[from History of IoM, 1900]

Book V



IT is no exaggeration to say that the Manx people have made greater progress in all that appertains to civilization since 1866 than during the whole of the hundred years preceding that date. But, though we fix 1866 as a convenient period for marking the termination of what might be called the mediæval history of Man, and the beginning of its modern history, we must remember that the progress of its people began to be accelerated by the gradual breaking up of the old commercial and financial system, which was initiated in 1844 and 1863. Yet, though the advance made during the concluding years of our last period was in itself far from inconsiderable, it bears no comparison with the rapid progress, both in moral and material respects, which has taken place subsequently. How great this progress has been may be estimated from the following summary of the contrast between the state of things in 1866 and that existing at the present day. In 1866, the House of Keys was self-elected, and the antiquated system of judicature and of criminal law remained unreformed.

Comparison of the situations before 1866 and 34 years after that date.

Now there is a representative House, whose members do not require a property qualification, a liberal franchise extended to both men and women, and a system of law and judicature modernized so as to meet the requirements of the present day. In 1866, the State in Man had not begun to seriously concern itself with such matters as education and the relief of the poor, which were most inefficiently cared for. Now, it administers a thorough system of free education, and a wise and non-oppressive poor law. In 1866, sanitation was conspicuous by its absence, and the death rate was consequently very heavy. Now, the sanitation of the towns is good, and judicious sanitary measures are enforced in the country. In 1866, municipal government was little more than a name. Now, it is a reality and, owing to the energetic labours of those who have successfully wielded its authority, the towns, especially Douglas, have been extended and improved in a way which has rendered them comparable with the most advanced towns in England. In 1866, there were no regulations for compulsory vaccination, and no reliable records of births, deaths, or marriages. Now, these are all in existence. In 1866, there were neither railways nor tramways. Now, the island is well supplied with both. And, finally, in 1866, the harbours of the island were practically unprotected from inshore winds, there was no low-water landing accommodation, and for eight months in the year the mails went only four times weekly to and from its shores. Now, there are magnificent harbour works giving great, though still inadequate, protection, and nearly all the landing accommodation required, and the mails come and go on every week day throughout the year. But, it will be asked, is this the only side of the shield ? And we are bound to admit in reply that it is not. In 1866, a considerable number of retired military and naval officers, whose expenditure tended to promote a general, if moderate, well-being among the trading classes, still resided in the island. Now, in consequence of the small difference between prices in Man and in England not affording them sufficient inducement to remain, they have all departed. Their places have been taken by hordes of visitors who, coming for a limited period only, require, for the supply of their wants the temporary service of a number of household servants, car drivers, boatmen, porters, &c. These people, therefore, during the greater part of the year are thrown out of employment. Thus, though the amount of money brought by the summer visitors is far greater than that expended by the permanent residents whom they have succeeded, and, though it has enriched the steamship companies, the banks, the hotel, boarding and lodging-house keepers, the various corporations which provide recreation and amusement, the tradesmen, and, to a lesser extent, the owners and occupiers of land, the temporarily employed class referred to, which, before 1866, was almost non-existent, has created a new problem in the way of pauperism as distinct from poverty. But, after all, the adverse changes are insignificant as compared with the favourable changes, so that, speaking generally, the Manx people, except those employed in the depressed industries of fishing and mining, may justly be described as forming a prosperous community.


The condition of the Manx labourers has greatly improved since the commencement of the present period. Their receipts are greater and their expenses less 1 than they were thirty years ago. Their staple food is white bread, tea, fish, and, frequently meat; they are comfortably clothed, 2 and, as a rule, fairly well housed, though there is a regrettable tendency in Douglas to crowd them into tenements. In fact no class in the community has advanced so rapidly as they have.

Poor Relief

And yet, for the reasons already mentioned, it is during this period that the problem of the relief of the poor in the towns has become a serious one. In the country, the poor people are, in most of the parishes, well looked after by the vicars and wardens, or by their relatives and friends. But in the towns, especially in Douglas, which is the chief place of resort of the summer visitors, there are many who, during the winter, are dependent on charitable assistance. This assistance was, till recently, given by various voluntary associations, instead of one organization, in each town, the result being that many of the poor, and those often the least deserving, received much more than their share and others much less.3

Failure of the voluntary system

In 1868, the Committee of the House of Industry in Douglas declared that the amount received through the voluntary system was altogether inadequate to supply the necessities of the poor, and they suggested that a canvass should be made to discover whether the popular feeling was in favour of a poor rate or not. The canvass was accordingly made, with the result that the large majority voted against any changes. Although, in 1869, a system of voluntary poor relief was organized in Ramsey, nothing in this direction was done in Douglas till 1880, when, as a result of the report of the " Poor Relief Medical Aid " Commission, a Poor Relief Board, called the " Central Relief," was elected. 4 The effect of this new departure was only to stave off for a time the necessity for a poor law. Apart from the inadequacy of the funds at its disposal, 5 the grave defect of the voluntary system was the want of organization for the medical relief of the poor.

Walpole's proposals

At last, in 1887, Governor Walpole, who truly declared that the system of poor relief in Douglas had " drifted on, not because its resources have been adequate to its requirements, but because its expenditure has been reduced to the lowest possible sum consistent with decency," 6 made the following proposals for dealing with the question : (1) Poor relief to be granted. (2) Last three years’ settlement to decide where it should be granted. (3) The Tynwald Court to have power, on the recommendation of the governor, to declare by resolution that any town or parish is not making adequate provision for the relief of its poor. (4) A committee 7 to be elected by the ratepayers of such district, such committee to make an estimate of the sum they consider necessary for the relief of the poor, and to hand over that estimate to the Asylums Board to collect the necessary rate for them. (5) A Poor Asylum to be provided the cost of which is to be paid for out of the general revenue. 8 A Bill embodying these proposals was introduced, and became law in 1888.9

A permissive poor law is introduced

The towns of Douglas and Ramsey at once took advantage of the new system, and they were followed by the town of Castletown in 1895, and by several of the country parishes since that date. The management of the Poor Asylum, or " Home for the Poor " as it is now called, is vested in the Asylums Board. 10 Poor people, whether belonging to the declared districts or not, can be admitted to the Home for the Poor on payment by the district to which they belong of a charge equivalent to the average cost of maintenance.11 This permissive system of poor law has, on the whole, worked very well.12

Provident and industrial societies

Further legislation, which mainly benefited the poorer classes, has been directed to dealing with the industrial and provident societies.13 In the past much has been done by benefit societies, but many of the old parish clubs had either ceased to exist, or were on a very unsatisfactory footing, the proportion of old to young members being too great. There was also need of public and official inquiries into their financial condition for which provision was made.


