This letter, found in the Bishopscourt library, was published in Manx Church Magazine vol 1 nos 9-12, 1891
BISHOPS COURT, ISLE OF MAN, SEPTEMBER 16TH, 1755.
My full purpose and intentions in writing to my dear friend and worthy brother Hhave from time to time been obstructed by variety of hurries and fatigues, both to mind and body, which I need not prove to him, I have undergone from the 2nd of April, the day I was called up to London and paid my first fruits on the road, to this very day and date above written ; on which my last. cargo of cases and boxes to the number of 60 (including my post-chaise for one) most of them thro treble land passages and double sea, without five shillings damage to the whole, as far as can yet be perceived ; and, tho I wish I could say I was quite settled in my Manks mansion, yet I have surely great reason to be thankful to God, who has hitherto supported me under and carried me through all, both by sea and land ; in that I have not only survived them all, but am set down safe in my appointed station, and in as good health as I have enjoyed for some time past. I thank you, dear sir, for your hint about my wheels : but I ventured to trust to the tenderness and forbearance of the Honourable Commissioners for alleviation of the penalty, in case information should have been made, for travelling in very bad English roads, but a few days before the time limited by the Act expired : and for which small transgression I hoped they would have been modest and merciful as to have taken no more than the £4 from a little Manks Bishop whose pockets had been draining every day for near four months preceding. I shall not trouble you with a particular account of our tedious passage and five days wait at Beaumaris Bay, off the Isle of Anglesey, which I shall remember not only for the excellence of the harbour, which to be sure is a very safe and a very good one for ships to ride in, but also for the excellent bills they have the art of making in that ancient corporation for very indifferent provisions. But such occasional visitors I apprehend (with now and then an Election and an Assize time) is the main support of the place, which appears to have no sort of trade business besides. I left with my landlady at the Bulls Head at Beaumaris and others about the bay near £4 of English Currency, so youll imagine we must eat and drink plentyfully after our sea sickness and fasting ; and I must moreover observe that I was likely dealt the more friendly with, for being a late member of Dr Osborns, whose present or late cook and housekeeper (I forget which) was it seems my landladys sister. But to proceed from the Welsh to the Manks Isle. This country consists of hills and vales, mountains and glens, not unlike Lellyboo and Peroubarns , and the roads being chiefly gravel, would be passable, even over any of em for carriages ( as I have rode down some of the steepest of them without alighting) were it not that I dont care to strain and tear my wheels with frequent dragging, having had enough of that in Derbyshire. N.B. Mr Butt and I parted just where the bad roads commenced : from Derby to Ashborne, the best and pleasantest I ever travelled, and from thence to Disley just on the border of Cheshire, the worst ; from Buxton to Disley is called six miles, which I thought I might easily reach that evening from six oclock, especially as necessity and four horses were my motive (no beds being to be had at any of the Buxton Inns) and behold ! with the most expedition I could use, reached not Disley till half-past ten at night! But I dont yet give up my favourite county of Derby notwithstanding I suffered great perils in the last days journey thro it, on the Cheshire side, where the hills are so numerous and steep as to try the utmost strength of my wheels. I have a flat even road here for about ten miles, which serves all my purposes for moving in it : as for the rest my fat mare must do her best to carry me over, when occasion requires : but I think few or none of our hills are steeper than some parts of your two. Our villages are made up of scattered parcels of stone built farm houses with certain portions of arable and pasture land about them, occupied chiefly by the owners : and scarce a cottage but has a field or two of oats and potatoes, and some pasture for a horse, a cow, four or five geese and a pig : one cant ride two miles in any part of the Isle without seeing one or more of these Manses. The Bishops house is a castle-like Gothic stone building, with walls some two yards thick a slated roof (the barns the same) rather convenient than pompous ; and though within half a mile of the sea, nowise incommoded by the winds : our situation being below the hill or sea bank, and well guarded with high elms and sycamines quite round, which form pleasant shady walks, and make amends for the loss of the trimmd hedges I left at Hitchen. In the midst of these is a large kitchen-garden that provides our table with plenty of everything but wall fruit, which latter we could not boast much of in my Hertfordshire garden. The sort of gravel we have here, I think, is much of the kind you have at L, which does not well suit a gardenso we are content with grass walks. There is a decent commodious chapel adjoining, where the Bishop performs service when weather or indisposition, dont admit of going to the Parish Church.
