[From Cregeen's Dictionary, 1835]




0f the LETTERS and their SOUNDS.

1. THE Alphabet consists of seventeen single and three double consonants, and seven vowels - a, e, i o, u, w, y. Of the consonants, fifteen are mutable - b, c, ch, d, f, g, j, k, m, p, q, s, sh, sl, t. The immutables are - l, n, r, which always retain their sound; and alter not, except when preceded by s in the beginning of a word to show the degrees of comparison. gh and ph begin no radical, or at least ought to begin none, as the language now stands; although there are word that are so written: these are shown where they occur in the work, and will be seen only to be aspirations, gh of g and of d, and ph of p. Sh and s1 must be considered double consonants as they have a change peculiar to themselves, and differ from the other radical initialled s's. The a is considered a secondary mute.

2. A is reckoned a broad vowel, and in some words sounded as o, as in CLAGH (a stone), clogh; and as u, as in GOAN (scarce), goun. It is pronounced as a in the English words of man, pan; AS, BAD, LAD, BAB, &c.; and when circumfiexed, as in mâroo, sârey, is sounded as in matron, &c.

3. B is a labial, or lip-letter, and pronounced as b, in English; as, BARE, BOAYL.

4. C preserves a strong sound in its unaspirated state, as the English k, or as c in can; as, CAN, CAPPAN. It never, however, usurps the pronunciation of s, as in the English words cistern, city, cedar, &c.

5. CH has a soft sound, as in CHAGHTER, CHARBAA, CHINGYS; like ch in English, in cherry, charcoal, chime, &c.

6. CH has a hard or harsh sound, which sound is not in the English language. I cannot express it better than by a word which I would write or spell egh or egg-yth, and a, CHA (not); and which sound would go through with the vowels, thus: eghe,e, CHE; egh i, CHI; egh o, CHO; egh u, CHU; egh y, CHY; and with (CHLA, CHLE, &c.; and CHRA, CHRE, &c., &c.

7. D is pronounced as d, in English, in drone, dunnul, &c.

8. But D in other words, as if written and pronouned dh, as in DAA, DOO, &c.

9. E is reckoned a small vowel, but is some times sounded long, and sometimes short; the latter sound as heard in men, ten, bed (in English) answers to the Manks BEN, REN, SHEN, &c.

10. The long or circumflexed Ê, as in mêriu, têh, tê, vê, &c., like the English they, hey; or as a in way, hay, say, &c.

11. F is called a weak consonant; because, when aspirated, it looses all its force; as, FEA (rest); E EA (his rest.) It corresponds in many cases with v; and has the English sound in FA, FAASE, FOAYS, &c.

12. G is a heavy consonant, and pronounced as g, in English, in gain, get, go; as, GAMMAN, GOAILL, GARRISH buthas no soft sound asin the words gentle, generous, &c.

13. When G is aspirated to gh, it is reckoned a light consonant, and has a gutteral sound; no such sound is in the English language; and although gh is in ghost and ghastly, they are only sounded gost, gastly.

14. H is pronounced as h in the words hand, hind, hold, &c. in English. Some would rather call h an auxiliary than a letter, because it rarely begins any radical word except a few small ones, as, HANNAH, HYM, &c., and serves only to aspirate the other consonants, as, ch, gh, mh, ph, th, &c; or the vowels, as, ha, he, hi, &c. When it aspirates from t, followed by an r, it is often sounded as ch, as B HHAA (his time); N HHOO (his envy); &c. It is an initial in feminine genitive nouns; as, E HEDDIN (her face); E HATONEY, (her mind or will); B HENNYM (her name.) The mascu line of those would he E EDDIN (his face); E AIGNEY, (his mind); B ENNYM, (his name.)

15. I is one of the small vowels, and pronounced as i (in English) in pin, win, sin; as, sHIMMEY, SHID, SHILLEY.

16. J is pronounced exactly like the soft English g, and is perfectly uniform in its sound.

17. K. This letter has precisely the sound of hard a, in English, and is never silent as the English k in knee, knave, know, &c.

18. L. Some say this letter admits of no aspiration, and is pronounced as l (in English) in law, live, love; as, LACE, LIOAH, LANE; but I think there is a distinction between lie or ly in English, and LHIE in Manks; and had the words LOO, LOOR, &c., been spelled or written LHOO and LHOOR, they would have answered the Manks pronunciation better, for without the h the sound is too narrow, except to those who know that they require that sound.

19 M is a strong consonant, but it is often changed into v; and when it is followed by w, oo, or u, it changes to v or w, when aspirated.

20. N is sounded as n in English; it is never aspirated nor eclipsed, but yet called a light consonant, and is often doubled to give the greater sound.

21. O is a broad vowel; when Rented as o in gone, in English, answers the Manks SON, CRON, &c.

22. When O is circumfiexed as in hone, shone, open, &c., thus ÔNEY, ôyr, &c. Manks.

23. O before 1 in the Manks, sounds OHL.

24. P. This is a hard consonant, and pronounced as p in English.

25. PH is sounded as the English f.

26. Q, which is always followed by u, has the sound of kw.

27, R is a light consonant, and pronounced as r in English; but some times when an initial, it requires to be sounded as if written rh; as, RED (a thing), RHED.

25. S, although called the queen of consonants, is subject to many changes, as shown in Remarks 55, 56, 57, 58, 111, 112, 161, &c. It sounds as (in English) savor, sense - SAGGYRT - SOLLAN.

