[from History of IoM, 1900]

CHAPTER VI

THE CHURCH IN THE SCANDINAVIAN PERIOD

Conversion of the Celto-Scandinavians of Man to Christianity.

IT was probably not before the beginning of the eleventh century that the Celto-Scandinavian population of Man received Christianity,1 and, even then, possibly, their reception of it was, like that of the Icelanders with whom they were closely connected, with the proviso that they might also continue their old worship. But perhaps the best proof of the slowness of the conversion of the inhabitants of Man is the fact that it is not till towards the end of the same century that we find the name of a Manx ecclesiastic, the so-called bishop, Roolwer, recorded.

The first Manx bishop.

It must not, however, be inferred from his title that he ruled over a see divided into parishes, where the Church held landed property, for such conditions did not obtain in Man till a much later period; but merely that he was an ambulatory bishop, attached to the king's court, while his assistants were probably monks without any fixed abode. With the accession of Olaf I., who, having been educated at the English court, had doubtless acquired a knowledge of the English form of government, a more stable condition of affairs was probably initiated. He would have seen there the feudal system in full operation, also the separation of the civil and ecclesiastical courts, which had then been recently carried out, the enforced celibacy of the clergy, and the gradually increasing power of the monastic system. And, since we know that he continued his friendly relations with England during the reign of Henry I., it is probable that he introduced much of the English system both in Church and State. Nor does this connexion with England seem to have been altogether a new departure, seeing that Godred Crovan, when King of Dublin as well as Man, gave canonical obedience to Canterbury, while Olaf seems to have been more especially connected with York.2 Unfortunately, however, with the exception of the fact that he permitted the Cistercian monks of Furness to found an abbey at Rushen in Man, nothing is known of what he actually did in these respects.

This foundation of the abbey of Rushen, which took place in 1134,3 was one of the most important events in the history of the mediaeval Manx Church. It was important because the Cistercians were, as usual in their order, exempted from all episcopal visitation and control, by charter granted by the Pope, and were, therefore, only subject to his rule and that of the abbots of their own order. These conditions, therefore, practically led to the subjection of the Manx Church to the great English abbey of Furness,4 and to a great increase of papal influence in its affairs. The new abbey was founded by Eudo, or Ivo, Abbot of Furness, who received lands for that purpose at Rushen and elsewhere in Man from Olaf I. 5 The first act of Godred II. on his accession, in 1154, was to confirm this grant. 6 In 1176, the abbot of another English abbey, that of Rivaulx, acquired, through Godred's gift, a piece of land at Mirescogh,7 where " he built a monastery." But the building seems to have been abandoned by this abbey " in process of time," 8 and both it with the land and the monks were made over to Rushen abbey. All this tended to the aggrandizement of Furness, and of its offshoot at Rushen, so that the Cistercians seem to have been by far the most powerful religious body in the island. 9 There was also, probably, in existence at this time the nunnery of St. Bridget, near Douglas; and the abbeys of Bangor and Sabhal in Ireland, of St. Bees in England, and of Whithorne in Scotland, all had lands in Man, though they were of very small extent compared to those of Rushen.

In 1246, King Harald, not content with merely confirming his predecessors' charters, issued an additional one of his own, by which the monks of Furness obtained " all kinds of mines " in Man, "three acres of land" 10 near St. Trimans, and "exemption from all tolls and taxes."

We now approach the question of the foundation of the famous diocese of Sodor and Man. Since the reign of Godred Crovan, the Manx Church, under its Scandinavian rulers, seems to have been con nected with England,11 and it so continued till, towards the end of Olaf's reign, the connexion was interrupted owing to the anarchy caused by the struggle between Stephen and Matilda.

