine equal to the price to tho seller.* Under circumstances of such plenty, it was too much to expect the current of opinion to set strongly towards agriculture. But m later years, when the annual supply of fish was greatly diminished, the evils of the fishery were brought, if possible, more prominently into view. The existence of a large body of men, in most cases dissipated and turbulent, and almost without employment during eight months of the year,. was felt to be a social grievance of lamzntable magnitude ; and the distaste, not to say incapacity, for regular labour of any other kind, contracted by the youth of the Island, in whose eyes the adventurous character of the pursuit gave it an additional charm, was the cause of destruction to hundreds of fine lads, who, unless placed in unusually favourable circumstances, formed habits of idleness and intemperance, which not only excluded them from the pale of reputable society, but too often hurried them to an untimely grave.'
* Act of Tynwald, s. v. 1737.

It became, therefore, an object of the last importance to the philanthropic mind, to accomplish a reformation among this class of the Insular community, so that " the blessings of the sea" might not deserve to be ; called "the curse of the shore ;" and this truly laudable design has been most perseveringly prosecuted, until results have been obtained, gratifying alike to the friends of the Insular commerce, and the admirers of social order.

One great means of changing the character of the: Manks herring fishery, has been the encouragement; given to English fishermen, who now, as has been: observed, annually resort to the Island in great numbers, and by their steady conduct and superior skill, have inspired their Island brethren with that spirit of honerable competition which is the mainspring of commerce, and which affords a refreshing contrast to the miserable national jealousy which formerly produced so many brawls with the Irish fishermen. Such disturbances are now seldom heard of, and the inhabitants of the towns, who formerly could not rest in peace except under the protection of a company of soldiers, now feel themselves perfectly free from similar alarms; and even Peel, where, during the month of August, not less than 4000 fishermen are quartered, is seldom or never disturbed by instances of outrage, which formerly were of daily occurrence. To this happy state of things the spread of temperance has no doubt greatly contributed ; and those philanthropic individuals, to whose advocacy and personal exertions much of this gratifying result is to be ascribed, have found a reward suited to their desire in the cheerfulness and comfort which now distinguishes the home of the fishermen, remarkable only, in days of yore, for vice and wretchedness.

Another circumstance which has operated beneficially is the attention paid to the fishery by numerous individuals of the greatest respectability. The boats are now almost entirely in the hands of men of substance and character, who remunerate the fishermen with a proportion of the returns. The crews have also been reduced, which leaves a greater amount of industry to be employed in cultivating the land.

After all, however, the herring season only lasts four months of the year, and unavoidably a great number of hands were left idle at its termination. To remedy this in some degree, public attention was turned to deep sea fishing,. and the result has fully justified the peculation. The cod fishery is now a most lucrative Employment ; and the last winter, in particular, was unprecedmtedly productive, not less than from 45,000 to 8,000 being exported weekly, besides large quantities consumed in the Island. Should this productiveness continue, the Island will soon be recompensed for the decrease which has been observed in the number of herrings, and may once again be the home of cheapness and plenty.

AGRICULTURE, it must be admitted, has not been a favourite pursuit in the Isle of Mann. At the same time, it should be stated, that the landed proprietors and farmers have laboured under very great disadvantages. Limited capital, poor soil, and defective acquaintance* with the science of agriculture,` are difficulties not soon overcome; and indeed any one capable of appreciating these difficulties, at least as they have been felt in the Island, will be surprised rather that so much, than that so little, has been accomplished. The subject is now gradually assuming its due place in public estimation, and symptoms of future agricultural improvement are clearly discernible. An association has been recently formed in the Island, on the plan of those which have been attended with so much success in the neighbouring countries, for the encouragement of Agriculture, and the breeding of Stock. Premiums to the amount of 80 were offered in the first year, and this amount will probably be doubled in the next, as, besides additional contributions, many of the prepiiums awarded were returned.

This deficiency is by no means confined to the island. It is the opinion of the best informed, that the soil of Great Britain is not so productive as it might be, by one half, on account of the Ignorance of the science of Agriculture which exists among those rugaged in the pursuit.

