[From Isle of Man by John Quine, 1911]
From the occurrence of the Danish gat- in the names of places on some of the old roads of the island, it may be inferred that these were routes of travel in the Danish period. An old road called Bahr-ny-Ree or King's Way, and mentioned in the Chronicle as via regia (= King's way), leads from near Ramsey by way of Sky Hill ridge and along the east slope of Snaefell towards Douglas. On the southern descent towards Douglas on this line of road is the Keppell Gate (Danish, kapal-gata=horse-road). This road doubtless existed in Danish times and probably even from a much more remote period.
This road is approached from the Northern Plain by a reach of old road crossing the river half-a-mile above Ramsey, at Brerick (Dan. bruar-vik = bridge creek) where there is an ancient ford and wooden foot bridge. The King's Way is also joined by another old road from Jurby, going up Narradale. It is uncertain whether the "King's Way" was so called from being a "King's Highway," or from King Robert Bruce having marched by this route, when in 1313 he landed at Ramsey and went by way of Douglas, as the Chronicle states, to attack Castle Rushen.
Another ancient road crossed the mountains from Ballaugh to Douglas; and another from Kirk Michael over the ridge of Greeba. From Maughold along the east coast through Lonan to Douglas the old road may still be traced, by way of Corna and the Dhoon, where there is an estate which formerly constituted the endow ment of a Biatchagh (food-house, or hospice for travellers) ; and down to the nineteenth century this house gave free food and a night's lodging to the itinerant beggars passing that way north or south. The old highway across the ;sland from Peel to Douglas may also still be traced by unobliterated sections; and near the Gap of Greeba there was another hospice, endowed with land of the barony of St Trinian's.
The old high road from Douglas to Castletown, in the Chronicle called the via publica or "common way," was obliterated by a newer high road following the same route.
From Peel to Castletown by way of Glenmeay and Dalby there was an old road, parts of which survive at the Raggatt (Dan. Rar-gata =nook road), at Glenmeay, and on the high slope beyond Dalby.
What was perhaps the principal ancient highway of the island led from the extreme north to Castletown by the west coast as far as Tynwald Hill. A fragment of it, or a branch-road joining it from Kirk Bride, still exists at Gat-e-whing (= road of the yoke). The route was by Jurby church, Old Ballaugh church, Bishopscourt, Kirk Michael church, and over the coast ridge to Tynwald Hill. Here the road curved inland and ascended the eastern slope of Slieuwhallian and South Barule. It then descended through the abbey lands past Rushen Abbey and Malew church to Castletown.
As the routes of the ancient roads naturally lay along the lines that must be taken to get most easily from one part of the island to another, the modern high roads have followed them very closely, in parts actually obliterating the older road, but deviating wherever it was desirable to have easier gradients. For this reason, in the reach between Kirk Michael and Tynwald, a distance of seven miles, the modern high road north and south is a mile distant from, but fairly parallel with, the old road.
The modern high roads of the island are very well made, there being abundance of good road metal; and in recent years granite has been brought generally into use on most of the roads, except on the Northern Plain where sea shingle is employed; and in the southern parishes, where limestone is still used.
A line of railway connects Douglas with the southern parts of the island. It passes by way of Santon, Balla salla, Castletown, Arbory, and Port St Mary to Port Erin. A second line of railway runs through the central valley from Douglas to Peel. From St John's a branch of this line turns north-west to the coast, and goes by way of Kirk Michael, Ballaugh, and Sulby to Ramsey. A line of electric railway goes from Douglas to Ramsey by way of the east coast, turning up the valley to Laxey, and skirting the coast again to a point some way short of Maughold. From Laxey a branch of the electric railway ascends the valley, and climbs by a spiral sweep round the western and northern sides of Snaefell to the summit of the mountains: this service, however, is open only in the summer months.
There are no canals on the island; but before the construction of railways there was much carriage by water from port to port round the coast, especially of lime for agricultural purposes.