Then followed the brief revival of a more than formal connexion with Norway, already referred to 12 which lasted long enough to produce a remarkable ecclesiastical change, viz., the formation of the diocese of Sodor, including Man, with Nidaros, or Drontheim, as its metropolitan see, a diocese which long survived the period of Scandinavian rule over Man and the Scottish islands, and whose name remains to the present day. In fixing this change in 1154 we are on firm ground, though it is possible that the diocese may have existed at previous intervals, though not, probably, in connexion with Drontheim. The question of its existence before 1154 is, however, one which is involved in the greatest obscurity, and all that we can do is to point out what we consider to be the probabilities, leaving our readers to elucidate the problem for themselves. On the very threshold of this inquiry we are confronted by the fact that the ancient Scandinavian diocese of the kingdom of Man and the western isles of Scotland was called Sodor only, not Sodor and Man. This name of Sodor (Soðr-eyjar), or the South Isles, was given in contradistinction to North (Norðr-eyjar), or the North Isles, i.e., the Orkney: and Shetlands, and it included the Hebrides, all the smaller western islands of Scotland, and Man. It is not known when Man was first united with the rest of Sodor, but perhaps there is something in the tradition that the union was the work of Magnus Barefoot, in 1098, though it is quite possible that Man was visited before this date, in common with the other Sudreys, by the same bishop, who would follow the king's court as it moved from place to place. Under Olaf I., who was the first king who bore undisputed rule in the other Sudreys, as well as Man, for any considerable period, such an arrange ment probably became a permanent one. It was in his time, too, that the civil connexion of Man with Dublin and Ireland was definitely severed, and that Man became part of a purely maritime kingdom, nominally subject to the suzerainty of Norway. This suzerainty became again, in 1152, as we have seen, a real one, and one result of it was the establishment, or, it may be, the re-establishment, of the spiritual supremacy of Norway, since it was then that, by bull of Pope Anastasius IV. in 1154,13 the Sudreys were placed under the archiepiscopate of Drontheim, which was created a metropolitan see. Before this date, probably, and before 1098, almost certainly, the bishoprics of the Sudreys and Man were distinct, and Man seems to have been a dependent of Dublin and, through Dublin, of Canterbury. But from 1152 till, at least, the early part of the fifteenth century, they appear to have continued united, though some of the isles were politically divided in 1156, and the connexion of both Sodor and Man with Norway was severed in 1266, and, finally, the connexion of Man with Scotland in 1334.14 A significant token that the new see was Norwegian in its origin is the fact that the first bishop, Reginald (I.), of the re-constituted diocese, was of that nationality. It was in connexion with this bishop that another important change came about. It has been pointed out that there is no record, before this time, of any provision having been made for an episcopal revenue,15 though it is probable that some of the grants of lands for the benefit of the see, which were mentioned by Pope Gregory IX. in 1231, 16 had been already made. It appears, however, from the statement of the Rushen Chronicler, that these had not been sufficient for the bishop's needs, as they had exacted dues from the " incumbents," 17 who, to free themselves from such claims, gave Bishop Reginald " the thirds of the churches," i.e., granted him a third of their income. This was a very liberal, and even an excessive, grant; but, as will be seen later, it did not satisfy the episcopal appetite. 18 From this time till 1203 there is no important event recorded in the history of the diocese; but, in that year, the monastery of Iona, which had fallen into the hands of the Benedictine order, was taken under the protection of the papal authority by the powerful and ambitious Innocent III., for which privilege they had to pay two bezants yearly. This is notable as showing the increased influence of Rome, which was still more clearly demonstrated by the offer of his. kingdom by King Reginald to the Pope, to which we have already referred. 19 The earliest action of the Pope as feudal superior of Man was to exhort his new vassal to provide lands for houses for the clergy of certain churches which were without any. 20

Whether Olaf II. approved of these arrangements with the Pope we know not, but it seems probable that he made no protest, since, from this period, there is a distinct increase of papal assumption of authority in the affairs of the Sodor diocese. Of this we have an early proof from a bull issued by Pope Gregory IX., in 1231, to Bishop Symon, in which he decreed that all the possessions of the Church of Sodor which he enumerated 21 were to remain to the bishop and his " successors for ever . . . also the third part of the tithes " 22 from Man and the other Sodor isles. He also, among other things, prohibited " any one from admitting to office or ecclesiastical communion those who have been excommunicated or suspended." He ordered that " no bishop or archbishop, without the consent of the Bishop of Sodor, should hold conventions, undertake the trial of cases ecclesiastical, or deal with matters of the Church, except he be empowered by the Roman pontiff or legate," that " no one venture to institute any cleric, or depose him, or deprive a priest without the consent of the diocesan," that " no violence, no influence of king or prince intervene" in the election of bishops, and that "no one at all shall cause annoyance to the aforesaid Church, or take its possessions, or retain them if taken, or mulct them or harass them; but that all things be preserved intact for the use of those for whose government and support they were granted, saving however the authority of the Apostolical See."