29. T. This Is a hard consonant, naturally commuted with d; as, DY GERRID, for DY GERRIT.

30. When T is an initial before a vowel, it requires to be sounded as if written th.

31. U is one of the three broad vowels with a and o, and sounded as a (in English) in cumber; as, CUM (hold).

32. V Is not properly a radical initial consonant; but only a secondary mute. However, we have some few words which begin with v as a radical; as, VAIDJYN, VEIH, &c.

33. W. Though I have set down this letter as a vowel, I know of no syllable or word without another vowel attached to it, with consonants, to make a word or syllable. The Welsh have It a vowel, without any support. Its sound is as OO (in English) in boot, soot root; as, WARDOON, WARP, WARREE.

34. Y. This letter as a vowel and a consonant is too frequently used in the Manks. Its first or primary sound would be as i (in English) in bind, bile, &c.

35. But Y has another sound as u, and is as (in English) in bird, third, - answering to the sound in SPYRRYD, YMMYRCHAGH, YNRICAN, &c.in Manks.

36. This letter has the sound of e in the word the (in English); as, DY, DTY, MY, SY, &c.

37. Y some times has the sound of ee, as in the English, barley, belly, stingy, &c.; as, LHEIT, GUIY, SEIT, &c.

38. Such words as begin with mutable or changeable consonants, viz.: b, c, ch, d, f, g, I, k, m, p, q, s, sh, sl, and t, change these their radical initial letters as occasion require, and according to the effect the preceding words have on them.

39. The letter A, as an initial in radical verbs, changes to I, or rather has d placed before it, as shown in Remark 60; and to g, (or has g placed before it) as shown in Remark 61 ; and also changes to n, (or has n placed before it) to show the preterit or past time of the action of the verb: and so of all the vowels when radical initials. - See Remark 19, &c.

40. But the letter A and all the vowels change to h (or have h placed before them) to show the gentive or ownership case of the feminine gender, as may be seen under the H in the work, and in Remark 14.

41. Words, primarily beginning with B, have three initials, viz.: h, v, m; as, BRAAR (a brother); E VRAAR (his brother); NYN MRAAR (your, &c. brother); &c. &c.

42. But when the second latter after the B is w, oo, or u, such words change to w or v as an initial; as, BOOIAGH (willing or pleased); FEER WOOIAGH (very willing or pleased, &c.); and BWOAILLEE (a fold); E WOAILLEE (his fold); BUIGHY (jaundice); YN WUIGHEY or VUIGHEY (the jaundice or yellows).

43. Words beginning with C have three initials, viz.: c, ch, and g; as, CARREY (a friend); E CHARREY (his friend); NYN GARREY (your, &c.friend).

44. Words beginning with CH have also three initlals, viz.: ch, h, and j; as, CHENGEY (a tongue); E HENGEY (his tongue); NYN JENGEY (your, &c tongue), &c.

45. Words initialled by D have two, viz.: d and gh; as, DOOINNEY (a man); Y GHOOINNEY (his man), &c.

46. Words radically initialled by E, have four, and so have all the other vowels the initial vowel, and three others, viz.: e, or the other vowel, and d, g, and n; as, EECK (pay); DEECK (paid or did pay) GEECK (paying). See Remarks 60 and 61; and ER NEECK (hath or having, &c. paid). See also a change mentioned in Remark 40.

47. Some words commencing with E, radically, or better sound's sake begin with y; as, EEAST (a fish), YEEAST; EEAN (a chicken), YEEAN, &c.

48. Words beginning with F have, nine or more changes, viz.: d and v, and the first vowel or onsonant after the f, if the preceding word change it.

49. Words radically initialled by G have two, s g and g ; at, GEAY (wind); YN GHEAY (the wind). G also sometimes changes to y; as, GlARE (ahort); RO YIARE (too short), though sometimes spelled GHIARE; GIALL (white or bright); RO YIALL (too bright). This and others are also written RO GHIALL, &c.

50. Words commencing with J have two initials, d and y; as, JEE (God); E TEE, (his God); &c.

51. Words initialled with K have three, viz.: k, ch, and g; as, KEYREY (a sheep); E CHEYREY his sheep); N'YN GEYREY (your &c. sheep), &c.

52. M, beginning words has but two initials, viz.: m and v; as,MOYRN (pride); E VOYRN (his pride), &c.

53. P, beginning words has three initials, viz.: p, ph, and b; as, POOAR (power); E PHOOAR (his power); NYN BOOAR (your &c. power), &c.

54. Q, beginning radicals, has threc initials, viz.: q, wh, and g; as, QUAIYL (a court); E WHAIYL (his court) NYN GUAIYL (your, &c. court), &c.

55. S, beginning words radically, has many changes, viz.: s, h, t; as SOOILL (an eye); E HOOILL (his eye); YN TOOILL (the eye).

56. And if S be followed by is, it changes to ch and h; as, SHENN GHOOINNEY (an old man); YN CHENN GHOOINNEY (the old man); a HENN GHOOINNEY (his old man).

57. When S is followed by 1, it changes to cl and l; as, SLAT (a rod); YN CLAT (the rod); E LAT (his rod, &c.)

58. The letter S, apostrophized before adjectives and participles, I think is an abreviation of SMOO, by which the degrees of comparison are shown throughout the language; first, the positive, FIRRINAGH (true); secondly, a degree above the positive; as, S'FIRRINAGH (how true); thirdly, the comparative, NYS'FIRRINEE (more true); fourthly, the superlative, YN RAA S'FIRRINEE (the truest saying).