Being eight or ten miles distant from a market, it is necessary to have all within ourselves. Do but think of your friend Mark having turned farmer, with eight or ten horses and as many cows, besides heifers, &c., for killing, a small flock of small sheep, and acres, I yet cant tell how many, of pasture and arable land, all near and about me. Three large stacks of good hay, upward of 40 feet length, well innd since I came : mind that my brother farmer. But from an unusual wet season (the worst that has been known here for thirty years) the harvest is like to be late. How has it fared with the farmers cleric and laic in Hertfordshire ? I need not tell you, I dont much relish this unavoidable attendant on my late promotionto be a tiller of land and a breeder of oxen, having never been used to anything of the sort but this must be submitted to, or else must be content to live upon tithe herrings and potatoes, which two things are in truth the main food, and indeed the former the staple commodity of this Isle. Our herrings, when fresh, as they are now, and in high season, are really excellent, and as much superior to what are eat of the kind in England (at least in Hertfordshire and London) as a turbot exceeds a plaice. What are not used when caught are salted up for winter use ; one of the gentlemen farmers here yesterday told me he spends in his family every winter no less than 5 maizes, each maize containing 500 fish. I believe the Bishop will be content with 8 maize in his. They are at , this time sold at ten-pence per hundred (six score and three to the hundred) just out of the sea, and are very large and so fat as to need little or no sauce, If youd eat herrings. in perfection and drink claret at 12d per bottle ; you must come to the Isle of Man. We have also cod, mackerell, flounders, lobsters, and rarely soles or salmon, but scarce as the last is I bought a whole one yesterday for 7d. Our wild dove house pigeons are large and fatter than common at this time, owing I believe to their uninterrupted rooting in the field, which they have no notion here of frightening them from. Our poultry as well as our beef and mutton are generally small, but when fat, I think superior to English, though not so cheap as is commonly supposed. Prices, as near as I can learn are as follows :Chickens 3d each, a stubble goose 1s, pigeons is 6d per dozen ; beef, mutton, and veal, of the middling sort 2d per lb., but the very best will seldom be bought at less than in England. Market prices indeed cannot well be known, as almost all people of any substance keep and kill their own. But the meat that is generally bought at market, my friend, would not well suit the taste of a delicate southern English-man for I must declare that, the north of England, at least what you and I have seen, hardly exceeds us poor Manx Islanders in the common run of provisions ; witness the beef and bread exhibited in some of the markets of Yorkshire. Our Hitchin workhouse would disdain to touch it. The table bread we use here ourselves is a light brown wheaten loaf : but the common peoples is a sort of pancake, like what we saw in our Northern towns. They have a bird here called a Puffin, which is so fat and strong as seldom to be eat, but seasoned up with spices and vinegar, the most like collard pig in taste of anything I can compare it to ; but they scarce quit cost, the manner of preserving raises the value they say to 12s per dozen. The Anglesey people pretend to excel ours, who rate em at 4s. So much for our eatables, common or rare. Beer, much about as good as I had at Hitchin, and near the value, malt being at about 3s 6d per bushel. Wines most in use here are claret, Frontignac, and Lisbon ; the two former at 12s and 14s per hogshead : the last at 10s or 12s. Port, be it ever so good, the gentry here dont much care for, from having been used altogether to a lighter wine, and consequently can drink more of it. I brought some in bottles hither thinking it would be a variety, and as twas extremely good of the sort ; but it does not go down with my neighbours ; so I must een keep it till some of my English friends, who wont like their claret, shall honour me with a visit. The small breed of horses are chiefly with the lower people, who bring in their hay and grain on their backs; but the better farmers and gentlemen have a larger sort, both for draught and saddle, which they have mostly from Ireland. Wheat is valued here at this time at 4s, and barley 2s 6d per bushel to those that buy ; but almost all excepting some of the inhabitants of the Port towns, grind and malt within themselves and have mills and kilns for the purpose. Were we to buy everything by the penny, Im persuaded we should not, upon the whole, find this so cheap a country as represented. And yet, I intend to hold as little land as can possibly serve the purpose of my family, unless I understood it as well as some Glebe Rectors in England. Fuel indeed is pretty reasonable ; we have a turf which comes from the mountains that makes an excellent fire, without smell, but as it burns so fast and requires so frequent supply, I prefer