The use of trains of horses with pack-saddles for the conveyance of turf from the mountains, of fishing nets, and of corn, was in use till the beginning of the nineteenth century. On the upland farms "sleds" or sledges are still used in harvesting corn; as also a long cart with very low wheels called a bogie. But generally the Manx conveyance for all purposes is a two-wheeled cart. In the towns in recent years four-wheeled waggons have been introduced; but the two-wheeled cart, with a pair of horses tandem, has been proved by experience to be the usage best adapted for the steep gradients that are the feature of the roads.
For the summer excursion traffic, consisting of drives from Douglas to various parts of the island, round journeys to Ramsey by way of Kirk Michael returning by way of Laxey, and shorter journeys with detours to the various glens and waterfalls, the kind of vehicle in vogue is a two-horse char-a-banc, or a landau. A stage-coach runs from Douglas to Port Erin daily in the season, and at all the rural railway stations there are vehicles plying to the neighbouring glens.
The motor-car has invaded Manxland. In recent years the island has been selected as the course for motor speed tests: the excellence of the roads being shown by the fact that part of the course in these trials was the mountain road from Ramsey to Douglas by way of Snaefell, the line of the old King's Way and Keppell Gate.
The Isle of Man is not an English county, and is not represented in the House of Commons: it has Home Rule, maintained or conceded in unbroken continuity from "King Orry's" days. Its parliament consists of the Governor and Council, and the House of Keys. Both Tynwald Hill, St John's chambers sit separately, and separately pass or reject bills; but on questions of finance both chambers sit together in what is called a Tynwald Court. All Acts of Tynwald-i.e. measures approved by the Manx parlia ment-in order to become law, must receive the assent of the King; and also, in accordance with ancient custom, be publicly promulgated at a Tynwald Court held on
Tynwald Hill at St John's in the central valley of the island.
The Council, with the Lieutenant-Governor as Presi dent, consists of the Clerk of the Rolls, the two Deemsters, the Attorney-General, and the Receiver-General; together with the Lord Bishop, the Archdeacon, and the Vicar General as spiritual "peers." The Bishop, however, has from time immemorial sat in Tynwald as a Baron of the isle, and prior to the Reformation there were six other ecclesiastical Barons who sat by right of their baronies.
The Keys, presided over by a Speaker, consists of 241/ elected members. Before 1866 the Keys repre sented six ancient divisions called Sheadings, each with four members. They held office for life; and filled a vacancy by cooption. In 1866 the constitution was altered and the Keys are now elected. Douglas has five members; Castletown, Peel, and Ramsey one each; and the Sheadings are electoral districts for the return of the 16 other members.
The origin of the Sheading is obscure. The word probably means a "sixth-part division"; but it has also been explained as "ship-thing," or ship-levy division. Anciently, and down to the fifteenth century, the Sheading officers were the Coroner and the Moar: the former a Sheriff, the latter a collector of revenue. The Coroner is still a Sheading officer, annually sworn in at Tynwald Hill; but since the fifteenth century the Moars have been parish officers, local proprietors on whom devolves in turn the duty of collecting the Lord's Rent on the lands of the parish.
It is probable that all the Sheadings had their own mote-hills or "Tynwalds." In the fifteenth century Tynwald Courts are recorded to have been held at three such "hills," besides that of Glenfaba Sheading, which already in the thirteenth century had become the All Thing or Tynwald of the island. The Sheadings have still their own Sheading Courts, but only for business connected with the tenure of land.