We have now to mention an important step in the organization of the Sodor Church, viz., the holding of a diocesan synod. Its meeting took place at Kirk Braddan, under the presidency of Bishop Symon, in 1229, when a number of ecclesiastical statutes 23 were enacted. The more important of these were: (1) that the fee for proving a will was not to exceed thirty-two pence; (2) that the effects of intestates were to be administered subject to the will of the diocesan, or, in his absence, of the vicar-general ; (3) that mortuary dues were to be levied. We also find the tithes on live stock, grain, beer, and woven cloth specified.

And now, for the first time, there is a record of church building in Man, for, according to the Chronicle, Bishop Symon began to build " the church of St. German," which became the cathedral of the diocese. As its site he selected what was probably considered the most sacred place in Man, i.e., the Island of St. Patrick, off Peel, where there was already a church dedicated to that saint. 24

In connexion with the cathedral he established a Chapter, which seems to have been a small body, probably composed of the nominees of Furness and Rushen, and not of the representatives of the clergy.

Prior to the establishment of this cathedral body, the bishops seem to have been elected by the monks of Furness Abbey, subject to the approval of the King and people of Man, and the abbot and monks of Rushen. 25 If we are right in our view of the composition of the chapter, the electors would probably remain much the same after its foundation as before. Moreover, it does not seem to have been formally recognized as the electoral body till the middle of the fourteenth century, and soon afterwards it was superseded by the popes who then appear to have practically taken the appointment of the bishops into their own hands, without regard to the right of veto which had belonged to the rulers of Man, or of the isles, and to the people. 26 This state of affairs continued till the accession of the Stanleys.

The most remarkable men who held the office of bishop at this period were Wimund, Reginald (II). and Symon. 27 The first, though he was renowned as a filibuster, not as a bishop, had such an extraordinary career that we cannot omit to give a brief account of his history. It appears from the evidence of the Chronicler, William of Newburgh, who knew him personally, that, when he was sent in 1134, with other monks, to occupy the new abbey of Rushen, he captivated the people by his intellect and eloquence, combined with his suave and jovial manners.28 He was therefore, with the approval of the abbot of Furness, recommended by the King to Thurstan, Archbishop of York, for consecration. 29 The new bishop, however, was certainly not a success from an ecclesiastical point of view. At some period after his consecration, whether shortly or after the lapse of some years, is unknown, he proceeded to lay claim to the earldom of Moray, assuming the name of Malcolm MacHeth, and asserting that he was the earl's son. He then ravaged South-western Scotland with fire and sword, and with the help of the Thane of Argyll, whose daughter he married, he compelled the King of Scotland to surrender to him the southern portion of his kingdom. He then proceeded to treat his subjects with such severity that they betrayed him into the hands of the royal troops, by whom he was blinded and mutilated. He was first confined in Roxburgh Castle, and finally in Byland Abbey, where he died about 1180.29

" Reginald, a nobleman of the royal race," nephew to kings Reginald and Olaf, was consecrated in 1217. As will be seen from the following incident related by the Chronicle, he seems to have been a man of considerable strength of character: " After some days, Reginald, bishop of the Isles . . . came to the Isles to visit the churches. Olaf went to meet him with great alacrity, and was glad of his arrival, for the bishop was son of Olaf's sister, and ordered a great banquet to be prepared. Reginald, however, said to Olaf, ' I will not hold communication with you, brother, till the Catholic Church has canonically released you from the bonds of an unlawful marriage.'" This bold spirit seems to have inhabited a feeble frame, for we are told that " Labouring under constant infirmity, but never yielding to fatigue, giving thanks to God, he breathed his last, witnessing by his life to his faith, and was buried in the Abbey of St. Mary of Rushen."

Symon (1226 to 1244 or 1247) 30 was, according to the Chronicle, a man " of great prudence, and learned in the Holy Scriptures." It would appear from the fact that he was entrusted with the care of the diocese of Lismore (Argyll), " which, on account of the evilness of the times, had fallen into great poverty," 30 as well as of his own diocese, that he was also a man of considerable ability. In 1236, he prayed to be released from this additional charge, because he was unable " owing to his many infirmities to carry on the care of both sees,"31 and his request was acceded to. If we can believe Bishop Wilson, who, however, quotes no authority, he had his palace at Kirk Michael,32 and, therefore, probably on the site of the modern Bishop's Court. We know nothing of the latter part of his episcopate, and even the time of his death is uncertain.33

In 1266, on the cession of Man and the Isles by Norway to Scotland, the advowson of the bishopric passed to the Scottish king, " saving however in all things and entirely the right, jurisdiction, and liberty of the Church of Drontheim, which it has in respect of the bishop and Church of Man." 34

It will be evident from what has been already stated that, during this period, especially during the latter part of it, the ecclesiastical power in Man, as in England, had been rapidly increasing, though it is not likely that such abuses occurred in the smaller country as in the larger, since, as was said of a later period, the poverty of the isle was its best protection.