sea coal, which we have very good from Whitehaven, delivered to our teams at 8 miles from us, at about 14s per English chaldron." It is high time to pass from our domestic and agricultural state to that of more public concern, viz., our civil and ecclesiastical. The former consists of our Lords Deputy, called His Honor the Governor, two Deemsters or Judges, whose office is somewhat of the nature of a Justice of Peace, but rather higher, as they decide matters of property : the chief of which are in relation to trespass and boundaries, about which, as law is cheap and judgment quick, there are frequent suits. Besides the Judges, there are 24 Keys or Members of Parliament, whose business it is to meet and make laws, as occasion requires, which after being sent to the Lord of the Isle for his approbation, are annually proclaimed on a commodious plain at the top of a hill, called Tinwald Court, on midsummer day, where a great fair is held ; and from that time are binding to all the inhabitants of the Isle, as much as any of our statute laws in England are to the Kings subjects there. There are also Somners or Constables to execute commitments for refusal to give bonds for submitting to judgments in law, civil or ecclesiastical. The Ecclesiastical State consists of the Bishop, two Vicar Generals, an official, Archdeacon, Register, and 20 Clergy. Each parish has four Churchwardens or Questioners : and this Isle has for many years observed and kept up strictly ancient discipline, in making presentments, and requiring penance and solemn readmission of penitents. The public service is duly performed in each Parish Church and town chapels- on Sundays and holidays, part in Manks and part in English, and the sermon generally in Manks, excepting in the post towns, where the whole is always in English ; and never did I see more justice done to our excellent Liturgy in any place than in the congregations of this Isle, where be it in Manks or English, the responses are duly made, and the directions of the Rubric punctually and regularly attended to, in kneeling and rising in proper time and place : and however mean and indifferent soever the common people appear in their dress on week-days, they fail not on Sundays to make a decent figure (swords and hoops excepted), and vouchsafe in come in- shoes and. stockings, which the lower people, maid servants especially, cannot be prevailed on (tho youd find em in them for nothing) to wear at other times. Every parish has a petty school master or mistress to teach the Bible and Church Catechism and private prayers in English, supported chiefly by pious persons, amongst others Lady Betty Hastings ; and no master or mistress , is allowed to teach without the Bishops licence or appointment, or receive their salary without a certificate from the minister of the respective parishes, who are obliged to visit the school for that purpose, to see whether they do their duty.
Among the matters of presentment are the parents refusing or neglecting to send their children, at proper age, to the minister, to be instructed and qualified, the Bishop is certified of their number and fitness, and when confirmed it is held scandalous to neglect the communion. These, my good brother, are the laws and customs of this part of Christs Church, planted in this Isle (the most ancient of all the Episcopal churches established, if I mistake not, St Davids perhaps excepted) which have been immemorially observed, and not a little improved and enforced by my most worthy and excellent predecessor ; and which I pray God enable the present Bishop to maintain and preserve. The clergy have all been to visit me (excepting one) and are really decent, sensible well ~ behaved men, a sample of which you have seen. What is very remarkable, . there is no grammar, or spelling, or other book in the Manx tongue, excepting the Gospel of St Matthew and some few translations of the catechism. All are taught to read English and scarce any write other, and yet both clergy and laity are extremely tenacious of their own language. If you ask how they perform the service and preach in Manx. I believe chiefly by translating it from the English before them, which . by. habit and pains they have acquired a readiness in. . A relation of our Academic School, which I intended to give, must be defined, having, Im sure, sufficiently tired you with a most insufferably long letter, or rather packet. This, my dear sir, is as near as I can collect it from my early and imperfect acquaintance with each particular ( without study of order or accuracy of expression) a summary account of the place and country in which the Divine Providence has seen fit to translate your poor brother, the late Vicar of Hitchin, to preside in things pertaining to our common Christianity. That I may answer the end of my appointment to so high and important a trust, I earnestly intreat your prayers and the rest of my brethren who retain the least affectionate remembrance of their late neighbour, who is now and ever, with the sincerest regard, yours and their faithful friend and affectionate brother,
MARK, SODOR AND MAN.