Ancient Moot Hill on St Patrick's Isle (marked by flag sta ff )
There is much evidence pointing to Saxon influence in the island before the Danish period. From the fact that Tynwalds were anciently held twice a year, it may be that the institution was Saxon, though this is far from certain. Bede, writing in 731, with reference to Anglesey and Man subjected to the English by King Edwin about 625, says the former contained q60 "families," and the latter 300 or more. If ecclesiastical lands be included, the number of treens, or ancient estates of freeholders, is about 100 on each side of the island, and, taking count of the land admitting of cultivation, the Manx sheading is analogous to one of the three " cantrefs" or six " commotes " of Anglesey, or to the " hundred " of an English county. Under Godred Crovan, who conquered or recovered Man about 1076, the island is found united; but traces of a northern and a southern faction are found in the family feuds of Godred's descendants down to the middle of the thirteenth century, and it would seem that the two parts of the island had at an earlier period been independent units.
The Government Office, Council Chamber, Keys Chamber, Tynwald Court, Rolls Office, and Law Courts are in Douglas. Apart from legislation, a Harbour Board, Highway Board, Asylums Board, Local Government Board, and Council of Education carry out departmental administration, the Boards being appointed by a Court of Tynwald from among its own members.
Douglas has a Mayor and Corporation and the other towns have Town Commissioners. For sanitation the villages and parishes have Village Commissioners and Parish Commissioners. Each parish has also an official called the Captain of the Parish, who was formerly Captain of the Parish Militia, but is now the mere bearer of a titular honour.
The Asylums Board is the central authority for Poor Relief, each town and parish having a Board of Guardians, though in some parishes the vicar and churchwardens remain the authorities for Poor Relief. The Council of Education is the central authority for education, each town and parish having its School Board. There are also four insular districts with Higher Education Boards for Secondary Education. Under the Asylums Board there is a Lunatic Asylum and a Home for the Poor: the average number of inmates in the former is 86 males and 120 females, and in the latter 50 males and 55 females.
For purposes of justice, there are two Deemsters, holding several minor courts in the four principal towns; and Courts of Assize or General Gaol Delivery in Douglas. The Clerk of the Rolls is judge in the Chancery Court. The Lieutenant-Governor with these three judges form the Staff of Government or Court of Appeal. The fact that the two Deemsters are still titularly the Southern Deemster and the Northern Deemster, with special jurisdiction in their own parts of the island, seems to point to a survival from the ancient independence of the two districts.
As stipendiary magistrates there are High Bailiffs of the four towns; and the four towns are also petty sessional districts, each with local justices of the Peace. Down to the beginning of the nineteenth century there existed a "parish runner," whose duty was to carry the "cross" identical with the fiery-cross used to summon the Scotch clans to a gathering.
There are 17 ancient parishes, nine on the south-east, and eight on the north-west side of the island: the Bishop being patron of four, and the Crown of the remaining 13. The island is one Archdeaconry; and there is a Cathedral Chapter, with Bishopscourt chapel as pro cathedral. The Diocesan Synod or Convocation of Man still meets annually. It formerly had the right to enact canons, subject to the approval of the Tynwald Court, but the exercise of this right has fallen into disuse.
The population of the British Isles is 750 times that of the Isle of Man: consequently in the Roll of Honour of the nation only a few names may fairly be expected to be Manx. The island has also the disadvantage of isolation, and of a Home Rule tending to limit activity to the narrow scope of insular affairs.
King Godred Crovan ot Man fought at the Battle of Stamford Bridge (î066) on the side of Harold of Norway against Harold the Saxon. Olaf II of Man joined the crusade against the Moors in Spain in 1215. Magnus, the last King of Man, fought on the side of Haco of Norway against Alexander II of Scotland, and ravaged the shores of Loch Lomond while Haco was engaged at Largs. But with the exception of two noteworthy bishops in the thirteenth century there are no conspi cuous figures among native Manxmen till the seventeenth century.
The Manx have a natural bent for seafaring. Edward Christian, born in the reign of Elizabeth, became captain of an East Indiaman, captain of a Royal frigate under Buckingham at the siege of Rochelle, and Governor of the Isle of Man. Failing in an attempt to induce the island to declare for his Parliament, he ended his days a prisoner in Peel Castle. James Stanley, seventh Earl of Derby, held Man against the Parliament from 1644 to 1651 : his fleet foiling the attempts of Parliamentarian squadrons to effect anything on the coast. William Christian, Commandant of the native militia, declared for the Parliament in 1651, when Earl James had joined Charles 11 at Worcester. He was Governor of the island during the Commonwealth, and after the Restoration was tried for treason and shot on Hango Hill.