In the growth of wheat the Island cannot rival the richer soil of England, but before the last five or six unfavourable seasons, the Manks -wheat sustained a place in the market fully equal to that of the best Irish. About 20,000 quarters are exported annually, and large quantities of American and English flour are imported. Very excellent barley and oats are also produced, and in the cultivation of the potatoe the Manks yield to none. Indeed, the potatoe is a very important article of commerce, from 10,000 to 12,000 tons being exported every winter; and yet this large export does not produce, as might be feared, a scarcity at home, for potatoes seldom exceed 32d. or 4d. per stone. To the growth of this valuable esculent the soil of the Island is peculiarly adapted, and its cultivation has been attended with the greatest success, proving the chief resource of the farmer in a succession of wet summers, which have destroyed his wheat crops. It is, however, undoubted, that the agricultural operations of the Island admit of much extension. Large tracts of lands might be reclaimed, and others so much improved by the simple, though expensive, process of draining, that probably. by this means alone the agricultural returns would in a few years be doubled. Several gentlemen have lately commenced operations with vigour, and others are bent on the same valuable undertaking. The deficiency of capital is indeed a serious obstacle, and prevents the continuance of many experiments which elsewhere have produced the most satisfactory results. But if the progress of improvement is slow, it is also sure ; and it is truly gratifying to observe, that this "pale emerald, set in pearly foam," is gradually rising in commercial importance, that prospects of the brightest nature are beginning to open, and that the course of events, like the rise of the summer sun, affords promise of a meridian of beauty and splendor, such as the most sanguine ' imagination of a former day could scarcely have ven,_tured to predict.

MANUFACTURES have not been carried to a great extent in the Island, though several spirited attempts have been made. Linen of good quality has been for centuries manufactured and exported. In 1807, the quantity exported was 90,305 yards, but succeeding years have witnessed a rapid decrease. The only Linen Factory of any extent is that of Messrs. James Moore and Sons, which has 240 spindles. Hand-looms only are employed.

An attempt was made, more than thirty years ago, to introduce cotton-spinning, and a Factory was established at Ballasalla, but it was a complete failure, and no one has since bad the hardihood to enter into a similar speculation. The manufacture of cloth, however, has been more successful, a flourishing mill having been in operation for many years, about two miles west of Douglas. It is known by the name of the Union Mill, and was established in the year 1807, by William Kelly, Esq. In 1823, it was completely destroyed by fire, and, after its re-erection, was fitted up with new machinery, and the management undertaken by Messrs. James Grellier and Co., by whom the manufacture was carried on with great vigour and success. Since the dissolution of this Company, the business has been carried on under the firm of Messrs. William Dalrymple and Co. The cloth manufactured is of good quality, and finds ready sale in the Island. There are, however, several circumstances which render it improbable that manufactures will ever be very successful in the Isle of Mann. Not only has the manufacturer to encounter the expense of importing machinery and coals, and exporting the goods, but be has to compete with English manufacture, which in most cases is imported either duty free, or at an ad valorum rate of 22 per cent. The agency of steam in the factories of England places the tardy handiwork of the Island completely hors de combat, and the facilities of communication with the neighbouring shores are now so great, that the insular population are almost independent of their own manufactures.

MINING has of late become a favourite speculation, and offers brilliant prospects of success. At Foxdale, Laxey, and near the rivulet Dhoon, are considerable shafts, which have been found very productive. A particular account of these mines will be found in the Second Part, under the parishes of Marown, Lonan, and Maughold.

At Laxey an excellent Paper-Mill is in operation, under the management of Messrs. LEWTHWAITE. Their paper is exported in, large quantities to Liverpool, where it is speedily bought up.