It was not till 1872, when the insular Legislature passed the Public Elementary Education Act,14 that the State undertook any direct responsibility for education. This Act was, in the main, on the lines of the English Act of 1870, though there were some important differences. The most remarkable feature of the Manx Act, from a constitutional standpoint, is the fact that it incorporates the code, for the time being, of the English Education Department. This is effected by the simple method of requiring that the conditions to be fulfilled by an insular school, in order to obtain a Government grant shall be those contained in the minutes of the Education Depart-ment. 15 In this way education in the island is saved from becoming local in its character, and from falling below the standard prevailing in England. The Manx schools are, in effect, included in the great system governed by the Education Department at Whitehall. The same subjects are taught in them, the same inspectors visit them, and they are compelled to attain the same standard of efficiency as the English and Welsh schools. It was a masterly stroke of policy, and one of the many evidences of the statesmanlike character of the then governor (Loch), the author of the Act. The Manx schools are subject to the control of a central board, called, since 1899, the " Council of Education," which is elected by and is responsible to the Tynwald Court. There are three striking differences between the English and Manx Acts, each of which is worthy of notice. In England and Wales School Boards did not universally spring into existence upon the passing of the Act. Their creation depended upon the supply of school accommodation in the district. If this, after enquiry, was found to be inadequate, the district in default was required by the Department to supply the deficiency, and, if it failed to do so, a School Board was formed. In the Isle of Man, on the other hand, every town and parish was at once constituted a School District, under a School Board.16 Amongst the duties imposed upon the School Boards was that of enforcing the attendance of children at school. This suggests the second of the differences referred to, i.e., that by the passing of the Manx Act the attendance of children became ipso facto compulsory, the Act emphatically proclaiming the obligation of all parents to make their children attend school, and providing summary punishment in case of default. It was not until 1876 that the Imperial Parliament passed a measure to ensure the enforcement of this duty.17 The third point of difference, to which we shall refer, is one of far-reaching importance. The omission from the English Act of all obligation upon School Boards to teach religion, although, provided no distinctive formularies were used, such teaching was permissible, gained for the English Board Schools, though in most instances unjustly, the name of secular or " godless " schools. The prejudice thus created cannot be said to be as yet altogether extinct. In the Isle of Man this difficulty was avoided by a provision obliging every elementary school, those in connexion with the Church of Rome excepted, to provide for non-sectarian instruction in religious subjects, and for the reading of the Bible, accompanied by suit-able explanation. It may fairly be said that this provision has done much to reconcile the people of the island to a system of undenominational education. 18 Striking evidence of this is to be found in the fact that no less than 17 of the 28 schools existing at the date of the Act of 1872 have been transferred to the School Boards.19

We have thus seen that the Isle of Man was a pioneer in the educational field in several important respects. But this was not the case in free, or, more properly speaking, gratuitous education, Eng-land taking the lead in 1891, and being followed by the island in 1892. 20 The desire for more advanced education than that provided by the ordinary elementary schools, which has impelled so many of the large School Boards in England to establish " higher grade " schools, has shown itself also in the Isle of Man, and Douglas now possesses a school of this description, containing more than 300 boys and girls. Part of this institution is an organized school of science, conducted under the regulations of the " Science and Art " department. 21 The progress in education since 1872 has been most marked. The attendance has increased enormously in almost every district,22 and the accommodation provided, as well as the equipment of the schools has exhibited the most decided improvement. Douglas, besides its " higher grade " school, has three large elementary schools of the most approved modern pattern, and there are also some excellent school buildings in the country. Nor should we forget the fine schools which have been recently erected in Peel by the munificence of the Clothworkers Company in connexion with Philip Christian’s ancient foundation 23 Of the high standard of the education given in the Manx Schools, the very favourable reports of Her Majesty’s inspectors, together with the facts that both the percentage of attendance at them, and the average amount of the Government grant paid for this attendance per child are greater than in the English and Welsh schools, afford ample proof. 24


Since 1866, the prices of such commodities as beef, mutton,25 and pork, have advanced, while those of butter and poultry have not altered much, and bread, groceries, and clothes are cheaper.


Wages have increased to a much greater extent than prices, competent married farm servants (men) getting from £36 to £40 a year, with a free house, a ton or two of coals and other advantages. Un-married men and lads get from £15 to £21 a year with their keep, and farm servant girls from £8 to £12. Without keep, the usual wage of an unmarried farm man or lad varies from £30 to £40 a year. The wages of domestic servants have also considerably increased. Carpenters earn from 30s. to 32s. per week, mechanics from 28s. to 34s., masons 30s., plasterers 34s., painters 28s., plumbers 32s., black-smiths 30s., ordinary job labourers about 3s. a day in the country, and as much as 3s. 4d. in the towns.

Comparisons of the position of the labourer at different periods.

To compare the position of the Manx labourer during the various periods between the fourteenth century and the present day would be both interesting and instructive ; but, unfortunately, the accessible statistics relating to this subject are hardly precise enough to found definite conclusions upon. However, estimating the cost of the food of an adult labourer, at the present time, at 16d. a day, his wages being 3s., we think it probable that he is better off than his predecessors were, except possibly during the period between 1350 and 1500. We append a note on the approximate rate of wages and cost of food since 1350.26


The towns, especially Douglas, have made enormous advances since 1866. New streets have been opened out, insanitary areas have been done away with, systems of sewerage have been constructed, and municipal self-government has become a reality instead of little more than a sham.


Let us first briefly trace the chief steps in the advance of Douglas. In 1867, its houses were, for the first time, numbered uniformly. In the following year its main sewerage works were completed. In 1875, the fine new street, called Victoria Street, was completed ; 27 and, in 1878, the Loch Promenade, built on the foreshore, which gave the town a magnificent new frontage to the sea, was opened.28 In 1882, the commissioners received additional powers, especially with regard to buildings and sanitary matters, but they were limited to a shilling rate 29 till 1884, when it was increased to one shilling and threepence.30 In that year, too, their powers were again enlarged, especially with regard to precautions against the spreading of infectious disease. In 1886, by the Local Government Act, 31 the Town Commissioners got unlimited rating powers, and, subject to the approval of the Tynwald Court, unlimited borrowing powers. Subject to the same control, they also obtained increased powers for acquiring gas and water undertakings, and for making bye -laws ; and, in the same year, by the passage of the Foreshore Act, they became absolute owners of the foreshore.32 At the same time, too, the town was divided into six wards, with three commissioners for each. In 1889, by the Douglas Improvement Act, the commissioners were authorized to declare areas unhealthy, and to make schemes for their improvement (being, for these purposes, invested with enlarged powers to take land compulsorily) , and were required to provide dwellings for as many of the working classes as the Tynwald Court should think necessary.33 In 1890, the Douglas Water and Loans Act authorized the creation of stock to the extent of £217,500, of which £144,000 was spent in acquiring the property of the Waterworks Company.34 In that year, too, an Act was passed which permitted the Town Commissioners to close all private slaughter-houses in the town, when they had provided a public slaughter-house. 35 This they promptly proceeded to do. In 1892, the Tynwald Court approved of a scheme to re-move a large number of insanitary buildings, and lay out new streets,36 and this work has since been carried out. 37