John Murray, son of a Douglas merchant, was Ambassador at Constantinople under George I and George II. He made a collection of eastern curiosities; as also did his sister, who was wife of the British Consul in Venice. These collections were afterwards acquired by George III, and are now in the British Museum.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Manx men were extensively engaged in smuggling: so, later, there is a large list of Manx captains engaged in the activities of privateering and the slave-trade. In the foreign trade of Liverpool Manx seamen have found their main field of opportunity, and the percentage of Manx men among the sea-captains of that port has always been remarkably large. In 1793 "five of the finest ships in Liverpool," and many others of lesser ratings, had Manx captains. Henry Skillicorne, after 40 years at sea, mainly as captain of Bristol ships, became owner of an estate at Cheltenham (1738), and founded Cheltenham Spa.
In the Napoleonic wars many Manxmen served with high distinction in the Navy. Admiral Sir Hugh Christian served in the West Indies; was in command at the Cape of Good Hope; and received a peerage, with the title of Lord Ronaldsway. His son, Rear-Admiral Hood Christian, was made a Commander at the age of 16 for gallantry at Genoa; and served on the Walcheren expedition. John Quilliam served as Lieutenant at Camperdown, and at Copenhagen, when his seniors were killed, he fought his frigate so well, close under the Danish batteries, that Nelson secured his transfer to the "Victory." He was First Lieutenant of the "Victory" at Trafalgar: and when, at the critical moment of breaking the enemy's line, the "Victory's" steering gear was shot away, he contrived a means of steering her from the gun-room, and so carried her into the action. Peter Heywood, a Manx midshipman on the "Bounty," was kept on board of her by Fletcher Christian, another Manxman, the ringleader of the mutiny, who cast Captain Bligh adrift in an open boat with eighteen companions. Heywood subsequently became a Post-Captain in the Navy, commanding the "Montagu," 74..
With Fletcher Christian, the mutineer, may be men tioned Robert Crow, a Manx merchant captain, who became a pirate, and with 40 of his fellows was hanged at Cape Corso Castle in 1722. Peter Fannin, a Manx man, accompanied Captain Cook; and was in command of the "Adventure."
Philip Cosnahan, midshipman on the "Shannon" in her famous fight with the "Chesapeake," is mentioned in Fitchett's Deeds that Won the Empire as the hero of an incident in the fight. A mere list, with their ships and periods of service, of Manxmen who were captains, commanders, and lieutenants in the Navy would fill more space than this chapter would allow. Admiral Sir Baldwin Walker, K.C.B., should, however, be mentioned as a worthy: he served in the Turkish Navy, was known as Walker Bey and Yavir Pasha, received Austrian, Russian, and Prussian decorations, and afterwards, rejoining the English Navy, was Commander in-Chief at the Cape of Good Hope.
Fewer Manxmen, but still a considerable number, have won distinction as soldiers, especially in the Napoleonic wars. The most distinguished were Sir Mark Wilks, and Sir Mark Cubbon. The former'served in India, becoming political Resident at Mysore; and subsequently Governor of St Helena, with charge of the exiled Emperor Napoleon. Of him, after his recall, Napoleon said, "Why have they not left the old Governor ? I could get on with him we never had wrangles !"-the reverse of the state of things under Wilks' successor. He was a scholar and historian, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and Vice-Presi dent of the Asiatic Society; in character straightforward, unaffected, and kind ; and in manners a courtier. Sir Mark Cubbon, K.C.B., served in the Indian Army, and was Commissioner of Mysore from 1834 to 1861-a province of 5,000,000 people. He maintained the province in absolute tranquillity through the period of the Indian Mutiny, and his administration has been called "the golden days of Mysore." Admiral Parsons, another Manxman, was at one time Governor of Ascension Island.