The Trade of the Isle of Mann is carried on by a paper issue from two respectable banks, and by the coinage of Great Britain. Until seven years ago, the copper currency of the Island was peculiar to itself, and was of various kinds. Some of the pence bore the British king's head on one side, and the Manks corms, or rather legs, on the other. Some were merely marked "one penny token," or "bank token," and ,occasionally a stray coin of the feudal lords of Derby and Athol was to be met. During the year 1840, however, all these coins were called in, and a new and beautiful copper coinage, amounting to 1000, issued from the mint, for the use of the Island. The obverse bears the impression of Her Majesty's head, and the reverse the arms and motto of the island. Under the old system, 14 pence was the value of the shilling, but the value of the new currency is assimilated to that of the empire, which greatly facilitates commercial intercourse, and will ultimately be looked on as a benefit by the inhabitants, many of whom, among the lower orders, manifested such hostility to the innovation, as to render the presence of the military necessary to check an incipient rebellion. In the towns of Douglas and Peel very serious riots actually took place, but were speedily quelled. These disturbances suggested the following jeu d' esprit.

THE COPPER ROW.

Air.-" Unfortunate Miss Bailey."

I'LL tell you how about the row so dreadful and unproper,
Which for a while, in this here isle, was riz, about the copper; 1
A worse, indeed, I never seed, and hope I ne'er again shall,
But I'll narrate the story nate, " full true " and circumstantial.

Chrus.-Hurrah, the copper!
The beautiful new copper!
T'he beautiful new copper !,

I'll tell you how this mighty row at first originated:
The Cabinet and Council met, and long the plan debated;
This was the plan which they began,-it really was quite funny,
To give to all, both great and small, a stock of ready-money.
Hurrah! etc.

The Govermnent to the Island sent this blessed scheme for doing us,
They thought, perhaps, that our old raps would very shortly
ruin us; ! .
So a thousand pounds of browns they crown'd with Vic's physog most gracious,
And our three legs,which here I beg tosay was most howdacious.
Hurrah! etc.

The coin came out, beyond all doubt it look'd extremely beautiful ;
And so we thought we really ought to take it all quite dutiful ;
But when we came" to make a claim with a bob for fourteen fishes,
We found, alas! but twelve would pass, which rather seem'd suspicious.
Hurrah ! etc.

A precious mess, as you may guess, we found that we'd got into ; .
We thought to seize the House of Keys, and chop for sauce the Mint too;
Up started then some glaziers' men, as fierce as Turks or Hindoos,
And cried, " Come, boys, we'll make a noise, and smash the Douglas windows."
Hurrah! etc.

Then up we got, with blood all hot, and marewd about the town, sir;
And all night long, two thousand strongg, paraded up and down, six ;
The panes went crash in every sash, thus causing great expenses;
The gentry folk thought that no joke-the women lost their senses.
Hurrah! etc.

But with daylight there came in signt the forces miltary,
From Castletown they all came down, and grinned ferocious very;
The Baffif High, cried "Yield or die!" which really verry rum I, call ;
They cooled their guns, so off we runs, for we as all struck comical
Hurrah! etc.

Some ten or more, perhaps a score, were grabbed and sent to quod, sir,
Where they must stay for many a day, to wait the Deemster's nod, sir;
If he says so, why off they go, all to the Bay of Botany;
But if money brings such horrid things, I wish I'd never got any!
Hurrah! etc.

Now every blade of every trade wot grumbles at the copper,
My pretty chap, you'd better clap upon your jaws a stopper!
For when they comes with guns and drums, all marshalled by an ossifer,
The sight of the steel will make you feel not much like a philosopher!
Hurrah, the copper!
The beautiful new copper!
The beautiful new copper !

[see Clay's Currency p203]

THE MANKS LANGUAGE is One Of the three dialects of Celtic, which still continue to be spoken in these kingdoms. It bears very great similarity to the Irish or Erse, and the natives of the south and west of Ireland, of the Highlands of Scotland, and of the Isle of Mann have little difficulty in understanding each other. This is to be understood, however, as applying only to oral communication, for the differences in orthography are such as to perplex even the most learned in those languages. To the Welsh language the Manks bears very slight affinity. A Grammar of the Manks language has been compiled by Dr. Kelly, of which however very few copies are to be found. The same learned individual also compiled a dictionary, a corrected copy of which was sent to the press, but unfortunately was destroyed by fire together with the printing office. An uncorrected copy remained, and It was proposed to revise this and publish it, but the proposal did not meet with much encouragement. A language which possesses no original literature beyond a few ballads, can scarcely offer much inducement to the student, and probably all the information requisite for the purposes of occasional reference is to be found in a little work published a few years ago by the late Mr. Archibald Cregeen. The student of antiquity will, however, find a copious account of the language ' in Llwyd's "Archaeologra," in invaluable work, which, it is much to be regretted, is seldom found, except in public libraries. With very few exceptions, the natives are all able to converse in the English language with considerable fluency ; though, among themselves, they still continue the use of their mother-tongue."'