In 1895, came the incorporation of the town, by which it was created a municipal borough, with eighteen councillors, six aldermen, and a mayor. The councillors are elected by the burgesses for three years, the aldermen by the council of the borough for six years, and the mayor by the alder-men and councillors for one year. Provisions were made for the appoinment of a town clerk and for the retirement every year of one councillor from each ward (there being six wards as before) and of three aldermen every third year.38 In the same year, an Act was passed establishing a public cemetery for the borough.39

Other Towns

It is impossible here to enter into details with regard to the other towns, but, generally speaking, it may be said that they are all vastly superior as regards sanitation, and the appearance of their streets and buildings to what they were thirty years ago. Ramsey, in particular, has developed very rapidly of late years.40 Peel and Castletown obtained town commissioners in 1881. The villages of Port St. Mary, Port Erin, and Conchan have also greatly increased, having been declared village districts, the first two in 1890, and the last in 1896.


The police force has both improved in efficiency and increased in numbers, there now being 57 constables. These suffice for the needs of the island during the greater part of the year, but are quite incapable of dealing with the great numbers of visitors in the summer. To enable them to do so additional constables have recently been obtained, for temporary service, from elsewhere. Prison accommodation was very inadequate before the new prison, near Douglas, which has all the most recent improvements was finished in 1891.41 Till that year, the only prison was the old Castle Rushen, where it was impossible to adopt the system of solitary confinement in its full extent ; and, indeed, it had been palpable for many years past, that the state of things existing there was, from the point of view both of humanity and of the maintenance of proper prison discipline, intolerable. In 1886, it was condemned by the official inspector, Sir E. Du Cane ; and, in 1887, a motion was passed in the Tynwald Court in favour of a new prison.


It was not till the year 1869 that accurate criminal statistics were kept. The result of them is to show that serious crime is very rare. During the last ten years (1890-99) , for instance, there have been no convictions for murder, only three for manslaughter and five for criminal assault. The number both of indictable and of summary offences increased up to 1885, but since then they have decreased. Offences against the town bye-laws have also decreased. 42 These facts, especially when taken in connexion with the increased numbers and greater activity of the police, are very satisfactory.

The percentages of illegitimate births have continued at much the same level, though with a slight tendency to decrease.43


Drunkenness still continues much too common. Judging by the number of cases tried, it increased up to 1885, when the maximum number, 855, was attained. Since then it has decreased rapidly, the number in 1899 having been 526, as compared with 556 in 1866. Taking five-year periods, from 1867 to 1891, the cases tried number 419, 446, 763, 792, and 719 respectively, and, during the last eight years, the average number has been 618. Considering the increase both of the permanent population and the number of visitors, the percentage for the last period does not vary much from that of the first. But this percentage is, unfortunately, much above that of Great Britain and Ireland, since we find that, if the average number of cases tried in Man had been in the same proportion as in Great Britain and Ireland in 1890, 43 their total would have been only 467, or, including visitors, 579. 44 Licensing legislation since 1867 has been mainly confined to assimilating the Manx law to the English, though the Isle of Man still continues to close its public-houses to all, except bona fide travellers, on Sundays.45 In 1894, licenses for the sale of beer during certain hours in registered boarding-houses were legalized 46 by an Act which has since expired and has not been renewed. In 1895, the issue of licences was committed to newly constituted licensing courts, in the appointment of whose members the principle of popular election was partially recognized. A Licensing Board was formed in each of the four districts, which remained as before,47 consisting of the high-bailiff, the justices and captains of the parishes 48 (who were members of the old court) and, in addition, of the members of the House of Keys and the chairman of the town 49 and village commissioners within the district. It was provided that each Board should annually elect six of its members to form the Licensing Court for the district, the seventh member, the high-bailiff, being chairman ex-officio. Further, a general Court of Appeal was established, consisting of the four high-bailiffs and five elected members, two chosen by the Board of the Douglas district and one by each of the other Boards. From the decision of this court there is no appeal, except on a question of law. The district courts were, in the same year, permitted to substitute short-term licences for general public-house licences if they saw fit ; 50 and, in 1898, the sale of intoxicating liquors to persons under fourteen years of age was prohibited.51


The sanitary conditions, especially of the towns, at the beginning of the period, were still very unsatisfactory, and the continued efforts of Governor Loch to improve them met with determined opposition in the Legislature.

The Common Lodging Houses Act of 1865 was evaded to such an extent that the small lodging-houses in Douglas and the other towns continued to be in a bad state till 1878, when this Act was amended. 52 In 1880, a Bill dealing with sanitary matters was rejected by the Keys, and it was not till 1884 that such questions as the formation of sanitary districts, the disposal of sewerage, scavenging and cleaning, public nuisances, offensive trades, unsound meat and infectious diseases were at all adequately dealt with.53 The Act passed in that year was repealed two years later by the Local Government Act, which consolidated and amended all previous Acts relating to sanitary administration. 54 From this date a rapid improvement set in, stringent regulations being made about the supply of water, the licences for slaughter-houses 55 and the erection of public slaughter-houses. In 1894, the sanitary condition of the towns had greatly advanced, but that of the country was still unsatisfactory. To deal with it an Act was passed which constituted parish and village districts, with commissioners to be elected by the people, who had, in conjunction with a new central Board, elected by the Tynwald Court, called the " Local Government Board," and an inspector appointed by it, to attend to all sanitary questions and infectious diseases throughout the country.56

With a similar object, Acts have been passed for the prevention of the adulteration of food and drink, public analysts being appointed to detect any breaches of the law in this respect, 57 for the regulation of the composition of bread 58 and for the provision of vaccination and the suppression of the practice of inoculation.59 The last Act, however, which was passed in 1876, did not make vaccination compulsory, this not being done till two years later,60 after the Keys had been alarmed by the outbreak of small-pox in 1877.

There were outbreaks of small-pox in 1865, 1869, 1871, and 1877, but, since vaccination has been made compulsory, it has practically disappeared.