Writing in 1829 of conspicuous service rendered to the nation, Lord Teignmouth put on record that ..-" TheIsle of Man has perhaps furnished a much larger number of able and excellent men to the public service in pro portion to its population than any other district of the British Empire."
Among other distinguished Manxmen are Philip Christian, a London clothworker in the reign of James I, whose benefactions resulted in the Endowed Schools at Peel, his native town, where the house in which he was born still remains, and is still in the possession of the family from which he sprung.
John Stevenson and Ewan Christian are memorable men in the annals of the island, as the associates of Bishop Wilson in securing the Manx Act of Settlement in 1703, by which the tenure of land was made secure and a new condition of prosperity secured in perpetuity to the island. Bishop Wilson, a native of Cheshire, was Bishop of Man from 1698 to 1755. He was a man of almost unexampled earnestness. He had a great influence on the standard of morals; raised the status of the clergy; and established parish schools, even anticipating by a century and a half the principle of free education. Bishop Hildesley, his successor, secured the translation of the Bible into the Manx language, a work of considerable merit as a monu ment of the Celtic language. The translation was the work of the Manx clergy of that period.
There have been among Manx Deemsters some men of marked ability: the most distinguished being John Parr, whose Manx Customary Law appeared in 1690, and has remained a standard authority. Dr Charles Radcliffe, to whom a considerable notice is devoted in the Dic tionary of National Biography, was an authority on nervous diseases: he was Physician to the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in which post he was succeeded by Dr John Radcliffe, his son.
A considerable mass of literature has emanated from authors connected with the island. Archibald Cregeen and Dr John Kelly have left dictionaries of the Manx language. The most distinguished and widely known is the Rev. T. E. Brown (î830-97), a Fellow of Oriel College, and author of Fo'c's'le Yarns, poems in the Anglo-Manx dialect, and numerous other pieces of classic quality and form.
Rev. T. E. Brown (Author of F+oc's'le Yarns)
In science the most famous natives are Edward Forbes (1815-54), a naturalist of the first rank, whose researches were chiefly devoted to submarine life, and generally to the distribution of organised beings in geological and living forms. He was Fellow of the Royal Society, and Pro fessor of Geology at Edinburgh. David Forbes, his brother, also F.R.S., and member of many other learned societies, stands in the front rank of pioneers in geological investi gation, especially as connected with metallurgy.
Yet of all activities to which the Manx people have devoted themselves, that of colonisation is the chief. They have settled in all the British Colonies, but especially in the United States of America: there being, it has been conjectured, about 7000 Manx in the one community of Cleveland, Ohio. They are found isolated and in groups in all the Northern and Western States, notably in Utah, where several of the leaders of the Mormon community came in the first instance from the Isle of Man.
(The figures in brackets after each name give the population in 1911, and those at the end of each section are references to the pages in the text: par. p. denoting population where the village is small or only a hamlet.)
Agneash (par. p. 2529). Primitive hill-side hamlet, in habited by miners, overlooking Laxey.
Andreas (par. p. 1054). Scattered village in the middle of the Northern Plain. The Archdeaconry of Man is attached to the rectory of the parish. The church is modern; but there are several early crosses. (PP. 140) 141, 144, 148.)
Baldwin (par. p. 1993). A chapelry of Kirk Braddan, six miles from Douglas. The hamlet of Baldwin, in the west glen, is very picturesque; and above it is the water reservoir of Douglas. Near St Luke's Church on the ridge east of Baldwin are traces of a Sheading Tynwald, where in 1429 Trial by Combat was suppressed.
Ballabeg (par. P. 784). Straggling village in Kirk Arbory. The eighteenth century church has a fragment of sixteenth century carved oak, bearing the name of Thomas Radclyf, Abbot of Rushen. At the Friary farm is a barn which was formerly the Chapel of the Franciscan Friary. An Ogam inscription was found in the Friary burial-place and is now in Castle Rushen.