59. T, beginning words radicaily,has three initials, viz.: t, h, and d; as, TOWSE (a measure); E HOWSE (his measure); NYN DOWSE (your, &c. measure).


60. Verbs commencing radically with vowels, begin with d to show the preterit or past time of action, or negatively; as, AARL or AARLEE (cook, dress, or prepare); DAARLEE (did cook, dress, or prepare); and negatively, CHA DAARLEE, &c.; aisd EOYLLEE (dung or manure); DEOYLLEE (did dung, or manure); and CHA DEOYLLEE, &c.

61 Verbs beginning in like manner with vowels, to show the present and also the past time of action, begin with g; as, AASE (grow); GAASE (growing); VA MEE GAASE (I was growing); IRREE (rise); &c.

62. Of verbs irregular, which do not altogether change according to the foregoing remarks. - CHEET (coming), changes to HAINK, DAINK, HIG, JIG, HARR, DARR, HEET, JEET, TAR.
CUR, or COYRT (giving, putting, sending, &c.), CHOYRT, HUG, DUG, VER and VERR, DER and DERR.

63. The regular verbs change their initials according to what has been said on the changing of the letters and their terminations, as specified in,, Remarks 77-88.


64. Of the forming of plurals in the Manks, the addition of YN to the singular is the most common, which is shown after the singulars through the work. Have the plurals housen, (which was formerly used as the plural in the English for houses), oxen, men, women, children, &c., any analogy to this? Undoubtediy they have.

65. Other words are formed into plurals by the addition of AGHYN to the singulars; these, for the most part, are given in the work after their singulars.

66. There are other words that only require GHYN to be added to the singular.

67. Some singular words, ending in EY, change the EY to AGHYN, to pluralize them; as, CAGGY (war); CAGGAGHYN (wars); COONE (help); COONAGHYN (helps), &c.

68. Other words ending in EY, change the y to EYN; as, BUNNEY (sheaf); BUNNEEYN (sheaves) &c.

69. Other singulars ending in E and EY, change the E and EY to YN; as, PAITCHEY (a child); PAITCHYN (children); FOCKLE (a word); FOCKLYN (words).

70. Some few singulars ending in LEY, change the LEY to JYN; as, BILLEY (a tree); BILJYN (trees); HALLEY (a town or estate); BALJYN (towns or estates), &c.

71. The termination of singulars in AHH, for the most part to pluralize them, changes the AGH to EE; as, GIMMAGH (a lobster); GIMMEE (lobsters), &c.

72. The ending of singulars in AGH, AGHT, IN,or YN, sometimes changes to EEYN; as, EADDAGH (woollen cloth); EADDEEYN (woollen cloths); CLADDAGH, singular; CLADDEEYN, plural; CURNAGHT (wheat); CURNEEYN (wheats); SKILLIN (a shilling); SKILLEEYN (shillings).

73. There are other formations of plurals in the middle of words; as, MAC (a son); MEC (sons).

74. Others by changing OA or O, to UI; as, DOARN (a fist); DUIRN (fists); STOYL (a stool); STUILL (stools).

75. The changing of E to I makes plural in some words; as, FER to FIR, &c.

76. There are other words that require the change of Y to I; as, CABBYL (a horse); CABBIL (horses), &c.


77. Of the termination of verbs, or the compounding of auxiliary verbs, pronouns, &c., to the verbs.-AGH, added to a verb, is used with all the nominative pronouns, except I; as, he, EH; they, AD; We, SHIN; she, EE; you, SHIU; thou, oo, &c., as the words may require; and means would or wouldst, could or couldst, might or mightest, &c., do the action of the verb; or would or wouldst, &c., not do the action of the verb; as the verb BERR (overtake); BERRAGH EH (he would, &c., overtake); or, CHA BERRAGH oo (thou wouldst not overtake); &c., &c.

78. AIL, joined to a verb, signifies ing in English; as, BAAR (spend); BAARAIL (spending); FAAG (leave); FAAGAIL (leaving); &c.

79. AL, added to a verb, has the same meaning as AIL, ing, in English, and may be termed the grand Manksifier-general of English verbs; as, trying, TRYAL;fixing, FIXAL, &c., &c; but not to the credit or honour of those who so make use of it.

50. EE. This added to a verb, and used with the nominative pronouns (except I or she) means will or wilt, shall or shalt, perform the action of the verb to which it is annexed; or will or shall not perform the action of the verb, as set forth in remark 77, on AGH; that is, would; and this is, will and shall do.

81. EIL. This, as well as AIL and AL, when added to a verb, means ing; as, DOOYTEIL (doubting); TREISHTEIL (trusting).

82. EY. This syllable, also added to a verb, corresponds to the English ing, or the doing or performing the action of the verb to which it is annexed; as, GOBBRAGHEY (working); FLUIGHEY (wetting), &c.

83. IN. This termination, which always requires to be sounded as if written ihn, partakes of the nature of the auxiliary verb would and the pronoun I; as, BERR (overtake); BEREIN (I would overtake), and when so joined together is called pronominal.