In 1888, a fever hospital was established at the " White Hoe," near Douglas.

We may note that the public security has also been cared for by Acts dealing with the safe custody of dangerous goods. 61 As a result of these measures, health has very greatly improved. The death rate, which between 1879 and 1898 62 averaged 20·0 per thousand, was 20·6 during the first five years, and 19·2 during the last five.63


The population has not increased much since 1869, its natural growth being almost counter-balanced by a small, but steady, emigration. The most remarkable thing about the population is the way in which it has moved from the country into the towns, or rather into Douglas. Thus, in 1871, the population of the country was 30,303, and of the towns, 23,739 ; whereas, in 1891, that of the former was 25,408, and that of the latter 30,200. Douglas has increased from 13,972 to 19,525 ; Ramsey from from 3,934 to 4,866, and Peel from 3,573 to 3,631,64 while Castletown has fallen from 2,320 to 2,178.


Insular trade has greatly grown and prospered, though in some directions, owing to undue stimulation, its prosperity has been more apparent than real.

Has greatly increased

Its growth is shown by the statistics relating to the increase of the tonnage of the vessels entering the Manx ports, to the returns from the railways and tramways, to the deposits, &c., in the banks, to the number and capital of public companies registered as carrying on business in the island,65 and to the enormous increase in the rateable value of the towns, especially Douglas.66 A severe check has, however, been given to it by the failure of Dumbell’s Bank in February, 1900.

Till about 1878, the exports of cattle, turnips, hay, butter, and eggs largely exceeded the imports, but, since that date, the tendency is for the imports of all such commodities, except turnips, to exceed the exports by a steadily increasing amount, and, of late years, notwithstanding the largely increased pro-duction of fruit, flowers, and vegetables in the island, considerable quantities of these commodities have also been imported.

Let us briefly note the chief events which have marked the expansion of Manx trade.

Public Works.

In the first place, our attention is claimed by the public works which have been completed since 1866. In 1870, the internal telegraphic communication, which had hitherto been confined to Douglas and Ramsey, was extended to Castletown and Peel. In 1873, the Victoria Pier in Douglas was completed. Railways have been made between Douglas and Peel (finished in 1873) ; between Douglas, Castletown, and Port Erin (in 1874) ; between Ramsey and St. John’s, connecting with the Peel line at the latter place (in 1877), and between Foxdale and St. John’s (in 1886). Tramways were laid along Douglas Bay 67 (in 1883) ; between Douglas and Laxey, 67 (in 1895) ; between Laxey and the summit 68 of Snaefell (in 1896) ; 69 in Douglas 70 (in 1897), and between Laxey and Ramsey 69 (in 1898).


We may also mention that a line of steamers began running between Douglas and Barrow, in the summer months in 1874, and that, since then, the ports to and from which there is summer traffic by steamer have become more numerous, and the numbers, speed, and dimensions of the steamers 71 engaged in this traffic has largely increased.

Trade legislation

Another evidence of the progress of Manx trade may be seen in the legislation which its expansion has rendered necessary. Bankruptcy Acts were passed in 1872 and 1892,72 the latter of which took the control of the debtor’s estates out of the hands of the creditors and gave it to the court. It cannot, however, be said that the Manx law relating to bankruptcy is altogether satisfactory. In 1872 and 1884, 73 there was further legislation with reference to Joint Stock Companies ; 74 in 1880, provisions were made for the local inspection and verification of weights and measures, it being enacted that Manx 72 weights and measures were to be made uniform with those throughout the United Kingdom.75 In 1884, an Act was passed to codify the law relating to bills of exchange, cheques, and promissory notes.76 In 1885 and 1898, the fraudulent marking of merchandize was dealt with ;77 in 1892, a duty on the registration of Limited Liability Companies was imposed ; 78 and, in 1895, the law relating to the sale of goods was codified.79 There were also numerous Acts regulating the railways and tramways. Trade legislation is, however, still very much behind that of England.


Since labour has become dearer and scarcer, Manx textile industries have, generally speaking, been in a declining position, being unable to compete with the larger and more completely organized manufactories elsewhere. The principal manufactured articles are woollen cloths and blankets, hemp ropes, flax sail-cloth, and cotton herring nets. Though the quantity of these goods exported is greater than before 1866, their local consumption, except in the case of herring nets, has shrunk to very small dimensions.

Respecting other industries there is little to record. 80

Since the introduction of iron ships, shipbuilding has been mainly confined to the production of herring thing vessels of a large and fine class. Brewing, stimulated by the large summer demand of the visitors, has flourished. There are fewer breweries than formerly but these few are, compared with their predecessors, large and well organized concerns.

The "visiting" industry. 

But there is one industry, for so it may really be called, that of provision for summer visitors, which, since 1866, has taken vast strides. Between that year and 1873, when the Victoria Pier was opened, the average annual number of visitors was estimated at 60,000. In 1873, there were about 90,000 ; in 1877, 86,350 ; in 1880, 92,765. By 1884, this number was nearly doubled, with 182,669, and this was again the case in 1887, when 347,968 came.81

This was, for some time, the highest number reached, the numbers falling back in the interval between 1887 and 1896, but, in the latter year, the total rose to 361,362, and, in 1899, it was 418,142.

The Commission appointed to enquire into the condition of local industries and the feasibility of extending them has, in 1900, reported with reference to industries other than agricultural, fishing, mining, and the " visiting " as follows :— " We are of opinion that, owing to the great demand for labour in connexion with the successful visiting industry, and the consequent difficulty in obtaining it for other industries that, with the possible exception of forestry, market gardening, poultry-keeping, and bee-keeping, which could be carried on to a greater extent than at present, by the better application of the labour at present available, without any appreciable addition to its amount, the extension of the present industries of the Island is impracticable.

" To the introduction of new industries, with the exception of such industries as might be pursued during the winter, to which we refer below, the same objection applies.

" We would also point out that apart from lead and copper ores, barley, and wood, the Isle of Man produces scarcely any raw material for manufactures, so that, except perhaps in spinning and weaving wool and in distilling whisky, it could not compete with English and Scotch manufacturing centres, where they have coal on the spot, together with a steady support of labour and enormous capital to establish large concerns, which can work much more cheaply than smaller ones. To set against these advantages we have only excellent water power. Besides woollen manufacturing and distilleries, which would be hampered by the difficulty in obtaining a steady supply of labour, the only industries which would have any chance of success would be art industries : wood-carving, fancy articles in brass and iron, embroidery, &c., which could be carried on in the people’s homes during the Winter—such industries, in fact, as the Isle of Man Guild has been endeavouring, with indifferent success, to promote during the last ten years. To render them commercially successful it is absolutely necessary that such industries should have sufficient artistic merit to enable them to command prices sufficient to compensate for their only being carried on part of the year."