Ballasalla (par. p. 1898). The ancient village of the Cistercian abbey of Rushen, on the bank of the Silverburn in the parish of Kirk Malew. A pointed arch in the gable of an old house in the village shows the traditional Court House of the Abbot. The abbey ruins are over against the village on the west bank of the river; the thirteenth century Monk's Bridge is higher up. (pp. 88, 98 .)
Ballaugh (par. p. 647). A village in the parish of Ballaugh, on the inner margin of the Northern Plain, seven miles from Ramsey. The modern parish church has some ancient crosses. The old church and hamlet are on the seaward margin of the plain. (pp. 15, 20.)
Bride (par. P. 494). A small hamlet in Kirk Bride parish, four miles from Ramsey. In the modern church are some early crosses, and a very early and curious carving of Adam and Eve. Three miles from Bride is the Point of Ayre lighthouse, and the salt-pumping station.
Castletown (1817). The ancient capital of the island. It stands around Castle Rushen, on the west bank of the estuary of the Silverburn. It has a station on the railway from Douglas to Port Erin. In the market-place, or "Parade," is a pillar to the memory of Lieutenant-Governor Smelt. A mile eastward c.1 the shore of the bay are King William's College and Hango Hill. There is a good harbour, but the approach is shallow and rocky. The trade of the port is decayed. Castle Rushen, in a state of perfect preservation, is now a show-place; and contains a museum of insular antiquities, and a set of casts of all the early crosses found on the island. (pp. 20, 33, 48, 49, 50, 57, 63, 77, 78, 93, 108, 110, 135, 141.)
Colby (par. p. 784). A picturesque hamlet in a glen in the parish of Kirk Arbory. On the hills north-west are the disused lead-mines of Ballacorkish and Ballsherlogue.
Cregneish (par. P. 3241). A primitive hamlet inhabited by fishermen in the parish of Kirk Christ Rushen, on the Mull Hills overlooking the Sound and the Calf of Man. Many of the old thatched cottages are replaced by larger houses with slated roofs, but it has still some very quaint features. Near it to the north is the Mull Burial Circle; and south the Chasms and Spanish Head. (p. 1 r9.)
Cronk-y-Voddy (par. p. 1135). A chapelry in the parish of Kirk German, five miles from Peel, on the heights north-east. A straggling hamlet lines the high road where it is joined by a cross road over the mountains from the east side of the island.
Crosby (par. p. 835). A small residential village in the parish of Kirk Marown, midway between Douglas and Peel. Over the hill southward is the ancient parish church with early crosses; and a mile westward is the ruin of St Trinian's, with early crosses and fragments of Irish-Norman architecture.
Derbyhaven (par. p. ,1898). A hamlet in the parish of Kirk Malew, on the shore of Derbyhaven Bay. It was formerly a harbour of refuge for windbound vessels, and a station for the fishing fleet in the autumn herring season. At the east end of the bay is Ronaldsway House, the seat of William Christian, executed at Hango Hill in 1662. On the south side of the bay are golf-links. (pp. 29, 51, 98, 104, 108.)
Douglas (2i,101). The modern capital of the island, with Government Office, Tynwald Court, Council Chamber, Keys Chamber, Law Courts, and the Rolls and Record offices. The Governor resides two miles outside the town. A promenade two miles long lines the bay shore. There is a breakwater, a deep-water landing pier for mail and passenger steamers from Liverpool, and a good tidal harbour for vessels up to Soo tons. There are four parish churches, a Town Hall, Hospital, Public Library, two breweries, a small boat-building yard, rope-walk, and other like industries-including an establishment for the curing of kippered herrings. Near Douglas are the ruins of St Bridget's Nunnery; and the surroundings and situation of the town are very beautiful. The main source of prosperity is the attraction of the town as a watering-place; the number of passengers landed at Douglas in the year 1909 being 490,982. (PP. 20, 40, 52, 56, 57, 63, 68, 70, 77, 78, 88, 95, 103, 108, 109, 111, 112, 115, 141, 142, 154, 158.)