84. INS. This termination to a verb is the emphatic, absolute, certain, especial or particular of the preceding IN, is that case to the verb to which annexed, and always requires to be sound ad as if written ihns; as, BERR (overtake); BERRINS (I would, emphatically, absolutely, or certainly, &c. overtake).

85. IT or T. These terminations, which an swer to the English ed, must, to retain the proper Manks sound, be pronounced as if written iht, and ht, and partake of the nature of an adjective. Added to a verb it becomes a participle. There are many words of this part of speech in English that do not admit of ending in ed; as, grown, found, lost,worn, &c., yet these all end in it or t in the Manks; as, AASIT, FEDDYNIT, CAILT or CAILLIT, CEAUT, &C.

86. YM. This syllable, which partakes of the nature of the pronoun I and the auxiliary verb will, added to a verb, signifies that I will do or suffer the action of the verb to which applied; as, BERR (overtake); BERRYM (I will overtake), &c.

87. YMS, it may be said, is the same to YM, as INS is to IN, the absolute, certain, especial or emphatic of YM; as, BERR (overtake); BERRYMS (I will emphatically overtake.)

88. YS. This termination, dnd aa, added to verbs, is nearly of the same import; but It is my opinion that the YS means shall or shalt do the action of the verb; and EE, will and wilt; but the translators of the Scriptures into our languqge use it for both. This syllable, added to a verb, should always be employed where two or more words that are sounded alike happen to. gather; as, EE EE EE (she will eat). When these occur, we generally say EE YS EE (she shall or will eat). This prefix is undoubtedly used in the subjunctive mood for eat, eats, eateth, eatest, &c; as, MY EEYS, EH, AD, OO, &c. (if he eats, if they eat, if thou eateth); MY EEYS DOONNEY (if a men eat, shall eat, or eateth); and so of other verbs. In Genesis ii. 17, we have SON ER Y LAA EEYS 00 JEH (for in the day thou eateth thereof); and in the xiv. chap. 15, it is, QUOI ERBEE VARRYS CAIN (whosoever slayeth Cain). This termination is also used in apposition; as, SHOH YN DOOINNEY OBBYRYS DIU (this is the man that will or shall work for you). -


89. Of the forming of adjectival nouns, or substantives made of adjectives, in the Manks, by the addition or changing of a syllable in the termination of a word, corresponding to the English ness, ty, &c. - The most common of these are ID and D, which require to retain the Manks sound, and pronounced as if written IHD,'and HD. These syllables are sometimes added to the adjective; as, BIOYR (brisk); BIOYRID (briskness); BOUYR (deaf); BOUYRID (deafness); MOOAR (big or great7; MOOAD (greatness), &c.

90 Some adjectival nouns are made by a part of the adjective being changed; as, JOOIGH (greedy); JOOID (greediness); BEECHAGH (rich), BERCHID (richness), &c.

91. Other adjectives are changed for the most part; as, GIALL (bright orwhite); GILLID (brightness); MARROO (dead); MERRIUID (deadness), &c.

92. Some other adjectives require JID in place of the latter syllable; as, MILLISH (sweet); MILJID (sweetness); YRJID (heighth or highness), &c.

93. YS and S are sometlines added to the adjective, and at other times placed instead of the last syllable or part; as, DORRAGHEY (dark); DORRAGHYS (darkness); though the change to ID, in Remark 89, is sometimes used; as, DOREID (darkness); and YNRICK (upright, or sincere); YNRICKYS (uprightness), &c.

94. For sake of abridging the work, the reader is desired, in reference to derivative verbs and their conjunction into pronominals, with the auxiliary verbs shall, will, would, &e., to look to the radical verb, as the letter placed at the end of the explanation shows the initial from which the branch-word is derived; and the figures of reference under the radical answer the meaning in the same manner.


95. There are several principles peculiar to the idiom or phraseology of the Manks language, when compared with the English; such as the unnecessariness of the indefinite article a, in general.

96. One peculiarity is, that the Manks possesses a plural article, NY (the); as, NY DEINEY (the men); NY CLAGHYN (the stones): Y and YN are the singular definite articles. The collective nouns, such as, OLLAGH (cattle); SLEIH (people); LUGHT-THIE (household or family); MAASE (kine), &c., are, as in the English, not reckoned plural nouns; therefore, have only the definite article YN preceding them.

97. A grand principle in Manks is the adjective being placed after the noun or substantive. In English, the adjective has precedence; therefore the quality of a thing is mentioned before the thing itself; but in Manks, (more agreeable to reason and common sense) the substantive precedes the adjective; as, CABBYL MIE (a good horse); BOOA GHOO (a black cow); MAGHER MOOAR (a big field). There are a few exceptions.

98. In possessinga plural adjective, the Manks again has an advantage over the English, (there being no difference in the adjectives of singular and plural in that language); as, DEINEY MOOAREY (big or great men); CROINK ARDEY (high hills); THIEYN BEGGY (little houses), &c.

99. Another, is the derivative adjective, as I have called it, of or belonging to a thing. My reason for distinguishing this class of adjectives from others is, that there are some nouns that have two adjectives which differ materially in their meaning; for instance, the sun; as, LAA GRANAGH (a sunny, or sun shiny day), which I have left a common adjective; but GREINEY, I have marked an adjective derivative, of or belonging to the sun; as, CHIASS GREINEY (the heat of the sun, or-the sun's heat); and GLION (a glen or valley); GLIONNAGH (having glens or valleys); GLIONNEY (of or belonging to the valley; as, FIEE NY GLIONNET (the ravens of the valley); and CASSAGH (having feet, or footed); as, MAASE KIAR CASSAGH (four footed kine); COSHEY (of the foot or feet). The English of this class of adjectival words are aspen,henpen. oaken, baptismal, &c.