The possessions of the Church, especially those of the monks and of the bishop, were increased from time to time by royal grants,35 and finally, in 1257, it not only obtained from Magnus additional lands and privileges, but the bishop was invested with the right to hold a court for his own demesne, with powers of life and death,36 and the clergy were granted freedom from " all service, secular exaction and demand, forfeiture and fine." 37 As regards the ordinary ecclesiastical courts, they were doubtless originally identical, as in England, with the civil courts, and perhaps the date of this document is also that of their separation from each other.

Briefly, then, the chief changes introduced into the Manx Church by its Scandinavian rulers seem to have been the placing it upon a territorial instead of a tribal basis ; in other words, the substitution of a parochial system and a diocesan episcopacy for tribal churches with monastic jurisdiction and functional episcopacy, and the introduction of the religious orders of the Church of Rome.

Footnotes

1 In reviewing the writer's book on Manx Surnames and Place-Names Professor Zimmer (Gõttingische gelehrteAnzeigen, 1891, p. 107) suggests that the numerous Manx surnames compounded with giolla were, in the first instance, those of Northmen converted to Christianity.

2" Baronius, Annales Eccles. " (Manx Soc., vol. xxiii. pp. 266-68).

3 Sacheverell, writing in 1702, states that Rushen Abbey was founded in 1098; but, as Furness, with which it was connected, was not founded till 1127, this seems improbable (see Manx Soc., vol. i., pp. 34-36). The settlement of the Cistercians was chiefly during Stephen's reign (1135-54).

4 Though Sir James Gell says, " I cannot discover that the Abbot or Convent of Furness exercised or had any rights over the Abbey of Rushen or its temporalities beyond those of patronage and jurisdiction " (Manx Soc., vol. xii. p. 3).

5 From a bull of Pope Eugenius, in 1153, we learn that these lands were : " The lands of Carnaclet as far as the monastery of St. Leoc,* with their appurtenances ; the village of Thore, son of Asser (Kirk Michael) ; the village of Great Melan, the village of St. Melius (? Malew) ; the village of N arwe, Stainredale with their appurtenances, the lands of St. Corebric and Fragerwl." See " Chart Furn." (Manx Soc., vol. vii. pp. 8-11_).

* Perhaps the abbey church was first dedicated to St. Leoc, as it was not till 1257 that the church there was dedicated to St. Mary.

6 " Cart. Duc. Lanc." (Manx Soc., vol. vii. pp. 13-16).

7 Said to be the place now called Ballamona in Lezayre. It was formerly an island on a lake in the Curragh. (See p. 23.)

8 " Processu temporis."

9 Though William of Worcester says that Rushen had only three monks (see Itinerary, p. 312).

10 Cott. MSS. (Manx Soc., vol. vii. pp. 79-81).

11 See p. 164,

12 See p. 108.

13 Manx Soc., vol. xxiii. pp. 278-9.

14 As proofs of this it may be mentioned (1) that, in 1349, copies of a letter of Pope Clement VI. to William the Sodor bishop-elect, were sent to the Archbishop of Nidaros, to the " noble Robert Steward, styled Seneschal of Scotland, Lord of the Isle of Bute, in the Sodor diocese," and to " our beloved son, the noble John Macdonald, Lord of Isla, in the Sodor diocese" (" Vat. Arch.," Manx Soc., vol. xxii. pp. 336-43) ; (2) that Pope Urban V., writing to this same William in 1367, spoke of a nobilis mulieris Marice de Insulis . . . hcce dicecesis, who was a daughter of the above-mentioned John, here styled " Lord of the Isles ; " Ibid., p. 878; (3) that, in 1374, copies of a letter of Pope Gregory XI. to John, bishop-elect of Sodor, were sent to " the illustrious King Robert of Scotland " and the Archbishop of Nidaros, as well as to " William, King of Man " (Ibid., pp. 394-400) ; (4) that, in 1392, the same bishop is styled Jobannes episcolms Sodorensis in prou-incia Nidrosiensi (Afgifter fa den Norske Kirkeprovins. Gustav Storm. Christiania, 1897) ; (5) that a MS. codex in the Vatican, written about 1400, contains the words Sodorensis in Noruegia et prouincia Nidrosiensis, showing that the connexion of Sodor with Norway still continued (Manx Soc., vol. xxii. p. 258). For full explanation of the title Sodor see Appendix A.