Foxdale (par. p. 1521). A mining village in the valley of Foxdale, or fos-dal =waterfall dale, in the parish of Kirk Patrick, on the east side of South Barule. The mines yield lead and zinc ores, with a considerable amount of silver which is separated from the lead in the process of smelting. (pp. 26, 27, 33, 83.)
Glenmeay (par. p. 1521). A hamlet in the parish of Kirk Patrick, three miles south of Peel, and near the coast. The hamlet is in a glen where the river enters a rock-worn cannon with several very beautiful waterfalls, from which it passes through a deep gorge to the sea. Much honey is harvested in the glen. The waterfalls area favourite resort of summer tourists. (p. 152.) Kirk Michael (par. p. 844). A village in the parish of Kirk Michael, near the coast, nine miles from Ramsey and seven miles from Peel. In the modern church are several ancient crosses. A mile south is Cronk Urleigh, an ancient Sheading Tynwald where a court was held in 1422. A mile east is Bishopscourt. Wood-carving for church furniture is carried on here. (PP. 4, 13, 1 5i 19, 34, 47, 6o, 61, 92, 99, 120, 144, 148, 154.)
Laxey (1500; par. p. 2529). A mining village and chapelry in the parish of Kirk Lonan, in a valley descending from the foot of Snaefell to the east coast, midway between Douglas and Ramsey. The village straggles through the glen from Laxey harbour to the Big Wheel two miles inland. The sea trade is merely that con nected with the mine. Laxey is on the electric railway from Douglas to Ramsey, and is the junction of a branch line to the Summit of Snaefell. The Big Wheel, used for pumping the mine, is 8o feet high, and the work of a local mechanic. The village, from its fine surroundings, has become a much frequented resort of summer tourists. (pp. 27, 53, 82, 92, 98-103, 154.)
Maughold (par. p. 833). A small hamlet at the parish church of Kirk Maughold, famous for its fine fourteenth century parish cross, and 37 other ancient crosses preserved in a building recently erected within the churchyard. The churchyard is five acres in area, and retains traces of a great earth dyke which formerly surrounded it. It was a place of sanctuary in early times, and is supposed to have been a mission settlement of the monks of Iona. (pp. 126, 131, 144, 150.)
Onchan (par. p. 2o99). A village, mainly residential, in the parish of Kirk Onchan, overlooking Douglas Bay at the north end. The modern church has some early crosses. Bemahague, the Government House and residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, is near the village. (pp. '98, 99, 144.)
Peel (259o). The town stands on terraced slopes, with St Patrick's Isle north-west, across the harbour. There are several seventeenth century houses, and a few eighteenth century houses of merchants engaged in the smuggling trade. The old church of St Peter at the market-place was formerly the parish church of the two parishes of Kirk German and Kirk Patrick, which derive their names from two ruined churches on St Patrick's Isle. Magnus Barefoot of Norway landed here in 1098. The estuary of the river was the wintering place of the ships of the King and Chiefs of Man. From time immemorial the port has been a herring fishery centre. The coasting trade was formerly extensive but is now decayed. The herring fishery has also decayed, and with it the making of fishing-nets; one small factory only being now at work. The town is a holiday resort, and has fine sea baths. (pp. 16, 28, 33, 43, 45, 46, 59, 63, 78, 91, 92, 94, 104 107, 108, 124-132, 133, 136, 137, 140.)