100. Another principle is, the language not making plural until three; the numbers of twenty, forty, sixty, eighty, a hundred, a thousand, &c. These are not twenty or forty men, but, literally twenty-man, &c. And I think the YN to SHIAGH-TINYN redundant, as in Daniel ix. 25 26.

101. Another and grand principle is, the emphatic: some instances of this are given in the work; but any substantive, &c. may be made emphatical by adding 's, which requires to be sounded es to the substantive, &c.; as, DTY CHREE'S (thy heart, emphatically); DTY OBBYR'S (thy work, emphatically), &c. In the English,the reader is left at sea without a compass, if he has not learned where to lay the emphasis, as few of the words differ in their form in that language for being emphatic; when unemphatical, thy is to be sounded the, and my, me, &c.

102. The substasstives being all masculine or feminine, is another; these being no such anomaly in Manks as a neuter gender; we have however a few nouns, pronouns, and pronominals common to both genders. Some will have it that every word in the language is either masculine or feminine.

103. The verbs running into auxiliary terminations and pronominals; as, AGH, AlL, AL, EIL, EY, IN, INS, IT, YN, YMS and YS. as are shown by the remarks of reference throughout the work, is another principle.

104. The adjectives and participles throughout the language requiring to be brought under the letter s', to show the degrees of comparison, as set forth in the 18th Remark, are exemplified in the work under that letter, is another.

105. The greatest difficulty to attain, by a person that did not learn it when young, is the changing of the initials of mutable consonants, and of vowel letters, or the pronunciation of secondary mutes or aspirations. There is very little occasion for such changing in the English; but to give an English scholar some idea of it, it may be necessary to show him something similar in his own language. The words from home require no change; but let him say at home, and he can hardly say home without a hiatus, or longer stop than ought to be; he will be very apt to say at tome: this is changing the h to t in speaking. Or let him say at all, and if he be not very careful he will say at tall, or a tall, this is changing the a to t. Or let him say the words, make haste, and he will be very apt to say make kaste: this is changing the h to k; and it is, he will be apt to say it tis; this is changing i to t.

106. And the article an, which is nothing more than the article a with an n to come between it and the word initialled by a vowel, if it were placed before the vowel in the word would amount to nearly the same thing; then an egg would be a negg; and an aul would be a nawl, an eye would be a neye, &c. &c.; these are some what like the changing of the initials in the Manks.


107. The force of the pronunciation of secondary or auxiliary mutes (as they are called) is so different from that of the primary or radical, that they are expressed by different figures or letters in the Manks; from whence arises often the difficulty of finding the etymology of those words that branch or are derived from a radical. The Irish, to prevent this in their language, have a dot, point, or dash, &c. placed over or below the letter; that is, as if b or m required to be sounded v. The primary or radical are always retained, but known by the dash or dot, so that the etymology of words is easily found in that language.

108. Of the causes of the changing of the mutable initials, (d, j, and t, excepted.) Words of the feminine gender change their following words; as, CLAGH VANE (a white stone); which would, if CLAGHn were masculine, be CLAGH BANE; LAUE YESH (right hand); if LAUE were masculine, would be LAUE JESH; AWIN VEG: now if AWIN were of the masculine gender, it would be AWIN BEG; AWIN VOOAE, or WOOAR (a big or great river) if masculine it would be MOOAR; SO that the adjectives BANE, JESH, BEG, MOOAR, are the primary or radical adjectives, which are changed by feminine substantives being placed before them to VANE, YESH, VEG, VOOAR. From these examples the learner will see that it is of the utmost importance, in order to write and speak the language correctly, that he should know and be well acquainted not only with the names and words, but also with their genders.

109. Words initialled by vowels are subject to changes, as explained in Remarks 60 and 61. Mutable consonants being initials are also chang. able, to show the preterit, without any word before them; as, BAIH (drown); but to show the pass time of action I must change BAIH to VAIH; VAIN EN EH YS CHEATN (he drowned or did drown him in the sea); and GOW (take); GHOW EH OOILLEY NY V'AYM VOYM (he took all I had from me, or he did take all I had from me); and JERK (hope, trust, or expect); I must change JERK to YERK; YERK MEE RISH, AS VA MEE MOLLIT (I trusted or expected him, and he deceived me); and MOL (deceive); AGH VOL EH MEE (but he deceived me). BAIH, GOW, JERK, MOL, are thus changed to their aspirations, VAIH, GHOW, YERK, VOL, &c.

110. Another cause of change is the vocative case, O YEN ! JEE, (God) is here changed to YEE. TAR MARYM, VRAAR (come with me, brother); BRAAR is here changed to VRAAR. O HIE YACOB! (O house of Jacob); the I in THIE and the j in JACOB are here changed. JEAN, is changed to YEAN, and JUAN to YUAN, &c. &c.