During this period the revenue has grown from £44,356, in 1867, to £82,485 in 1900, though, at the same time, the debt has increased from £46,191, in 1870, to £186,322, in 1900.82

But the value obtained in public works has far exceeded the amount of the debt, since, between 1866 and 1893, more than £400,000 has been spent on harbours, 83 and more than £60,000 on public buildings, and this, of course, is in addition to defraying the ordinary expenses of government, some of which, as we shall see, have largely increased in the interval. Though part of the growth of revenue is due to increased taxation, more of it has undoubtedly arisen from the expansion of insular trade and wealth.

Compared at different periods

In considering the state of the finances we may conveniently divide this period into three parts : viz., the administration of Governor Loch till 1882, that of Governor Walpole till 1893, and that of their successors tò the present time. In 1867, the revenue was £44,356, and there was a balance of cash in excess of debt amounting to £13,539. On the other hand, there had been no important addition 84 to harbour and other public works for many years. In 1882, the revenue was £51,058,85 and the debt was £135,797, but more than £253,000 had been spent on harbour works alone.86

In 1893, the revenue was £72,302, the debt £209,560, and more than £188,000 had (since 1882), been spent on harbour and other public works. 87 In 1900, the revenue and debt are, as already stated. About £86,000 has (since 1893) been spent on public works.

It will probably be interesting to indicate the main sources of the customs’ revenue and how they have varied during the last thirty years. 88 Spirituous liquors of various kinds form the largest item, the amount of revenue obtained from them having increased from £23,205 in 1870, to £48,199 in 1900, the consumption having risen from 67,929 gallons in 1867, to 78,674 gallons in 1900. This, considering the very large growth in the number of visitors, does not indicate much alteration in the consumption per head of the population. The change in popular taste is indicated by the large increase in the amount of whisky consumed, and the decrease in the amount of rum. The largest gain is that from tobacco, which gave £9,289 in 1870, and £19,680 in 1895, the quantities having increased from 76,656 lbs. in 1867, to 105,306 lbs. in 1890.89 Tea also shows an enormous increase, giving £6,671 in 1895, as compared with £3,888 in 1870 ; while the quantity has increased from 236,358 lbs. in 1867, to 353,230 lbs. in 1890.90 The duty on beer, too, is now a considerable item.


The post-office continues, as before, to be worked by the Imperial authorities ; it is not known what revenue they derive from it. In 1872, the Isle of Man Telegraph Company was wound up and taken over by them.

In 1879, a daily mail throughout the year was commenced, and, since then, the number of letters and telegrams has largely increased and greater postal facilities have been granted.


Since 1866, the duties on spirits have been considerably increased, 91 and a smaller increase has been imposed on the tobacco and wine duties. The duty on coffee has almost disappeared, and those on sugar and corn have been entirely removed, while that on tea remained at the same level till 1900, when it was increased.

In 1874, a duty was placed on Manx brewed beer, and, in the same year, harbour dues were imposed.

Local rates.

Of the general local rates, those for lunatics and highways have practically remained stationary, while that for education has largely increased, and a rate for poor relief in certain districts was levied for the first time in 1890. The rates in the towns have enormously increased. 92


The ordinary expenditure has gradually risen from £35,000 in 1867, to £72,636 in 1900. Its chief items, apart from the annual payment of £10,000 to the Imperial Exchequer, are the cost of collection of the Customs (including the salaries of the revenue officers), the salaries and pensions on the Civil List, the cost of the police force and gaol, the interest on and repayment of debt,93 the maintenance of and repair of harbours 93 and the cost of public education.93 It will be seen, from the figures given below, 94 that the amounts paid for the collection of Customs and for the Civil List have, as the result of good management and the doing away with superfluous officials, been somewhat reduced, though the salaries of most of the remaining officials have been Considerably increased. 95 The cost of the police has, on the other hand, been largely increased, but more than a corresponding gain both in numbers and efficiency has resulted.

Loan improvements

The interest on and the repayment of debt, by reason of Governor Walpole’s . loan arrangements stood at the fixed sum of £10,376 from 1884 to 1889, it then advanced until, in 1892, it reached the sum of £15,672, at which it still remains.


The necessity of obtaining sufficient money for the improvement of the harbours was one of the main causes which brought about the constitutional changes of 1866.96 The greatest need was that of landing accommodation, at all states of the tide, for the rapidly increasing passenger traffic at Douglas, and this was supplied by the pier, afterwards called the Victoria Pier, which was commenced in 1867, being opened for traffic in 1871, and completed in 1873. In 1872, the Harbour Board became responsible to the Tynwald Court,96 which, consequently, gained control over the insular harbours. One of the court’s first actions was to obtain an Imperial Act enabling it to levy harbour dues, 97 a proceeding which was received with dissatisfaction by the Manx fishermen who thought it very unfair that dues should be levied upon ports, such as Peel and.Port St. Mary, where insufficient protection was afforded to the fishing boats.

The fishermen object to harbour dues

They appointed a deputation 98 to meet the governor at Tynwald on the 5th of July, and about four hundred fishermen. accompanied it.99 The governor told them that there was no intention of re-imposing harbour dues, except in those places where large sums of money had been expended out of public funds ; and that, when proposals for improvements of the ports of Peel and Port St. Mary were brought forward in a proper manner,100 they would receive careful attention. With this promise they were appeased, and, indeed, no harbour dues were levied for some years later. Nothing was done, however, for the Peel and Port St. Mary harbours, 101 and so, in 1880, about a thousand fishermen made a demonstration at Tynwald and presented a memorial to the governor. The governor replied that the Isle of Man Loans Act, 102 which would enable money to be raised in England for harbour works, had been passed by Parliament, and that the Committee of the Tynwald Court which had been appointed to enquire what improvements were required in the harbours would shortly issue its report.