15 The Rev. T. Talbot (Manx Sun, 1894).

16 See Appendix B.

17 It may be mentioned that the occurrence of the word " incumbents " shows that there was a regular non-monastic, or secular, clergy settled in the isle, with fixed incumbencies.

18 The parishes were probably formed at about this time.

19 See p. 119.

20 Theiner's "Vetera Monumenta" (Manx Soc., vol. xxiii. pp. 299-300).

21 See Appendix B.

22 This bull, of which the original is not known to exist, is preserved in a modern transcript (c. 1600), which was discovered by Bishop Bardsley at Bishop's Court in 1888. It was published by the writer, with notes, in the Historical Review of January, 1890,

23 For statutes see Manx Soc., vol. ix. pp. 176-82.

24 In 1257 the Church belonging to the abbey at Rushen was completed. This has long since disappeared. For an account of the crosses which belong to this period see the Introduction, and pp. 156-7.

25 Except in the case of Mark (see p. 204). The first time they exercised it was in 1134, when, both by the " decree " of Olaf, " and the decision of the people," they obtained the privilege of electing a bishop " to be placed over the propagation of Christianity through the islands of the Gentiles," i.e., the Hebrides and Man (Letter of Olaf I. to Thurstan, Archbishop of York. Dugdale. Manx Soc., vol. xxiii. p. 270).

26 For a full discussion of this subject see Diocese of Sodor and Man, pp. 59-61 and 67-70.

27 For list of bishops see Supplement.

28 Hist. Reram Anglice, lib. i. cap. xxiv.

29 Letter of Olaf ut supru.

30 See note 33 p. 176.

31 Theiner's " Vetera Monumenta " (Manx Soc., vol. xxii. p. 308).

32 "At his palace at Kirk Michael" (Ibid., vol. xviii. p. 123).

33 In 1244, a bull was issued by Pope Innocent IV. to the Archbishop of York for the election of a bishop " in the diocese of Sodor " [This was done by leave of the Archbishop of Nidaros (Drontheim), " because the church of Nidaros is very remote from the church of Man, and separated from it by a most dangerous sea" (see " Diplomatorium Norwegicum," Manx Soo., vol. xxiii. pp. 309-10], while the Chronicle, under 1247, records that " in the same year died Symon, of blessed memory, Bishop of the Isles, on the last day of February at the church of St. Michael the Archangel," that "he was buried in the Island of St. Patrick, in the Church of St. Germanus, which he had himself commenced," and that his death occurred " in the 18th year of his episcopacy, at a good old age." But, if his tenure of the see commenced in 1226, and he held it for eighteen years, his death must have taken place in 1244, which, therefore, must be considered the more probable date, though the Chronicle states that the diocese was vacant for six years only, and that Bishop Richard was not appointed till 1253.

34 Johnstone, "Antiq. Celto-Norm." (Manx Soc., vol. xxiii. pp. 323-33).

35 We shall pursue this subject more fully in Chap. VII.

36 But, though he obtained these powers, it must be remembered that he was a Baron of the Isle, and was, therefore, obliged to do homage to his king.

37 Add. MSS. (Manx Soc., vol. vii. pp. 89-92).

APPENDIX A.