111. Changes made by the articles Y and YN being placed before radical words, most of those initialled by vowels, borrow, as it ware, the N from YN, in the pronunciation. The translators of the Scriptures have given another n to AH, or AA (second); as, YN NAH (the second); and according to this rule, YN AALL (the flesh fork) should be YN NAALL; YN OLLAGH (the cattle), YN NOLLAGH; YN USHTEE (the water), YN NUSHTEE;&c.; but they have not been uniform in this rule, having given it to some words and with- said it from others. Y and YN when placed before b change it to v; c to ch ; f to the second letter whether vowel or consonant; but the want of change in some of these is so faint that perhaps it would be better to retain the f in some than to omit it. G changes to gh; k to ch; m to v; which last, aften in conversation, slides into w. P changes to ph; qu to wh; s to f; sh to ch; s1 to cl; Y and YN do not change ch, d, j, and t.

112. The pronoun E (his), changes the following mutable initials, viz.: it to v and w, when oo, u, or w, immediately follow; c to ch; ch to h; d to gh; and f similar to what is said on that Letter in the preceding Remark. G to gh; j to y; k to ch; m to v; and which last,as shown in the preceding Remark, often slides into w, in conversation. P to ph; qu to wh; s and sh to h ; sl to 1; t to h. All the mutables change by the above pronoun.

113. The pronoun E (her), on the contrary, changes none of the mutables; but changes words initialled by vowels, by requiring it to be placed before them.

114. The words DY (to), DTY (thy), and MY, change the mutables exactly in the same manner as E (his) does, as shown in Remark 112.

115. The changes caused by placing the ad verb RO (too), before adjectives and participles are asfollows: it to v orto w, when second letter; c to ch; ch to h; d to gh; g to gh, with a few exceptions to y; j to y; k to ch; m to v; p to ph; qu to wh; s and sh to h; t to h.

116. The changes caused by the auxiliary verb EE (hath, has, have, or having, &c.) placed before verbs, require n to be placed before all the verbs beginning with vowels radically or derivatively. A, e, i, o, u, w, y, change to n; and the gh, when an aspiration of g, which, when initialled by n, has the sound of y, and which shows that it ought or ought not have that letter; but the translators of the Scriptures have written the word GOLL (going), when aspirated to gh; as, EE N'GHOLL, &c.; and the word GIALDYN (promise); as, ER N GHIALDYN, - Heb. xi. 11; and ER N'YIALDYN,- Josh. ix. 21. The same may be said of GIAREY, &c. EE changes b to v; ch to j; d to gh; f to v, or the next letter in the syllable; g to gh; j to y; k to g; m to v; p to ph; qu to wh; s and sh to h; sl to 1; and t to d.

117. The changes of the mutable consonants, by placing the adverb FEER (very), before adjectives,are as follow: b to v; c to ch; g to gh; k to ch; m to v; p to ph; and qu to cw.

118. The changes the pronoun NYN causes, when placed before verbs and substantives, are as follow: Before words initialled by vowels, many require to borrow the last n in the pronuncilation, in a similar case with YN. NYN changes b to m; c to g; ch to j; f to v; g to gh, or y, similar to the case of g by CHA, as shown in examples in this page; k to g; p to b, q to g, and t to d.

Example. of CHANGES in the Initials of VERBS throughout the Alphabet, on VOWELS and MUTABLES by the Negative Adverb CHA (not).

119. A in verb AASE (grow), changes to d; as, CHA DAASE, past tense.
120. And - n; as, CHA NAASE, present and future.
121. E In verb EECK (pay), changes to d; as, CHA DEECK, past.
122. And j; as,CHA JEECK, past.
123. And n, as, CHA NEECK, present and future.
124. I in verb IU (drink), changes to d, as, CHA DIU, past.
125. And j; as, CHA JIU, past.
126. And n; as, CHANIU, present and future.
127. O in verb OBBREE (work), changes to d; as, CHA DOBBREE, past.
128. And n; as, CHA NOBBREE, present and future.
129. U in verb USHTEE (water), changes to d; as, CHA DUSHTEE, past.
130. And n; as, CHA NUSHTEE, present and future.
131. W in verb WHAAL (sew), changes to d; as, CHA DWHAAL, past.
132. And is; as, CHA NWHAAL, present and future.
133. Y in verb YMMYRK (bear), changes to d; as, CHA DYMMYRK, past.
134. And a; as, CHA NYMMYRK, present and future.
135. B in verb BENN (touch), changes to v; as, CHA VENN, past.
136. And no change it; as, CHA BENN, present and future.
137. C in verb CAS (twist), changes to ch; as, CHA CHAS, past.
138. And g; as, CHA GAS, present and future.
159. CH in verb CHIONN (tighten) changes to it; as, CHA HIONN, past.
140. And j; as, CHA JIONN, present and future.
141. D in verb DOLL (blot), changes to gh; as, CHA GHOLL, past.
142. And no change d; as, CHA DOLL, present and future.
143. F in verb FOSHIL (open), changes to d; as, CHA DOSHIL, past.
144. And in sacred subjects, changes to v; as, CHA VOSHIL., present and future.
145. And in colloquial, changes to n; as, CHA NOSHIL, present and future
146. G in verb GIALL (promise), changes to gh; as, CHA GHIALL, past.
147. Or - y; as,CHA YIALL., past.
148. And no change, g; as, CHA GIALL, present and future.
Or changed to n; as, CHA NTIALL, present and future.
149. *H in verb HOOAR (gut), changes to d; as, CHA DOOAR, past.
150. And in HIG (will come), changes to j; as, CHA JIG, present and future.
151. J in verb JIOLE (suck), changes to y; as, CHA VIOLE, past.
152. And no change, j; as, CHA JIOLE, present and future.
153. K in verb KION (buy), changes to ch; as, CHA CHION, past.
154. And g; as, CHA GION, present and future.
155. M in verb MOYLL (praise), changes to v; as, CHA VOYLL, past.
156. And no change, m; as, CHA MOYLL, present and future.
157. P in verb PROW (prove), changes to ph; as, CHA PHROW, past.
158. And b, as, CHA BROW, present and future.
159. QU in verb QUAALT (meet) changes to wh; as, CHA WHAALT, past.
160. And gu; as, CHA GUAALT, present and future.
161. S in verb SAILL (rather or wish), changes to b; as, CHA BAILL, future.
162. And n; as, CHA NAAIL, present.
163. In verb BAUE (save), changes to it; as, CHA HAUE, past.
164. And no change, 5; as, CHA SAUE, present and future.
165. SH in verb SHIONE (know),changes to it; as, CHA BIONE, past.
166. And n; as, CHA NHIONE, present and future.
167. SL in verb SLIACK (like), changes to it; as, CHA BLIACK, past.
168. And 1; as, CHA LIACK, present.and future.
169. T in verb TROG (lift), changes to h; as, CHA HROG, past.
170. And d; as, CHA DROG, present and future.