New harbour works

In this a breakwater at Peel, a pier at Port St. Mary and Ramsey, and some changes in Castletown harbour, were recommended. All these works have since been carried out. The Bill referred to had been passed as one of the consequences of the part-settlement of the question of the Port Erin breakwater, which, from 1870 to 1879, disturbed the cordial relations of the island with the Imlperial Government During that period this question was of absorbing interest to Manxmen, but it may now be relegated to obscurity with a very brief mention. It will be remembered that, as stated in a former chapter,103 the breakwater was commenced in 1864. In 1868, it was damaged by a storm, and, in the following year, Governor Loch persuaded an unwilling Tynwald Court into granting a sum of £13,000 to enable the necessary repairs to be done and the breakwater to be completed. 104

By 1870, it had become evident that the dues would not even pay for the maintenance of the breakwater. Under these circumstances, the Imperial Government, on the plea that it had been misled about the amount of dues likely to be received for the use of the harbour, demanded that the island should be responsible for the whole loan. It admitted that it was legally liable for this amount, but declared that the Manx Legislature was morally liable. To this the Tynwald Court replied that, since the work had been largely undertaken to provide a refuge for the Imperial shipping, and not exclusively for the fishing fleet of the island, the insular revenue was not liable for the money expended there. Neither side would give way. Finally, in 1875, the Imperial authorities offered to " concede " certain claims made by the Tynwald Court, which included rating of the insular crown lands, the refunding of duties paid in England on goods afterwards imported to the island, and an additional payment by the Post Office towards a daily mail, on condition that its terms, as regards the Port Erin loan, were accepted. But the Tynwald Court declined, and so the Government refused to sanction any further expenditure on public works and denied all further borrowing facilities.

For four years longer nothing was done, though there were lengthy negotiations, and it was not till 1879 that the question was settled on the following basis :—

(1) The claim of £58,200 to be liquidated by a payment of £23,000.

(2) The island to be credited with £2,000 per annum, which was the estimated amount of English duty paid on goods imported.

(3) The island to be granted freer borrowing powers ; and (4) to have a daily mail.

We may add that the breakwater was again damaged in 1882 ; that, in 1883, £2,955 was voted by the Tynwald Court for its repair ; and that it was finally destroyed in 1884, after having cost the island £45,600,105 to say nothing of the resulting damage to Port Erin bay.

Passenger tax and harbour dues imposed

In 1883, the revenue of the Harbour Board received a considerable addition by the imposition of a tax of one penny on every passenger landed in the island, 106 and, in 1885, harbour dues were again charged. 107

Further new works

In 1886, the extension of the Victoria Pier, for which £52,500 had been voted, was begun. It was finished five years later. Other extensive works which have been carried out are the Battery Pier at Douglas, the breakwater at Peel, the Alfred Pier at Port St. Mary, and the Queen’s low-water landing pier at Ramsey.


At the beginning of this period there was a good deal of agitation on the subject of the highway-rate, especially with regard to the unjust charge of 3s. on each house in Douglas, irrespective of its value. Several bills relating to the subject were discussed by the Keys, but nothing was done till 1874, when an Act was passed giving power to levy a general rate, not exceeding 3d. in the £ on all real estate, except in Douglas and Ramsey, and also to levy a drainage rate.108 In 1891, the policy of granting money from the revenue for the opening out new roads, chiefly for the benefit of visitors, was proposed by Governor Walpole, and it was initiated in 1893 by a grant of £2,000 for that purpose. 109

The amount of the highway rate has not varied since 1874, but, owing to the increase in the receipts from duties on carriages and dogs and from public-house and other licences, the total sum at the disposal of the Board is greater, rising from £6,677 in 1879 to £9,562 in 1899.

This has, of course, enabled the roads to be kept in better condition than formerly, though there is still room for improvement, especially as regards the secondary roads, which are mainly used by farmers.


Progress in various directions, not already indicated, is shown by the passage of Acts relating to the protection of women and girls,110 to the prevention of cruelty to animals,111 to the prevention of accidents in merchant shipping, 112 to the regulation of industrial provident societies,113 and to the care of ancient monuments.114

Under this heading we may also mention the transference of the sittings of the Legislature and of the chief law courts, and the removal of the insular Records, to Douglas, and the provision of lifeboats and rocket-brigades for all the towns.


We shall deal very briefly with the history of the Church and the Nonconformists since 1866. Both have made rapid progress, but, especially in Douglas, it has been, perhaps, rather more marked in the case of the latter than of the former.


Church building

Church building has gone on steadily. Not only are there additional churches in the towns of Ramsey and Peel, and new parish churches in Braddan, Bride, and Patrick, while in Douglas, a new and commodious building has taken the place of the old St. Matthew’s Church, but such places as Port Erin, Port St. Mary, and Foxdale have been provided with chapels.

Theological college

In 1878, the " Sodor and Man Theological School " was established by Bishop Hill, in connexion with King William’s College, for the training of candidates for orders in this diocese, so that the design of Bishop Barrow, which the foundation of King William’s College had not entirely carried out, might be accomplished. In 1889, the theological school was transferred by Bishop Bardsley to Bishop’s Court, under the title of " Bishop Wilson’s Theological School," and it has since been affiliated to Durham University.

Incomes of the clegy.

During the last few years, owing to the low price of corn, the incomes of the clergy have been greatly reduced, and, as the cost of living has increased, they are, at present, very inadequately provided for. Efforts have been made to assist, them by the establishment of a " Church Sustentation Fund," in 1894, through the exertions of Bishop Straton, 115 and by the re-introduction of the old custom of " Easter offerings." 116 The bishop has had also to submit to the reduction of his income. By the " Bishops Temporalities Act," in 1878, it was arranged that, if the bishop’s income amounted to £2,500 or more, he was to pay £500 to trustees to form a fund for the augmentation of benefices, but, if his income were less than £2,500, he had only to pay as much as it exceeded £2,000. As, however, his tithe has been affected in the same way as that of the clergy, there has, latterly, been no surplus available. Among other things indicating Church progress we may mention the issue of a Diocesan Calendar in 1880, and of a Magazine in 1890. A Diocesan conference was held in 1880, and, since 1893, it has been annual.


This, as will be seen from the statistics given in Appendix F, has been a period of activity in church building among the various Nonconformist denominations. The Baptists have become numerous enough to form a distinct congregation, but the Unitarians have disappeared. Among the Wesleyan and Primitive Methodists, in particular, there has been a great development of open-air services in the country.

This period has also been marked by legislation in the direction of giving Nonconformists equal rights with Churchmen. The Civil Registration Act of 1876 formed regular civil registration districts, where registration is made compulsory ; 117 and, in 1885, this Act was amended by a provision that the presence of a Registrar is not necessary at a marriage in a registered building.118 By the Burials Act of 1881 burials might take place in churchyards without the rites of the Church of England ; 119 and, in 1899, any burial service, provided it be " Christian," was permitted in the mortuary chapels connected with the burial grounds of two of the largest parishes.

The good feeling existing between Churchmen and Nonconformists prior to 1866 has, we believe, been fairly well maintained since that date. We can, at least, confidently state that there is a marked absence of the antagonism which still exists in some parts of England.