TITLE OF SODOR.1

The title of Sodor seems to have been perpetuated in con. nexion with Man by the fact, which the recent discovery of a modern transcript of a bull of Pope Gregory IX., dated 1231,2 has placed beyond a doubt, that Peel, or St. Patrick's, Island was also called Sodor-in the words of the bull, Holme, Sodor vel Pile vocatum, " Holme (Island), called Sodor or Pile." In a charter of Thomas, Earl of Derby, to the Bishop of Sodor, dated 1505, these words are repeated; but this, which, previously to the above-mentioned discovery, was the first mention of Sodor vel Pile (or Pele), might have been explained by the argument that, the old diocese having so long ago passed away, the true meaning of Sodor had been forgotten, and that by way of getting an application for the name it had been given to this little island of Peel. But this explanation will not now serve, since, in 1231, it was a title given in a formal document of the time of Scandinavian rule, and when the Scandinavian language must have been used by, at least, the ruling class. The true explanation appears to be that Peel island, being the seat of the cathedral of the diocese of Sodor, took its name from the diocese, since it is not likely that Sodor was the original name of an island to the west, not to the south, of another. Its earliest naive was probably Inis-Patrick, "Patrick's Island," 3 then followed the Celtic name, Peel or Pile, meaning " fort," from the ancient round tower on it. The Northmen called it Holme (O.N. hólmr), their usual name for an island at the mouth of a river. Later still, as we have seen, the ecclesiastical name of Sodor was given to it, and in all formal secular documents, after 1505, relating to it these three last names are recited. Having thus accounted for the permanence of the name Sodor, it will be interesting to trace how Man became associated with it. The modern name of the bishopric of Man, " Sodor and Man," seems to have arisen from a mistake of a legal draughtsman in the seventeenth century, who was ignorant that Man was ecclesiastically called Sodor.

It would appear that by the latter part of the sixteenth century the terms Sodor and Man had become interchangeable, for, in a document of Queen Elizabeth's, dated 1570, mention is made of "the bishopric of the Island of Sodor or Man." In 1609, a grant of the Isle of Man was made to William, Earl of Derby; and in the document conveying this grant all the possible titles of the bishopric are recited with a precision which leaves no loophole for error : " The patronage of the bishopric of the said Isle of Man, and the patronage of the bishopric of Sodor, and the patronage of the bishopric of Sodor and Mann." The then bishop, Phillips, at once took advantage of this new title, as in the following year he signs himself " Sodor et de Man." In 1635, Bishop Parre is called " Bishop of the Isle of Man, of Sodor, and of Sodor and Man." No signature of his can be found, but his successors, up to the time of Bishop Levinz, who was appointed in 1684, usually signed themselves " Sodorensis," occasionally " Sodor and Man, but, since 1684, the signature has been either " Sodor and Mann " or " Sodor and Man." The full title of the see at the present day is " Bishop of the Isle of Man, of Sodor, of Sodor and Man, and of Sodor of Alan," which accentuates the application of the name Sodor to Peel Island. We find, therefore, in summing up our case, that the ancient Scandinavian name of the diocese of the Kingdom of Man and the Isles was Sodor ; that this name Sodor seems to have been given to Peel Island as being the seat of the cathedral of the diocese, and that at a later date, when the history of the name Sodor was forgotten, the name of Man was added to the title of the see. Such in brief is the conclusion we have arrived at with reference to this much-disputed question.

The ancient armorial bearings of the see were, according to Keith's Catalogue of Scotch, Bishops, Azure, St. Columba at sea in a cock-boat, all proper in chief, a blazing star, or. The present arms are: On three ascents--the Virgin Mary, her arms extended between two pillars, dexter a church, in base the three legs. The whole is on an ornamental shield, surmounted by a bishop's mitre.

1 Though Sodor is almost certainly the correct name for this diocese, it will be more convenient, now that our readers are placed in possession of the facts of the case, to speak of it as Man only.

2 See pp. 85, 171.

3 See p. 85.

APPENDIX B.

" Amongst these (possessions) we have thought fit to specify the following by their proper titles:-the place called Holine, Sodor or Pile, in which the aforesaid Cathedral is situate, and the church of S. Patrick of the Isle, with all several properties, liberties and appurtenancies rightfully belonging to the churches aforesaid; and the third part of all the tithes from all the churches established in the aforesaid island of Eubonia or Mannia, and from Bothe, Aran, Eya, Ile, Iurye, Scarpey, Elath, Co[lonsay], Muley, Chorhye (?), Cole, Ege, Skey, Carrey, R[-], and from Howas (? Lewis), from the islands of Alne (?), from Swostersey and of the Bishop's h(--), and also the lands in the aforesaid island, to wit both the Holmetowen (Peel), from Glenfaba, from Fotysdeyn, from Ballymore, from Brottby, from the staff of S. Patricius, from Knockcroker, ; from Ballicure, from Ballibrushe, from Jourbye, from Ballicaime, from Ramsey, also the lands adjacent to the Church of Holy Trinity in Lea[yre], of S. Mary of Ballalaughe, of S. Maughaldus, and of S. Michael; and the lands of S. Bradarnus and of Kyrkbye, of Kyrkemarona, of Colusshill, and the land of St. Columba called Herbery (Arbory)."


 

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