The Author of the able article, " Isle of Mann," in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, several passages from which have enriched these pages, thus writes in allusion to the ancient grandeur of the Island, as contrasted with the absence of any literary remains. After alluding to the numerous Tumuli and 'Runic monuments, which meet the eye of the visitor in every direction, and mark the resting-place of the gallant chieftains, he proceeds; " Monasteries and nunneries, too have left vestiges of their existence and grandeur ; whilst the ruins of one noble baronial castle, and the massive battlements of another frowning unscathed by the storms of nearly a dozen centuries, still more strikingly attest, that amongst the former families of this little Island, the best and worst feelings of our nature had all their usual manifestations. In such a land, and amongst the descendants of such a people, taking might fairly be expected that imagination would be found taking some of her loftiest flights, and that songs and poems would abound, in which the chivalrous deeds of its heroes were perpetuated and embalmed. But if any such productions of Manks bards ever existed, they have long since perished.'

The services in the Parish Churches are alternately, with more or less variation, performed in the Manks and English languages. The Lord's Prayer, in the Anglo-Saxon, Welch, and Manks languages, is subjoined, by comparing which, some idea may be obtained of their analogies and discrepancies. A literal English translation is interlined.

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN ANGLO-SAXON.

Fæder ure thu the eart on heofenum ;
Father our thou who art in heaven
Si thin nama gehalgod ;
Be thy name hallowed
To becume thin rice ;
Come thy kingdom
Gewurthe thin willa on eorthan swa swa on heofenum ;
Be done thy will on earth even as on heaven
Unne daegwamlican hlaf syle us do daeg ;
Our daily bread give us to day
And forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifath in urum gyltendum ;
And forgive us our sins even as we forgive against us sinners
And ne gelædde thu us on costnunge ;
And not lead thou us into temptation
Ao alyf us of yfeld. So thlice. !
But deliver us of evil. So be it.

 

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN WELCH.

Ein Tad, yr hwn wyt yn y nefoedd ;
Our Father the which art in the heavens
Sancteiddier dy Enw ;
Be hallowed the Name
Deued dy Deyrnas ;
Come thy kingdom
Bydded dy Ewyllys ar y ddaear, megis y mae yn y nefoedd
Be done thy will on the earth, as it is in the heavens.
Dyro i ni heddyw ein bara beunyddiol ;
Give to us this day our bread daily
A madden i ni ein dyledion, fel y maddeuwn ein dyledwyr ;
And forgive to us our debts ; as we forgive our debtors
Ac nov arwain ni i brofedigaeth, eithr gwared ni rhag drwg ;
And not lead us into temptation; but guard us from evil
Canys eiddot ti yw'r Deymas, a'r Gallu, a'r Gogoniant, yn oes oesedd. Amen.
For thine is the kingdom and the Power, and the Glory to age of ages. Amen.

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN MANKS.

Ayr ain, t' ayns niau ;
Father our who art in heaven
Casherick dy row dt' Ennym;
Holy be thy name,
Dy jig dty reeriaght ;
Come. thy kingdom
Dt' aigney dy row jeant er y thalloo, myr te ayes niau ;
Thy will be done in the earth even as in heaven
Cnr dooin nyn arran jiu as gagh laa ;
Give as our bread this day and every day
As leih dooin nyn loghtyn, myr ta shin leih dauesyn ta jannoo loghtyn nyn 'oi;
And forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those committing trespasses us against
As ny leeid shin ayns miolagh ; agh livrey shin veih olk ;
And not lead us into temptation; but deliver us from all evil
Son lhiats y reeriaght, as y Phooar, as y ghloyr,son dy bragh,as dy bragh.Amen.
For thine the kingdom, and the Power, and the glory for ever and ever. Amen.


 

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