At the present time there are 2,030 members of the Roman Catholic Church in the island,120 most of them being of Irish birth or descent.




Paid up capital


weight of goods carried

Goods Receipts

Working Expenditure

Net receipts

proportion of W.E. to G.R.


























































































* The excellent " Statistical Abstract," formerly published by the Insular Government, has not been issued since 1896, so that there has been a difficulty in procuring some of the recent statistics.



1 See pp. 696-8 for prices and wages. We should note that, since 1893, his expenses have been decreased by the grant of free education.

2 If a Manx child is seen without shoes or stockings, it is almost certainly from choice and not from necessity.

3 In fact, as reported by the Poor Relief Commission in 1878, each charitable body acted independently, and was made the prey of professional paupers who get more than their full share, whereas the modest and retiring poor suffered (Manx Blue Book).

4 It worked on something like the Ebberfeld voluntary system.

5 It was calculated that, in 1885, the most pressing cases of distress cost £900, while the subscriptions only amounted to £600.

6 Isle of Man Times.

7 Now " the Board of Guardians of the Poor."

8 It cost about £12,000.

9 Statutes, voi. vi. pp. 55—62 Further Acts followed in 1889, 1893, and 1900. (Ibid., pp. 104—6 and 524—44).

10 The Lunatic Asylum Committee having thus two institutions under its management received this name.

11 About 4s. 8d. a week.










































1,036 (c)






. . .











193 (d)

( a) Inclusive of those in Home for the Poor, which increased from an average of 60·4 in 1893 to 107·75 in 1899.

(b) Exclusive of a grant in aid of £2i50 a year from the Revenue to the Home for the Poor.

(c) Including £469 for payment of debt.

(d) 1899, German, £122 ; Lonan, £312.

13 An Act to provide for the incorporation, management, and winding up of Industrial and Provident Societies (1888), repealed in 1892, by the Industrial and Building Societies Act (Statutes, vol. vi. pp. 85-94 and 405-34).

14 Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 57-93. We are indebted for the substance of this section to Mr. G. A. Ring, who has done so much for Manx education during the last eighteen years.

15 For the time being.

16 Then and until 1899 called " School Committee."

17 Under the Imperial Act of 1870 there was no national obligation as to attendance at school, it being left to the option of School Boards to make by-laws on the subject if they chose.

18 It should be observed, however, that when a school was transferred, the privilege was, in most cases, reserved (by the condition of the transfer) to the clergyman of the parish in which the school was situated of giving religious instruction at certain , times, which might be denominational in character.

19 There are now 53 schools, 42 Board, and 11 Denominational. Of the latter 6 belong to the Church of England, 3 to the Wesleyans, and 2 to the Roman Catholics.

20 Statutes, vol. vi. pp. 379-88. The passage of this Act was largely due to the influence of Sir Spencer Walpole, the then governor. In 1893, the Education Acts were consolidated and amended. Among other changes, the age of compulsory attendance was, except under certain conditions, raised to 14 (Ibid., pp. 454-508).

21 A " School of Art " was established in Douglas by voluntary effort in 1879.



Amount of Grant from Revenue.




















23 See Book II. p. 472.





Manx Schools

English and Welsh Schools

Percentage of attendance



Government grant per child

£0 19s. 84d

£0 19s. 4d.

25 Beef and mutton about 9d. Pork, 5d. to 6d. Butter from 1s. to 1s. 3d. Poultry, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Bread 6d. for the 41b. loaf.



Per Diem.



(1) ApproximateWages.

(2) Approximatecost of food.

Proportion of(2) to (1).





2 to5




1 to 2




1 to 2




7 to 16




1 to 2




7 to 12




5 to 8




1 to 2




1 to 2




4 to 9

Wages in 1898 are as 29 to 1 compared with 1540.

Cost of food in 1898 is as 32 to 1 compared with 1540.

It is impossible to estimate the cost of the items of expenditure, other than food, for all these periods.

27 The Douglas Bay Tramway was started in 1876.

28 Building lots on it sold at from 3s. 2d. to 9s. 6d. per square foot.

29 Statutes, vol. v. pp. 196-203.

30 Ibid., pp. 408-11.

31 Ibid., pp. 512-4.

32 Ibid., pp. 464-6.

33 Statutes, vol. vi. pp. 118—131.

34 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 205-226.

35 Ibid., pp. 188-190.

36 An area bounded by Duke Street, King Street, Church Street, Heywood Place, and North Quay.

37 The following figures from a memorandum, by Mr. T. H. Nesbitt, late town clerk, show the sums expended on Douglas since 1866. Between 1866 and 1874, £40,000 ; between 1874 and 1895, £276,574.

38 The Douglas Municipal Incorporation Act 1895 (Loose).

39 The Douglas Cemetery Act (Loose).

40 Perhaps the best way of showing the progress of the towns is to give their rateable valuation:




































41 An Act was passed for the construction of this prison in 1890. Statutes, vol. vi. pp. 197-202.

42 Convictions for (1) indictable offences, (2) summary offences, and (3) offences against bye-laws:



(2) *

Total of (1) and (2)
































 *Cases of drunkenness form the largest part under this heading.

Cases tried exceed convictions by 9 (on an average) annually.

43 Average percentages of illegitimate to legitimate births:

1879-83, 6·2 per cent. ; 1884-88, 5·7 per cent. ; 1889-93, 5·9 per cent. ; 1894-96, 5·7 per cent. ; 1897-8, 6·0 per cent. Maximum, in 1879, 7·2 per cent. ; minimum, in 1894, 4·4 per cent.

44 Total 315,895, population in 1891 being 37,732,922 ; that of Man, 55,608. The figures are the latest we could obtain for the whole kingdom. The average number of cases tried in England and Wales between 1874 and 1898 is 183,977, and for the five years 1894-98, 186,210. The number for the year 1890 is 189,746 ; so that, as far as England and Wales are concerned, 1890 is above the average. (Judicial Statistics, 1898, Part I.)

45 It is only fair to reckon the number of visitors with the Manx population. They averaged 337,927 for 1892-9, a number which is reckoned for customs purposes as equivalent to an addition to the permanent population of 13,146. If, then, the population of the Isle of Man is reckoned at 68,754 (55,608 and 13,146) its number of cases of drunkenness would have been 579, if in the same proportion as in Great Britain and Ireland. It should be stated, however, that the proportion added is so large that separate returns for the visitors should be obtained in order to draw a reasonably correct inference from it.

46 Licensing Acts were passed in 1876 and 1881. Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 414-39 and vol. v. pp. 103-110. In 1882, a "Local Option " Bill was rejected by the Keys.