Port Erin (par. p. 3241). Formerly a hamlet of fishermen's cottages; now a watering-place and Health-resort, surrounded by fine coast scenery, in the parish of Kirk Christ Rushen. There is a Marine Biological Station and fish-hatchery, golf-course and sea-baths. Port Erin is connected with Douglas by rail. (p. 153.) Port St Mary (par. p. 3241). Formerly Port-le-Murra, once a fishing village, now a watering-place and health-resort in the parish of Kirk Christ Rushen. The coasting-trade, herring fishery, and making of nets are decayed industries, and the chief revenue of the village is derived from its attraction as a summer resort. In the neighbourhood are the Chasms and Spanish Head. (pp. 29, 31, 48, 49, 57, 63, 91, 92, 94, 98, 104-107, 118, 119, 122.)
Ramsey (4216). The town lies in the middle of the twelve mile crescent of Ramsey Bay. The Sulby river passes through the harbour, with a stone bridge at the head of the harbour and an iron swing-bridge midway. South of the harbour piers is a deep water landing-pier extending half a mile into the bay. Ramsey flourished in the eighteenth century as a smuggling depôt. It is connected with Douglas by rail, viâ St john's; and by electric rail, viâ Laxey. The port has considerable trade in the export of agricultural produce, and is the port for Foxdale mine. In the nineteenth century it had a ship-building industry. The only industry is a salt factory, where salt is made from brine pumped at the Point of Ayre and conveyed in pipes to the salt-pans in the town. The situation of Ramsey is exceedingly beautiful and it is a favourite summer visiting resort. The bay was the landing-place of Godred Crovan, Somerled, King Robert Bruce, and Colonel Duckenfield the Commander of the Parliament fleet; it was the scene of an action in which Elliott defeated and captured a French squadron under Thurot; and in later times was the landing-place of Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. (pp. 10, 18, 33, 40, 53, 58, 61, 78, 94, 100, 103, 110, 134, 141.)
St John's (par. p. 1135). A chapelry and village in the parish of Kirk German, on a plateau in the central valley of the island, eight miles from Douglas, and two miles from Peel. The plateau is occupied by Tynwald Hill and St John's Church, and by a fair-field or village green outside the Tynwald enclosure. The church is modern, but a runic cross is preserved in its porch. The neighbourhood has many remains of ancient burial mounds, among them a large stone cist, called the Giant's Grave, near Tynwald, of the Bronze period. (p. i 18.)
St Mark's (par. p. 189 8). A chapelry and hamlet in the parish of Kirk Malew. Near it are the vestiges of the Black Fort, supposed to date from the time of Magnus Barefoot's conquest of the island about 1095. This spot is one of the scenes in Scott's Peveril of the Peak.
Sulby (par. p. 1277). A chapelry and scattered village, five miles from Ramsey, on the Peel and Castletown high road, in the parish of Kirk Christ Lezayre. It is beautifully situated under hills at the mouth of Sulby Glen. It is a summer resort, chiefly for anglers; the Sulby river being an excellent trout stream. (pp. 82, 119, 133, 141.)
Union Mills (par. p. 1993). A very pretty residential village in the parish of Kirk Braddan in the central valley, three miles from Douglas. On the hill northward are the Lunatic Asylum and the Home for the Poor.
Fig. 1. Diagram showing area of the Isle of Man, as compared with that of England and Wales
Fig. 2. Diagram showing increase of population of the Isle of Man
Fig. 3. Diagram showing population in 1911 (Each dot represents 10 persons)
Fig. 4. Proportionate areas of cultivated and uncultivated land in 1909
Fig. 5. Area of Corn crops grown in 1909, compared with all other land in the Isle of Man
Fig. 6. Proportionate areas of chief cereals grown in the Isle of Man in 1909
Fig. 7. Proportionate numbers of live stock in the Isle of Man in 1909
Fig. 8. Comparative areas of the Isle of Man occupied by owners and by tenants
Fig. 9. Diagram showing various proportions of land in the Isle of Man in 1909
Clover, Sanfoin and Rotation Grasses 40,838 acres ,
Permanent Grass 20,234 acres
Corn Crops 21,965 acres