* Those in H are irregular verbs, there being no Radicals under that letter

EXAMPLES of the dtfferent WORDS produced from MANKS VERBS, and the CHANGES they undergo throughout the Alphabet; the letters l, a, r, sl, q, and v, excepted.

Of E and Y, (which may serve for all the Vowels) agreeably to Remarks 14, 46, 133, and 134.

Eack, v. pay Ymmyrk, v. bear
Eeckagh. Ymmyrkagh
Eeckee. Ymmnyrkee
Eeckeyder. Ymmyrkey
Eeckeyderyn. Ymmyrkeyder
Eeckin. Ymmyrkeydern
Eeckins. Ymmyrkin
Eeckit. Ymmyrkins
Eeckym Ymmyrkit
Eeckyms Ymmyrkym
Eeckyn Ymmyrkyms
Eeckys Ymmyrkys
Deeck or Jeeck Dymmyrk
Geeck Gymmyrkey
Heeck Hymmyrkey
Heeckyn Nymmyrk
Neeck Nymmyrkagh
Neeckagh Nymmyrkey
Neeckin Nymmyrkin
Neeckins Nymmyrkins
Neeckym Nymmyrkym
Neeckyms Nymmyrkyms

Of B and M, agreeably to Remark 41.

Bochill, v. herd Moogh, v. quench
Bochiliagh Mooghagh
Bochillaght Mooghaghyn
Bochillee Mooghee
Bochilley Mooghey
Bochillin Moogheyder
Bochillins Moogheydern
Bochillit Mooghin
Bochillym Mooghins
Bochillyms Mooghit
Bochillyn Mooghym
Bochillys Mooghyn
Mochillaght Mooghys
Mochilley Voogh
Mochillyn Vooghagh
Vochill Vooghaghn
Vochillagh Vooghee
Vochillaght Vooghey
Vochilley Voogheyder
Vochillin Voogheyderyn
Vochillins Voogin
Vochillit Vooghins
Vochillym Vooghit
Vochillyms Vooghym
Vochillyn Vooghyms
Vochiliys Vooghys

Of C and K, agreeably to Remark; 43, and 51.

Cront, v. knot Keil, v. conceal
Crontagh Keillagh
Crontal Keillee
Crontee Keilleyder
Crontey Keilleyderyn
Cronteyder Keillin
Cronteyderyn Keillins
Crontin Keillit
Crontins Keillym
Crontit Keillyms
Crontym Keillys
Crontyms Keilltyn
Crontys Cheil
Cruint, ir. Cheillagh
Chront Cheillee
Chrontagh Cheillayder
Chrontal Cheillayderyn
Chrontee Cheillin
Chrontey Cheillins
Chronteyder Cheillit
Chrontin Cheillym
Chrontins Cheillym;
Chrontit Cheillys
Chrontym Cheiltyn
Chrontyms Gail
Chrontys Geillagh
Gront Galilee
Grontagh Geilleyder
Grontal Geilleyderyn
Grontee Geihin
Gronteyder Geillis
Gronteyderyn Geillym
Grontin Geillyms
Grontins Geiltyn

Of D and G, agreeably to Remarks 45 and 49.

Doll, v. blot Gear, v. laugh
Dollagh Gearagh
Dollee Gearaghtee
Dolley Gearee
Dolleyder Gearey
Dolleyderyn Geareyder
Dollin Geareyderyn
Dollins Gearin
Dollit Gearins
Dollym Gearit
Dollyms Gearym
Dollys Gearyms
Gholl Gearys
Ghollogh Ghaar
Ghollae Ghaaragh
Gholley Ghearaghtee
Gholleyder Ghearee
Gholleyderyn Ghearey
Ghollln Gheareyder
Ghollins Ghearayderyn
Ghollit Ghaarmn
Ghollym Ghearins
Ghollyms Ghearit
Ghollys Ghearym