47 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 605-11.

48 See p. 581.

49 The Rectors and Vicars of parishes ceased to be members.

50 The Mayor in the case of Douglas.

51 Licensing Amendment Act, 1895 (Loose).

52 Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 507-14.

53 Statutes, vol. v. pp. 374-400.

54 Ibid., pp. 512-629. This was again amended in 1889, see vol. vi. pp. 134-150.

55 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 179-83 and 188-90.

56 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 562-78. The Burials Act of 1882 (Ibid., vol. v. pp. 110-27) was also a sanitary measure.

57 Ibid., vol. iii. pp. 497-9 ; vol. iv. pp. 316-28.

58 Ibid., vol. v. pp. 77-82.

59 Ibid., vol. iv. pp. 468-71.

60 Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 531-9.

61 Ibid., vol. iii. pp. 551-62 ; vol. v. pp. 86-90 and 262-66; vol. vi. pp. 557-8.

62 Registration was not made compulsory till 1878 (Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 519-22), and so no satisfactory statistics are obtainable before that date.



Numbers Registered.


Rate per 1,000 of Population.





Excess of Births over Deaths
















































The greatest percentages (since 1884) of births, in 1889, 29·5;of marriages, in 1893, 7·55 ; of deaths (island), in 1880, 21·9; urban, ditto, 26·4 ; country, in 1895, 20·2. The smallest percentages (since 1884) of births, 23·9, in 1892 ; of marriages, 6·14, in 1888 ; of deaths (island), in 1898, 18.·1 ; urban, 19·0, in 1896 ; country, 14·5, in 1889.

64 Appendix B, Book IV. All the country districts, except Middle Sheading, show a large decrease : Glenfaba, of 1,117; Michael, of 717 ; Ayre, of 968 ; Garff, of 1,220 ; Rushen, of 708 and Middle, of 22. This small decrease of Middle is, however, mainly due to the increase of the village of Conchan and of suburban residences near Douglas.

66 For full particulars see Appendix A

66 See note p. 701.

67 Horse.

68 Electric. The tramway to Snaefell was the first successful mountain tramway in the United Kingdom.

69 Electric.

70 Cable traction.

71 The largest vessel of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Co.’s fleet is 2,500 tons burthen, has 10,000 horse power and steams 24 miles an hour.

72 Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 12-26, and Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 312—64.

73 Ibid., vol. iv. pp. 150-4, and vol. v. pp. 343—51.

74 Appendix A.

75 Statutes, vol. v. pp. 41—53.

76 Statutes, vol. v. pp. 310-42.

77 Ibid., pp. 422-30.

78 Ibid., pp. 364-s.

79 Ibid., pp. 618-37.

80 For Agriculture, Fishing, and Mining see Book VIII.

81 This was an abnormal expansion, due to the " Jubilee" season and rival Steam Packet Companies.

82 It reached its highest in 1894, when it was £219,531. (See Appendix B.)

83 Exclusive of the £2,300 specially devoted to repairs. Some of the £400,000 has, as we shall see, been wasted, but the greater part of it may fairly be classed as productive expenditure.

84 See under Harbours.

85 We should note that from 1879 the revenue gained £2,000 a year, being the estimated amount of English duty-paid goods imported into the island (see p. 721).

86 Apart from the £2,300 see note, p. 714.

87 Governor Walpole was a very capable financier, and his adjustments and arrangements of taxation were judicious (see Appendix C).

88 In Appendix B full particulars will be found of the quantities of imported goods paying duty, and of the revenue obtained from them.

89 See Appendices B and C.

90 See Appendices B and C.

91 Appendix D.

92 These are more particularly discussed under the headings of highways, towns, &c.

93 These are discussed under special headings.

94 Chief items of expenditure-

















Cost.of collection








Civil List
























95 Appendix B. Book IV., ch. ii.

96 For discussion of these questions see Book VI. § 2.

97 By 37 Vic. c. 8.

98 Twelve from Peel and twelve from Port St. Mary.

99 It appears that there had been considerable excitement among the fishermen, and that about 1,000 men had intended to make a demonstration at Tynwald, but yielding to the advice of Messrs. Adams and Clucas, their advocates, they appointed the deputation.

 100 The governor objected to the presence of so many fishermen saying that : " he must protest against their meeting in large bodies either with a view to intimidation or to dictate in any shape or form to the Court or any members of it " (Manx Sun)

101 .Owing to the action of the English Government. See p. 721

102 43 and 44 Vic. c. 8.

103 P. 632.

104 At a later period it voted £6,650 more for the same purpose.

105 I.e., £23,000 + £13,000 + £6,650 + £2,955.

106 By Isle of Man Harbours Act (Imperial), 46 and 47 Vic. c. 9.

107 Each vessel not landing cargo and not landing or embarking passengers and not being a wind-bound or fishing vessel, pays 2d. per ton. Each vessel wind-bound and not discharging cargo, or being a fishing vessel, pays 1d. per ton. Fishing vessels pay £1 per year. Every vessel, other than a fishing-vessel, lying in harbour more than six months pays, in addition to entrance dues, or dues on goods landed, 6d. per ton, and on all goods landed from a vessel, other than a fishing vessel, 3d. per ton.

108 Statutes, vol. iv. pp. 352-64. The title of the committee of management was changed from "Committee of Highways " to " Highway Board." In 1883, the towns of Peel and Castletown were removed from the jurisdiction of the Highway Board (see Ibid., vol. v. pp. 216-221).

109 Up to 1896, £6,000 had been granted for this purpose, but nothing further has been granted since that date.

110 Statutes, vol. v. pp. 503-12.

111 By the " Seagulls Preservation Act " of 1868, by prevention of the destruction of wild birds and their eggs in 1887, and by the amendment of the " Cruelty to Animals Act " in 1885 and 1895. Ibid. vol. iii. pp. 435-36. Ibid., vol vi. pp. 16-19, 47-9, and 638-39.

112 Ibid., vol. v. pp. 44-48.

113 Ibid., vol. vi. pp. 85-94 and 405-32.

114 Ibid., vol. v. pp. 493-98.

115 By an Act passed in 1895 the Trustees of the Impropriate Fund were made Trustees of this fund (Statutes, vol. vi. 648-55).

116 The passage, in 1893, of an Act to facilitate the letting and sale of Glebe Lands has also been advantageous to the clergy (Ibid., pp. 545-62).

117 Statutes, vol. ii. pp. 46-43.

118 Ibid., vol. v. pp. 433-36.

119 Ibid., pp. 110—127.

120 Information from the Rev. Father Walsh.


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