Of CH aad F, agreeably to Remarks 44 and 48

Chyrm, v. dry Fang, v. leave
Chyrmagh Faagagh
Chyrmaghey Faagall
Chyrmaghyn Faagee
Chyrmee Faageydar
Chyrsney Faageydaryn
Chyrmeyder Faagin
Chyrmeyderyn Faagins
Chyrmid Faagit
Chyrmin Faagym
Chyrmins Fuagyms
Chyrmit Fangys
Chyrmym Aag
Ghyrmyms Aagagh
Chyrmys Aagail
Hyrm Aagee
Hyrmagh Aagayder
Hyrmaghey Aageyderyn
Hyrmaghyn Aagin
Hyrmee Aagins
Hyrmey Aagit
Hyrmeydar Aagym
Hyrsneyderyn Aagyms
Hyrmid Aagys
Hyrmin Daag
Hyrmins Nang
Hyrmit Naaghagh
Hyrmym Naagall
Hyrmyms Naagee
Hyrmys Naagin
Jyrm Naagins
Jyrmagh Naagym
Jyrmaghey Naagyms
Jyrmaghyn Yaag
Jyrmee Vaagagh
Jyrmid Vaagail
Jyrmin Vangin
Jyrmins Vaagins
Jyrmym Vaagym
Jyrmyms Vaagyms

Of J and S, agreeably to Remark 50.

Joan, v. dust Saua, v. save
Joanagh Sauagh
Joanee Sauail
Joanay Saualitagh
Joaneyder Sairee
Joaneyderyn .Saueyder
Joanin Saueyderyn
Joanins Sauin
Joanit Sauins
Joanym Sauit
Joanyms Sauym
Joanys Sauyms
Yoan Sauys
Yoanagh Haua
Yoanae Hanagh
Yoanay Hauail
Yoaneydar Haualltagh
Yoaneyderyn Hauee
Yoanin Haueyder
Yoanins Haueyderyn
Yoanit Hauin
Yoanym Haulus
Yoanyms Hault
Yoanys Hauym

Of P and T, agreeably to Remarks 53 and 59.

Poose, v. marry Toig, v. understand
Poosagh Toiggagh
Poosaghyn Toiggal
Poosee Toiggalagh
Poosey Toiggaltagh
Pooseydar Toiggaltys
Pooseydaryn Toiggee
Poosin Toiggaydar
Poosins Toiggin
Poost Toiggins
Poosym Toiggit
Poosyms Toiggym
Poosys Toiggyms
Phoosa Toiggys
Phoosagh Hong
Phoosaghyn Hoiggagh
Phoosee Hoiggal
Phoosay Hoiggaltagh
Phooseyder Hoiggaltys
Phooseydaryn Hoiggin
Phoosin Hoiggins
Phoosins Hoiggit
Phoost iloiggym
Phoosym Hoiggyms
Phoosyms Hoiggys
Phoosys Doig
loose Doiggagh - -
Boosagh Doiggal
Boosaghyn Doiggaltys
Boosay Doiggin
Boosin Doiggins
Boosins Doiggym
Bost Doiggyms

Of SH and SL*

Sheid, v. blow Slug, v. swallow
Sheidagh Sluggagh
Sheidee Sluggag
Sheidey Sluggee
Sheideyder Sluggey
Sheideyderyr. Sluggayder
Sheidin Sluggeyderyir
Sheidins Sluggin
Sheidit Sluggins
Sheidym Sluggit
Sheidyms Sluggym
Sheidyn Sluggyms
Sheidys Sluggyn
Held Sluggys
Heidagh Lug
Heidee Luggagh
Heiday Luggag
Heideyder Luggee
Heideyderyn Luggay
Heidin Luggayder
Heidins Luggeyderyn
Heidit Luggin
Haidym Luggins
Haidyms Luggit
Heidyn Luggym
Heidys Luggyms

In concluding my Observations and Remarks, I cannot but admire the construction, texture, and beauty of the Manks Language, and how the words initially change their cases, moods, tenses degrees, &c. It appears like a piece of exquisite network, interwoven together in a masterly manner, and framed by the hand of a most skilful workman, equal to the composition of the most learned, and not the production of chance. - The depth of meaning that abounds in many of the words must be conspicuous to every person versed in the language.

Having but few verbs, its brevity may be complained of by some, but this deficiency is amply supplied in the same manner as when a like want occurs in the English. When a substantive or adjective has no verb belonging to itself, ano ther verb is placed before the noun or adjective; as, DT va (to be); DY GHOAILL. (to take); DY GEDDYN (to get); DY CHUR (to give, put, send), &c.; DY YANNOO (to do, make, or perform), &c.

We have no verb for MAYNREY (happy) - neither has the English - nor its noun, MAYNRYS (happiness); but we say, DY VE MAYNREY (to be happy), &c. That our ancestors (the translators of the Scriptures) ware tenacious that no infringement should be made in this particular is obvious, as the Scriptures, with a few exceptions to their orthography, &c., are an invaluable work. The verb to pray occurs above two hundred times in the English Scriptures; yet the translators have not once used that mongrel word, PRAYLL, or its parent, PRAYAL, (see Remark 79), which, and the like, are now generally used without reserve. I do not, however, allude to the Clergy, who, to their credit, always say GOAILL PADJER; EC PADJER; JANNOO PADJER, &c.; and when there is no necessity, we should not borrow from the English, but endeavour to keep the language as pure as possible.

A. C.

Kirk Arbory, 5th June, 1834.


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